Special Issue "Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Jose Ramon Serrano
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CMT—Motores Térmicos, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n 46022 Valencia, Spain
Interests: thermofluids; internal combustion engines; powertrains for transport; emissions reduction and fuel efficient powertrains
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) are the main propulsion systems for ground transport, both in on-road and off-road applications. The forecast is that, in the forthcoming decades, it will not be possible to avoid using these propulsion systems in the powertrain of a majority of vehicles, even considering the growth of the electric and hybrid vehicles segments. The increasing demand of transport, the availability of fossil fuels at reasonable prices, and the high energy density of conventional fuels will allow ICEs to be the leading power plants for propelling a worldwide transport fleet.

In parallel, forthcoming limitations in green-house gases (CO2), gaseous pollutants and noise emissions will be more and more severe; forcing engine OEMs and the automotive industry to invest in more innovative and sophisticated technologies for their abatement. Real Driving Emissions (RDE) regulations will be progressively adopted in major economic areas; which means additional challenges to vehicle OEMs, since this greatly widens the ICE operative range at which pollutants emissions must be kept below homologation limits.

This scenario offers exciting opportunities to engineers and researchers to investigate new ideas and innovative technologies. A revolution is coming, concerning traditional petrol and diesel engines, limits between both are vanishing as deeper knowledge and more control of combustion process are gained. Old ideas are being revised with the revival of two stroke engine concepts. New cycles, new concepts and more complex architectures are emerging. Propulsion power-plants, based on ICEs, are becoming a complex mix of machines, far beyond the traditional reciprocating mechanism. Turbochargers, superchargers, organic-Rankine-cycles (ORC) and hybridization are part of the ICE environment, all dedicated to extract every Watt of power from fossil fuels. Finally, the massive use of exhaust gasses after treatment introduces new paradigms in the global design of power-plants based on ICEs. Nowadays, nothing is too innovative to cope with the expected midterm demand of cleaner and more efficient ICEs.

This Special Issue highly welcomes scientific and technically advanced works highlighting any of previous topics surrounding ICEs. In this current context, a Special Issue to address the silent revolution that researchers worldwide are casting around a more than 140-year-old machine, which is younger than ever, is very appropriate.

Prof. Dr. Jose Ramon Serrano
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Advanced concepts for reciprocating and rotative ICE
  • Fuel injection and combustion process of compression ignition and spark ignition ICE
  • Air management and thermal management of ICE
  • Turbocharging and supercharging of ICE
  • ICE pollutant emissions formation and abatement
  • NVH of ICE
  • ICEs lubrication and lubricants
  • ICE architectures, hybridization and their control

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Imagining the Future of the Internal Combustion Engine for Ground Transport in the Current Context
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(10), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7101001 - 28 Sep 2017
Cited by 9
Abstract
Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) are the main propulsion systems for ground transport, both in on-road and off-road applications [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Developing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Models to Evaluate Available Energy in Exhaust Systems of Diesel Light-Duty Vehicles
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7060590 - 08 Jun 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Around a third of the energy input in an automotive engine is wasted through the exhaust system. Since numerous technologies to harvest energy from exhaust gases are accessible, it is of great interest to find time- and cost-efficient methods to evaluate available thermal [...] Read more.
Around a third of the energy input in an automotive engine is wasted through the exhaust system. Since numerous technologies to harvest energy from exhaust gases are accessible, it is of great interest to find time- and cost-efficient methods to evaluate available thermal energy under different engine conditions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is becoming a very valuable tool for numerical predictions of exhaust flows. In this work, a methodology to build a simple three-dimensional (3D) model of the exhaust system of automotive internal combustion engines (ICE) was developed. Experimental data of exhaust gas in the most used part of the engine map in passenger diesel vehicles were employed as input for calculations. Sensitivity analyses of different numeric schemes have been conducted in order to attain accurate results. The model built allows for obtaining details on temperature and pressure fields along the exhaust system, and for complementing the experimental results for a better understanding of the flow phenomena and heat transfer through the system for further energy recovery devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of the Transient Response of Duct Junctions: Measurements and Gas-Dynamic Modeling with a Staggered Mesh Finite Volume Approach
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7050480 - 08 May 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Duct junctions play a major role in the operation and design of most piping systems. The objective of this paper is to establish the potential of a staggered mesh finite volume model as a way to improve the description of the effect of [...] Read more.
Duct junctions play a major role in the operation and design of most piping systems. The objective of this paper is to establish the potential of a staggered mesh finite volume model as a way to improve the description of the effect of simple duct junctions on an otherwise one-dimensional flow system, such as the intake or exhaust of an internal combustion engine. Specific experiments have been performed in which different junctions have been characterized as a multi-port, and that have provided precise and reliable results on the propagation of pressure pulses across junctions. The results obtained have been compared to simulations performed with a staggered mesh finite volume method with different flux limiters and different meshes and, as a reference, have also been compared with the results of a more conventional pressure loss-based model. The results indicate that the staggered mesh finite volume model provides a closer description of wave dynamics, even if further work is needed to establish the optimal calculation settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance with Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery System
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 437; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7050437 - 26 Apr 2017
Cited by 11
Abstract
This study examines the implementation of a waste heat recovery system on an electric hybrid vehicle. The selected waste heat recovery method operates on organic Rankine cycle principles to target the overall fuel consumption improvement of the internal combustion engine element of a [...] Read more.
This study examines the implementation of a waste heat recovery system on an electric hybrid vehicle. The selected waste heat recovery method operates on organic Rankine cycle principles to target the overall fuel consumption improvement of the internal combustion engine element of a hybrid powertrain. This study examines the operational principle of hybrid electric vehicles, in which the internal combustion engines operates with an electric powertrain layout (electric motors/generators and batteries) as an integral part of the powertrain architecture. A critical evaluation of the performance of the integrated powertrain is presented in this paper whereby vehicle performance is presented through three different driving cycle tests, offering a clear assessment of how this advanced powertrain configuration would benefit under several different, but relevant, driving scenarios. The driving cycles tested highlighted areas where the driver could exploit the full potential of the hybrid powertrain operational modes in order to further reduce fuel consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Link between Diesel Spray Asymmetry and Off-Axis Needle Displacement
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7040375 - 11 Apr 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Cutting edge experiments and thorough investigations have pointed out that radial components affect the needle lift of diesel nozzles. So far, the effects of such needle “off-axis” have been investigated within the nozzle and immediately downstream from the hole outlet. Here, the focus [...] Read more.
Cutting edge experiments and thorough investigations have pointed out that radial components affect the needle lift of diesel nozzles. So far, the effects of such needle “off-axis” have been investigated within the nozzle and immediately downstream from the hole outlet. Here, the focus has been extended to the spray ambient, far outside a multi-hole VCO (Valve Covered Orifice) nozzle. A reference off-axis configuration of the needle has been defined and used to investigate its effects on the spray, in terms of hole-to-hole differences. Indeed, the spray alterations due to the needle position have been addressed for those factors, such as the velocity-coefficient CV and the area-coefficient CA, able to describe the nozzle flow behavior under needle off-axis. The investigation has been based on 3D-CFD (three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics) campaigns. The modeling of diesel nozzle flow has been interfaced to the Eulerian–Eulerian near-nozzle spray simulation, initializing the break-up model on the basis of the transient flow conditions at each hole outlet section. The dense spray simulation has been on-line coupled to the Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling of the dilute spray region. Quantitative results on each fuel spray have been provided (in terms of penetration and Sauter Mean Diameter). The range of variability within the spray characteristics are expected to vary has been found and reported, providing reference information for lumped parameter models and other related investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Electric Turbocharging for Energy Regeneration and Increased Efficiency at Real Driving Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7040350 - 01 Apr 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
Modern downsized internal combustion engines benefit from high-efficiency turbocharging systems for increasing their volumetric efficiency. However, despite the efficiency increase, turbochargers often lack fast transient response due to the nature of the energy exchange with the engine, which deteriorates the vehicle’s drivability. An [...] Read more.
Modern downsized internal combustion engines benefit from high-efficiency turbocharging systems for increasing their volumetric efficiency. However, despite the efficiency increase, turbochargers often lack fast transient response due to the nature of the energy exchange with the engine, which deteriorates the vehicle’s drivability. An electrically-assisted turbocharger can be used for improving the transient response without any parasitic losses to the engine while providing energy recovery for increasing overall system efficiency. The present study provides a detailed numerical investigation on the potential of e-turbocharging to control load and if possible replace the wastegate valve. A parametric study of the optimum compressor/turbine sizing and wastegate area was performed for maximum torque, fast response time and energy regeneration across the real driving conditions speed/load area of the engine. The results showed that the implementation of a motor-generator could contribute to reducing the response time of the engine by up to 90% while improving its thermal efficiency and generating up to 6.6 kWh of energy. Suppressing the wastegate can only be achieved when a larger turbine is implemented, which as a result deteriorates the engine’s response and leads to energy provision demands at low engine speeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
A Study on the Optimal Actuation Structure Design of a Direct Needle-Driven Piezo Injector for a CRDi Engine
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7040320 - 24 Mar 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recently, the high-pressure fuel injection performance of common-rail direct injection (CRDi) engines has become more important, due to the need to improve the multi-injection strategy. A multiple injection strategy provides better emission and fuel economy characteristics than a normal single injection scheme. The [...] Read more.
Recently, the high-pressure fuel injection performance of common-rail direct injection (CRDi) engines has become more important, due to the need to improve the multi-injection strategy. A multiple injection strategy provides better emission and fuel economy characteristics than a normal single injection scheme. The CRDi engine performance changes with the type of high-pressure electro-mechanical injector that is used and its injection response in a multi-injection scheme. In this study, a direct needle-driven piezo injector (DPI) was investigated, to optimize its actuation components, including the plate length, number of springs, and the elasticity of the spring between the injector needle and the piezo stack. Three prototype DPIs were proposed by this research. They were classified as Type 1, 2, and 3, depending on whether the injector needle was hydraulic or mechanical. Then, the optimal prototype was determined by conducting four evaluation experiments analyzing the maximum injection pressure, injection rate, spray visualization, and real engine combustion application. As a result, it was found that the Type 3 DPI prototype, with several pan-springs and plates, had the highest injection pressure, a steady injection rate, and the fastest spray speed. It also demonstrated the most effective emission reduction for a two-stage rapid spray injection in a single-cylinder CRDi engine. The Type 3 DPI displays an increased elasticity from its hydraulic needle that provides a synergy effect for improving DPI actuation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Selected Issues of the Indicating Measurements in a Spark Ignition Engine with an Additional Expansion Process
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7030295 - 17 Mar 2017
Cited by 8
Abstract
The paper presents the results of research on the turbocharged spark ignition engine with additional exhaust expansion in a separate cylinder, which is commonly known as the five-stroke engine. The research engine has been constructed based on the four cylinder engine in which [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of research on the turbocharged spark ignition engine with additional exhaust expansion in a separate cylinder, which is commonly known as the five-stroke engine. The research engine has been constructed based on the four cylinder engine in which two outer cylinders work as the fired cylinders, while two internally connected inner cylinders constitute the volume of the additional expansion process. The engine represents a powertrain realizing an ultra-expansion cycle. The purpose of the study was to find an effective additional expansion process in the five-stroke engine. Cylinder-pressure indicating measurements were carried out for one of the fired cylinders and the additional expansion cylinder. The study was performed for over 20 different points on the engine operation map. This allowed us to determine a dependence between the pressure indicated in the fired cylinders and in the additional expansion cylinders. A function of the mean pressure indicated in the additional expansion cylinder versus a brake mean effective pressure was also presented. This showed a load threshold from which the work of the cylinders of additional expansion produced benefits for the output of the experimental engine. The issues of mechanical efficiency and effective efficiency of this engine were also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7030234 - 02 Mar 2017
Cited by 4
Abstract
Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted [...] Read more.
Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Open AccessArticle
Dual-Fuel Combustion for Future Clean and Efficient Compression Ignition Engines
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7010036 - 29 Dec 2016
Cited by 20
Abstract
Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using [...] Read more.
Stringent emissions limits introduced for internal combustion engines impose a major challenge for the research community. The technological solution adopted by the manufactures of diesel engines to meet the NOx and particle matter values imposed in the EURO VI regulation relies on using selective catalytic reduction and particulate filter systems, which increases the complexity and cost of the engine. Alternatively, several new combustion modes aimed at avoiding the formation of these two pollutants by promoting low temperature combustion reactions, are the focus of study nowadays. Among these new concepts, the dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) seems more promising because it allows better control of the combustion process by means of modulating the fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. The present experimental work explores the potential of different strategies for reducing the energy losses with RCCI in a single-cylinder research engine, with the final goal of providing the guidelines to define an efficient dual-fuel combustion system. The results demonstrate that the engine settings combination, piston geometry modification, and fuel properties variation are good methods to increase the RCCI efficiency while maintaining ultra-low NOx and soot emissions for a wide range of operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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