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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 375;

On the Link between Diesel Spray Asymmetry and Off-Axis Needle Displacement

Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università degli Studi Roma TRE, 00146 Rome, Italy
All authors contributed equally to the work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose Ramon Serrano
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) for Ground Transport)
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Cutting edge experiments and thorough investigations have pointed out that radial components affect the needle lift of diesel nozzles. So far, the effects of such needle “off-axis” have been investigated within the nozzle and immediately downstream from the hole outlet. Here, the focus has been extended to the spray ambient, far outside a multi-hole VCO (Valve Covered Orifice) nozzle. A reference off-axis configuration of the needle has been defined and used to investigate its effects on the spray, in terms of hole-to-hole differences. Indeed, the spray alterations due to the needle position have been addressed for those factors, such as the velocity-coefficient CV and the area-coefficient CA, able to describe the nozzle flow behavior under needle off-axis. The investigation has been based on 3D-CFD (three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics) campaigns. The modeling of diesel nozzle flow has been interfaced to the Eulerian–Eulerian near-nozzle spray simulation, initializing the break-up model on the basis of the transient flow conditions at each hole outlet section. The dense spray simulation has been on-line coupled to the Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling of the dilute spray region. Quantitative results on each fuel spray have been provided (in terms of penetration and Sauter Mean Diameter). The range of variability within the spray characteristics are expected to vary has been found and reported, providing reference information for lumped parameter models and other related investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: diesel spray; needle off-axis; hole-to-hole spray differences diesel spray; needle off-axis; hole-to-hole spray differences

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Chiatti, G.; Chiavola, O.; Frezzolini, P.; Palmieri, F. On the Link between Diesel Spray Asymmetry and Off-Axis Needle Displacement. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 375.

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