Biomedical Imaging Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease—3rd Edition

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 1394

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2. Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
3. Stephenson Cardiac Imaging Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
4. Libin Cardiovascular Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
5. Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Interests: cardiac imaging; flow hemodynamics; experimental models; cardiac magnetic resonance; cardiovascular 4-dimensional flow (4D Flow) imaging
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biomedical imaging technologies have substantially increased in number and diversity over the past few years. Important improvements in accuracy, sensitivity, and refinement have been possible thanks to technological advances in software and hardware. In particular, cardiovascular disease assessment of anatomy, hemodynamics, and tissue biomarkers saw exceptional improvement, aiding the stratification of patient risk and therapy. The recent integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning has also supported novel approaches for personalized image-based diagnosis. In addition, image-based computational-assisted diagnosis is a promising option for uncovering key insights into disease progression and personalized solutions.

This Special Issue is dedicated to collecting the most recent progress in biomedical imaging technologies for cardiovascular disease. The Special Issue will cover a wide range of topics, including but not limited to:

  • Advances in cardiac echocardiography;
  • Advances in cardiac computed tomography;
  • Advances in cardiac magnetic resonance;
  • Advances in positron emission tomography;
  • Advances in cardiovascular image processing;
  • Advances in image-guided interventions;
  • Advances in personalized cardiac imaging;
  • Advances in the integration of medical imaging and computational modelling;
  • Advances in biomedical imaging using machine learning and artificial intelligence;
  • Advances in experimental cardiac imaging.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Julio Garcia Flores
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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14 pages, 3645 KiB  
Article
Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound and Transesophageal Echocardiography for Intraoperative Diagnosis and Monitoring of Patent Foramen Ovale in Non-Cardiac Surgery
by Amedeo Bianchini, Giovanni Vitale, Stefano Romano, Irene Sbaraini Zernini, Lorenzo Galeotti, Matteo Cescon, Matteo Ravaioli and Antonio Siniscalchi
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(11), 4590; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14114590 - 27 May 2024
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Abstract
Background: perioperative stroke is one of the major complications after surgery. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) increases the risk of stroke in non-cardiac surgery by right-to-left shunt related to intraoperative hemodynamic alterations, leading to paradoxical embolism. Transesophageal echocardiography is the best tool for obtaining [...] Read more.
Background: perioperative stroke is one of the major complications after surgery. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) increases the risk of stroke in non-cardiac surgery by right-to-left shunt related to intraoperative hemodynamic alterations, leading to paradoxical embolism. Transesophageal echocardiography is the best tool for obtaining anatomical confirmation of PFO and essential details such as the PFO measure and the degree and direction of the shunt. Despite this, preoperative PFO screening is not routinely performed. Methods and results: we described the features of ten consecutive patients undergoing major abdominal surgery at the Abdominal Organ Transplant Intensive Care Unit, IRCCS Sant’Orsola, Bologna, Italy, who were screened for PFO using a PFO diagnostic and monitoring standardized intraoperative protocol by transesophageal echocardiography and transcranial color Doppler ultrasound. Finally, we highlighted the neurological and respiratory outcomes, the course and the management of three patients with intracardiac and extracardiac shunts. Conclusions: identifying an unknown PFO by a TCCD-TEE approach allowed the intraoperative monitoring of the shunt direction. It prevents the risk of complications secondary to paradoxical embolism in non-cardiac high-embolic-risk surgery. Full article
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13 pages, 573 KiB  
Review
Delayed Enhancement in Cardiac CT: A Potential Alternative to Cardiac MRI? Technical Updates and Clinical Considerations
by Domenico De Stefano, Federica Vaccarino, Domiziana Santucci, Marco Parillo, Antonio Nenna, Francesco Loreni, Chiara Ferrisi, Omar Giacinto, Raffaele Barbato, Ciro Mastroianni, Mario Lusini, Massimo Chello, Bruno Beomonte Zobel, Rosario Francesco Grasso and Eliodoro Faiella
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(10), 4275; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14104275 - 17 May 2024
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Abstract
Despite cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) being the current gold standard for non-invasive myocardial characterization and fibrosis quantification, its accessibility is limited, particularly in acute settings and in certain patient populations with contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging. Late iodine [...] Read more.
Despite cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) being the current gold standard for non-invasive myocardial characterization and fibrosis quantification, its accessibility is limited, particularly in acute settings and in certain patient populations with contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging. Late iodine enhancement (LIE) in computed tomography (CT) imaging has emerged as a potential alternative, capitalizing on the similarities in the contrast kinetics between gadolinium and iodinated contrast agents. Studies have investigated LIE-CT’s effectiveness in myocardial infarction (MI) detection, revealing promising outcomes alongside some disparities compared to LGE-CMR. LIE-CT also proves beneficial in diagnosing non-ischemic heart diseases such as myocarditis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and sarcoidosis. While LIE-CT demonstrates good accuracy in detecting certain myocardial pathologies, including acute MI and chronic fibrotic changes, it has limitations, such as the inability to detect diffuse myocardial enhancement. Nonetheless, thanks to the availability of optimized protocols with minimal radiation doses and contrast medium administration, integrating LIE-CT into cardiac CT protocols could enhance its clinical utility, particularly in acute settings, providing valuable prognostic and management insights across a spectrum of cardiac ischemic and non-ischemic conditions. Full article
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