Evaluation of the Crustal Structure

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Earth Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2022) | Viewed by 19337

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: Analysis of seismicity; earthquake location problem; historical earthquakes; definition of seismograph networks; determination of the lithosphere structure; earthquake magnitude; earthquake catalogue; assessment of local soil effects; seismic zoning; seismic hazard assessment

Special Issue Information

The Earth’s crust has profound implications for all aspects of the physical state and evolution of the planet. The crust also provides our natural resources and presents social challenges in the form of natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes).

Determination of the Earth’s crustal structure and depth and geometry of Mohorovičić's discontinuity is a primary task for seismological, geological, and geophysical studies, as well as a prerequisite for the successful application of many further analyses (e.g., earthquake location, seismic hazard assessment). Over the years, seismology and geology have greatly contributed to a better knowledge of the Earth’s outer shell structure. Further, examination of crustal geometry, deformation, and evolution using, e.g., seismic studies, field mapping, fracture analysis, petrography, and geochemical analysis allows discriminating between different crustal types and their features and defining structure heterogeneity (anisotropy and attenuation characterized by coda-Q value and spectral parameter kappa).

Advances in science and technology have resulted in higher resolution data, revealing a much richer and more complex picture of the Earth's crust, as well as generating many new questions. Among the outstanding questions are the age and physical properties of Mohorovičić's and mid-crustal seismic discontinuities, the possible presence of deep crustal fluids, the geometry of crustal faults at depth, crustal modification by lateral crustal flow, and the possible existence of pervasive crustal seismic anisotropy.

Prof. Dr. Snježana Markušić
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Crustal structure
  • Mohorovičić's discontinuity
  • anisotropy
  • attenuation
  • seismic tomography
  • earthquake
  • spectral parameter kappa
  • coda-Q

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 22944 KiB  
Article
Seismic Analysis of Moderate Size Earthquakes Recorded on Stations at Close Epicentral Distances
by Cvetan Sinadinovski, Snježana Markušić, Davor Stanko, Kevin F. McCue and Lazo Pekevski
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010470 - 04 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1537
Abstract
In this study, we analyzed the near-field seismic records of two moderate sized earthquakes in the Western Balkan region: the September 2016 Skopje earthquake, magnitude ML5.3 and the March 2020 Zagreb earthquake, magnitude ML5.5. Such recordings at close epicentral [...] Read more.
In this study, we analyzed the near-field seismic records of two moderate sized earthquakes in the Western Balkan region: the September 2016 Skopje earthquake, magnitude ML5.3 and the March 2020 Zagreb earthquake, magnitude ML5.5. Such recordings at close epicentral distances are rare and are thus very useful for testing some of the theoretical assumptions used in modeling earthquake risk. Firstly, response spectra were computed using the digital time histories for the three closest stations to the Skopje 2016 earthquake and the two closest stations to the Zagreb 2020 earthquake. Their characteristics were examined in terms of frequency and peak amplitude ranges. Secondly, the Nakamura method was applied to the records from the selected five stations coded SKO, FCE, IZIIS, QUHS, and QARH. The results of the spectral analysis were compared with interpretations from the geological and geotechnical maps at each location. Our findings support the idea that these combined methods can be used to categorize the underlying structural profile to a first approximation and can be used to derive velocity models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Crustal Structure)
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20 pages, 40657 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Rheology of a Seismogenic Zone by Applying Seismic Variation
by Chun-Fu Liao, Strong Wen, Chau-Huei Chen and Ying-Nien Chen
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8847; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198847 - 23 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1518
Abstract
Although the study of spatiotemporal variation of a subsurface velocity structure is a challenging task, it can provide a description of the fault geometry as well as important information on the rheological changes caused by fault rupture. Our main objective is to investigate [...] Read more.
Although the study of spatiotemporal variation of a subsurface velocity structure is a challenging task, it can provide a description of the fault geometry as well as important information on the rheological changes caused by fault rupture. Our main objective is to investigate whether rheological changes of faults can be associated with the seismogenic process before a strong earthquake. For this purpose, a 3D tomographic technique is applied to obtain P- and S-wave velocity structures in central Taiwan using travel time data. The results show that temporal variations in the Vs structure in the source area demonstrate significant spatiotemporal variation before and after the Chi-Chi earthquake. We infer that, before the mainshock, Vs began to decrease (and Vp/Vs increased) at the hanging wall of the Chelungpu fault, which may be induced by the increasing density of microcracks and fluid. However, in the vicinity of the Chi-Chi earthquake’s source area, Vs increased (and Vp/Vs decreased), which may be attributed to the closing of cracks or migration of fluid. The different physical characteristics at the junctional zone may easily generate strong earthquakes. Therefore, seismic velocity changes are found to be associated with a subsurface evolution around the source area in Taiwan. Our findings suggest that monitoring the Vp and Vs (or Vp/Vs) structures in high seismic potential zones is an important ongoing task, which may minimize the damage caused by future large earthquakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Crustal Structure)
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18 pages, 4831 KiB  
Article
3D-Kernel Based Imaging of an Improved Estimation of (Qc) in the Northern Apulia (Southern Italy)
by Marilena Filippucci, Salvatore Lucente, Edoardo Del Pezzo, Salvatore de Lorenzo, Giacomo Prosser and Andrea Tallarico
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7512; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167512 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
We investigate crustal seismic attenuation by the coda quality parameter (Qc) in the Gargano area (Southern Italy), using a recently released dataset composed of 191 small earthquakes (1.0 ≤ ML ≤ 2.8) recorded by the local OTRIONS and the Italian [...] Read more.
We investigate crustal seismic attenuation by the coda quality parameter (Qc) in the Gargano area (Southern Italy), using a recently released dataset composed of 191 small earthquakes (1.0 ≤ ML ≤ 2.8) recorded by the local OTRIONS and the Italian INGV seismic networks, over three years of seismic monitoring. Following the single back-scattering theoretical assumption, Qc was computed using different frequencies (in the range of 2–16 Hz) and different lapse times (from 10 to 40 s). The trend of Qc vs. frequency is the same as that observed in the adjacent Umbria-Marche region. Qc at 1 Hz varies between 11 and 63, indicating that the area is characterized by active tectonics, despite the absence of high-magnitude earthquakes in recent decades. The 3D mapping procedure, based on sensitivity kernels, revealed that the Gargano Promontory is characterized by very low and homogeneous Qc at low frequencies, and by high and heterogeneous Qc at high frequencies. The lateral variations of Qc at 12 Hz follow the trend of the Moho in this region and are in good agreement with other geophysical observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Crustal Structure)
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25 pages, 8448 KiB  
Article
Shallow vs. Deep Subsurface Structures of Central Luconia Province, Offshore Malaysia Reveal by Aeromagnetic, Airborne Gravity and Seismic Data
by Siti Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Manuel Pubellier and Benjamin Sautter
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5095; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115095 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
Across the Luconia continental shelf, the nature and structures of the crust are lacking geological understanding and precise characterization. Newly acquired, aeromagnetic, and airborne gravity data were used to assess deep and shallow sub-surface signals within the Central Luconia Province, off the coast [...] Read more.
Across the Luconia continental shelf, the nature and structures of the crust are lacking geological understanding and precise characterization. Newly acquired, aeromagnetic, and airborne gravity data were used to assess deep and shallow sub-surface signals within the Central Luconia Province, off the coast of Sarawak, offshore Malaysia. Regional aeromagnetic anomalies appear to primarily reflect deep crustal features while depth (Z) tensors of airborne gravity anomalies evidence shallow subsurface structures. Strike directions of the interpreted structural trend on aeromagnetic and airborne gravity anomalies maps are measured and plotted into rose diagrams to distinguish the structural orientations for all datasets. Signature patterns extracted from the depth profiles were correlated with parallel seismic lines and nearest exploration wells and coincide well with the top of carbonate for Cycle IV/V and structures seen within the Cycle I and II sediments. The orientation of faults/lineaments at shallower depth is dominated by a NW-SE orientation, similar with the faults extracted from two recently published structural maps. Deeper subsurface sections yielded E-W to NWW-SEE dominant directions which were never presented in the published literature. The E-W oriented anomalies are postulated to represent the remnants of the accretion between the Luconia crustal block and southern boundary of the Palawan block. The NW-SE trend follows the same direction as prominent faults in the region. The insight into shallow and deep subsurface structures in Central Luconia Province imaged through airborne gravity and aeromagnetic data should provide guidelines and complementary information for regional structural studies for this area, particularly in combination with detailed seismic interpretation. Further evaluation on the response of Air-FTG® gravity and aeromagnetic could lead to the zonation of potential basement highs and hydrocarbon prospects in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Crustal Structure)
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16 pages, 8700 KiB  
Article
Structure and Density of Sedimentary Basins in the Southern Part of the East-European Platform and Surrounding Area
by Mikhail K. Kaban, Alexei Gvishiani, Roman Sidorov, Alexei Oshchenko and Roman I. Krasnoperov
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020512 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2846
Abstract
Modern satellite gravity missions and ground gravimetry provide operational data models that can be used in various studies in geology, tectonics, and climatology, etc. In the present study, sedimentary basins in the southern part of the East European Platform and adjoining areas including [...] Read more.
Modern satellite gravity missions and ground gravimetry provide operational data models that can be used in various studies in geology, tectonics, and climatology, etc. In the present study, sedimentary basins in the southern part of the East European Platform and adjoining areas including the Caucasus are studied by employing the approach based on decompensative gravity anomalies. The new model of sediments, implying their thickness and density, demonstrates several important features of the sedimentary cover, which were not or differently imaged by previous studies. We found a significant redistribution of the low-dense sediments in the Black Sea. Another principal feature is the increased thickness of relatively low-dense sediments in the Eastern Greater Caucasus. The deepest part of the South Caspian basin is shifted to the north, close to the Apsheron Trough. In its present position, it is almost joined with the Terek–Caspian depression, which depth is also increased. The thickness of sediments is significantly decreased in the eastern Pre-Caspian basin. Therefore, the new sedimentary cover model gives a more detailed description of its thickness and density, reveals new features and helps in better understanding of the evolution of the basins, providing a background for further detailed studies of the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Crustal Structure)
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17 pages, 72349 KiB  
Article
Estimation of the High-Frequency Attenuation Parameter Kappa for the Zagreb (Croatia) Seismic Stations
by Davor Stanko, Snježana Markušić, Tvrtko Korbar and Josip Ivančić
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8974; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248974 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3463
Abstract
The city of Zagreb (Croatian capital) is situated in the contact area of three major regional tectonic units: the SE Alps, NW Dinarides, and Tisza Unit in the southwestern margin of the Pannonian Basin. The Zagreb seismic zone encompasses the Medvednica Mountains and [...] Read more.
The city of Zagreb (Croatian capital) is situated in the contact area of three major regional tectonic units: the SE Alps, NW Dinarides, and Tisza Unit in the southwestern margin of the Pannonian Basin. The Zagreb seismic zone encompasses the Medvednica Mountains and the city of Zagreb with its surrounding areas, which was struck by the strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake (M5.5) on 22 March 2020. The objective of this contribution is the estimation of the high-frequency attenuation spectral parameter kappa (κ) and its local site-specific component for the Zagreb (Croatia) seismic stations to which we were particularly encouraged after the scale of the damage after the Zagreb 2020 earthquake. We tested linear dependence of κ with epicentral distance using traditional linear least square regression, linear regression for data with errors, and constrained model at close distances to estimate near-site attenuation (κ0). Regression-estimated site kappa values at zero-distance are within the range of the uncertainty (±1 standard deviation) with constrained κ0 value as well within the range of existing global κ0 and VS30 (shear wave velocity in the top 30 m) values. Spatial distribution of κ within the Zagreb seismic zone shows that κ is not isotropic and high-frequency attenuation anisotropy is probably affected by local and regional geological variability, regional active faults and a complex tectonic structure in each direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Crustal Structure)
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19 pages, 5604 KiB  
Article
Susceptibility to Seismic Amplification and Earthquake Probability Estimation Using Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) Model in Odisha, India
by Ratiranjan Jena, Biswajeet Pradhan and Abdullah M. Alamri
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(15), 5355; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155355 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3542
Abstract
The eastern region of India, including the coastal state of Odisha, is a moderately seismic-prone area under seismic zones II and III. However, no major studies have been conducted on earthquake probability (EPA) and hazard assessment (EHA) in Odisha. This paper had two [...] Read more.
The eastern region of India, including the coastal state of Odisha, is a moderately seismic-prone area under seismic zones II and III. However, no major studies have been conducted on earthquake probability (EPA) and hazard assessment (EHA) in Odisha. This paper had two main objectives: (1) to assess the susceptibility of seismic wave amplification (SSA) and (2) to estimate EPA in Odisha. In total, 12 indicators were employed to assess the SSA and EPA. Firstly, using the historical earthquake catalog, the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and intensity variation was observed for the Indian subcontinent. We identified high amplitude and frequency locations for estimated PGA and the periodograms were plotted. Secondly, several indicators such as slope, elevation, curvature, and amplification values of rocks were used to generate SSA using predefined weights of layers. Thirdly, 10 indicators were implemented in a developed recurrent neural network (RNN) model to create an earthquake probability map (EPM). According to the results, recent to quaternary unconsolidated sedimentary rocks and alluvial deposits have great potential to amplify earthquake intensity and consequently lead to acute ground motion. High intensity was observed in coastal and central parts of the state. Complicated morphometric structures along with high intensity variation could be other parameters that influence deposits in the Mahanadi River and its delta with high potential. The RNN model was employed to create a probability map (EPM) for the state. Results show that the Mahanadi basin has dominant structural control on earthquakes that could be found in the western parts of the state. Major faults were pointed towards a direction of WNW–ESE, NE–SW, and NNW–SSE, which may lead to isoseismic patterns. Results also show that the western part is highly probable for events while the eastern coastal part is highly susceptible to seismic amplification. The RNN model achieved an accuracy of 0.94, precision (0.94), recall (0.97), F1 score (0.96), critical success index (CSI) (0.92), and a Fowlkes–Mallows index (FM) (0.95). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of the Crustal Structure)
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