Special Issue "Novel Algorithms and Protocols for Networks, Volume II"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 March 2022.
Related Special Issue: Novel Algorithms and Protocols for Networks

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Davide Careglio
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Architecture, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: network optimization; novel internet architecture; energy-efficiency strategies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mirosław Klinkowski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Central Chamber for Telecommunication Metrology (Z-12), National Institute of Telecommunications, 04-894 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: modeling and optimization of communication networks; algorithm design; optical networking; 5G transport networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Francesco Palmieri
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano, SA, Italy
Interests: high performance networking protocols and architectures; routing algorithms; network security
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Today, applications can be established in a number of datacenters located in different segments of the network, from the core to the edge. Users accessing these applications have stringent requirements in terms of latency, reliability, mobility, and security. Hence, application orchestration frameworks must be agile enough to deploy different instances of applications in multiple locations in real-time, following the requirements and, sometimes, the location of users. Consequently, the network supporting such applications must be dynamic and support multihoming and high user mobility rates, providing low latency and secure access.

In this perspective, new key enabling technologies have recently arisen. The recent introduction of softwarization and virtualization at different levels of the network segments enables optimization of the overall performance, versatility, efficiency, resiliency, security, and automation.

In this context, this Special Issue is targeted at the latest proposals and results in algorithms and protocols to guarantee the required level of performance and QoS guarantees by the upcoming applications envisioned for the post-5G era, including but not limited to the following topics:

  • Novel distribution of computing operations to improve application performance
  • Intelligent data storage, processing, and movement
  • Smart deployment of context aware functionalities
  • Novel security-by-design architecture models
  • Novel algorithms and protocols to automatically deploy, operate, monitor, and troubleshoot networks

Prof. Dr. Davide Careglio
Prof. Dr. Mirosław Klinkowski
Prof. Dr. Francesco Palmieri
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Network optimization
  • Distributed computing
  • Autonomous networks
  • Intelligent network planning and operation
  • QoS/QoE guarantees

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
TinyML-Based Concept System Used to Analyze Whether the Face Mask Is Worn Properly in Battery-Operated Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010484 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 138
Abstract
As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, everyone’s attention was brought to the topic of the health and safety of the entire human population. It has been proven that wearing a face mask can help limit the spread of the virus. Despite the enormous efforts [...] Read more.
As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged, everyone’s attention was brought to the topic of the health and safety of the entire human population. It has been proven that wearing a face mask can help limit the spread of the virus. Despite the enormous efforts of people around the world, there still exists a group of people that wear face masks incorrectly. In order to provide the best level of safety for everyone, face masks must be worn correctly, especially indoors, for example, in shops, cinemas and theaters. As security guards can only handle a limited area of the frequently visited objects, intelligent sensors can be used. In order to mount them on the shelves in the shops or near the cinema cash register queues, they need to be capable of battery operation. This restricts the sensor to be as energy-efficient as possible, in order to prolong the battery life of such devices. The cost is also a factor, as cheaper devices will result in higher accessibility. An interesting and quite novel approach that can answer all these challenges is a TinyML system, that can be defined as a combination of two concepts: Machine Learning (ML) and Internet of Things (IoT). The TinyML approach enables the usage of ML algorithms on boards equipped with low-cost, low-power microcontrollers without sacrificing the classifier quality. The main goal of this paper is to propose a battery-operated TinyML system that can be used for verification whether the face mask is worn properly. To this end, we carefully analyze several ML approaches to find the best method for the considered task. After detailed analysis of computation and memory complexity as well as after some preliminary experiments, we propose to apply the K-means algorithm with carefully designed filters and a sliding window technique, since this method provides high accuracy with the required energy-efficiency for the considered classification problem related to verification of using the face mask. The STM32F411 chip is selected as the best microcontroller for the considered task. Next, we perform wide experiments to verify the proposed ML framework implemented in the selected hardware platform. The obtained results show that the developed ML-system offers satisfactory performance in terms of high accuracy and lower power consumption. It should be underlined that the low-power aspect makes it possible to install the proposed system in places without the access to power, as well as reducing the carbon footprint of AI-focused industry which is not negligible. Our proposed TinyML system solution is able to deliver very high-quality metric values with accuracy, True Positive Ratio (TPR), True Negative Ratio (TNR), precision and recall being over 96% for masked face classification while being able to reach up to 145 days of uptime using a typical 18650 battery with capacity of 2500 mAh and nominal voltage of 3.7 V. The results are obtained using a STM32F411 microcontroller with 100 MHz ARM Cortex M4, which proves that execution of complex computer vision tasks is possible on such low-power devices. It should be noted that the STM32F411 microcontroller draws only 33 mW during operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Algorithms and Protocols for Networks, Volume II)
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Article
Results and Achievements of the ALLIANCE Project: New Network Solutions for 5G and Beyond
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9130; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199130 - 30 Sep 2021
Viewed by 381
Abstract
Leaving the current 4th generation of mobile communications behind, 5G will represent a disruptive paradigm shift integrating 5G Radio Access Networks (RANs), ultra-high-capacity access/metro/core optical networks, and intra-datacentre (DC) network and computational resources into a single converged 5G network infrastructure. The present paper [...] Read more.
Leaving the current 4th generation of mobile communications behind, 5G will represent a disruptive paradigm shift integrating 5G Radio Access Networks (RANs), ultra-high-capacity access/metro/core optical networks, and intra-datacentre (DC) network and computational resources into a single converged 5G network infrastructure. The present paper overviews the main achievements obtained in the ALLIANCE project. This project ambitiously aims at architecting a converged 5G-enabled network infrastructure satisfying those needs to effectively realise the envisioned upcoming Digital Society. In particular, we present two networking solutions for 5G and beyond 5G (B5G), such as Software Defined Networking/Network Function Virtualisation (SDN/NFV) on top of an ultra-high-capacity spatially and spectrally flexible all-optical network infrastructure, and the clean-slate Recursive Inter-Network Architecture (RINA) over packet networks, including access, metro, core and DC segments. The common umbrella of all these solutions is the Knowledge-Defined Networking (KDN)-based orchestration layer which, by implementing Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, enables an optimal end-to-end service provisioning. Finally, the cross-layer manager of the ALLIANCE architecture includes two novel elements, namely the monitoring element providing network and user data in real time to the KDN, and the blockchain-based trust element in charge of exchanging reliable and confident information with external domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Algorithms and Protocols for Networks, Volume II)
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Article
Vulnerability Management Models Using a Common Vulnerability Scoring System
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8735; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188735 - 19 Sep 2021
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Vulnerability prioritization is an essential element of the vulnerability management process in data communication networks. Accurate prioritization allows the attention to be focused on the most critical vulnerabilities and their timely elimination; otherwise, organizations may face severe financial consequences or damage to their [...] Read more.
Vulnerability prioritization is an essential element of the vulnerability management process in data communication networks. Accurate prioritization allows the attention to be focused on the most critical vulnerabilities and their timely elimination; otherwise, organizations may face severe financial consequences or damage to their reputations. In addition, the large amounts of data generated by various components of security systems further impede the process of prioritizing the detected vulnerabilities. Therefore, the detection and elimination of critical vulnerabilities are challenging tasks. The solutions proposed for this problem in the scientific literature so far—e.g., PatchRank, SecureRank, Vulcon, CMS, VDNF, or VEST—are not sufficient because they do not consider the context of the organization. On the other hand, commercial solutions, such as Nessus, F-Secure, or Qualys, do not provide detailed information regarding the prioritization procedure, except for the scale. Therefore, in this paper, the authors present an open-source solution called the Vulnerability Management Center (VMC) in order to assist organizations with the vulnerability prioritization process. The VMC presents all calculated results in a standardized way by using a Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), which allows security analysts to fully understand environmental components’ influences on the criticality of detected vulnerabilities. In order to demonstrate the benefits of using the the open-source VMC software developed here, selected models of a vulnerability management process using CVSS are studied and compared by using three different, real testing environments. The open-source VMC suite developed here, which integrates information collected from an asset database, is shown to accelerate the process of removal for the critical vulnerabilities that are detected. The results show the practicability and efficacy of the selected models and the open-source VMC software, which can thus reduce organizations’ exposure to potential threats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Algorithms and Protocols for Networks, Volume II)
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Article
Multi-RAT Orchestration Method for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188281 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Currently, energy efficiency (EE) of wireless communication is essential where many wireless networks with different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) coexist together. The RATs can be effectively selected and managed on a higher level to achieve maximum EE and save energy, e.g., save batteries. [...] Read more.
Currently, energy efficiency (EE) of wireless communication is essential where many wireless networks with different Radio Access Technologies (RATs) coexist together. The RATs can be effectively selected and managed on a higher level to achieve maximum EE and save energy, e.g., save batteries. The approach to wireless traffic steering in mobile networks with a proof-of-concept solution is presented in this paper, owing to the developed high-level multi-RAT (multi-Radio Access Technology) heterogonous network orchestration approach. Based on the high-level network orchestrator, which traces network indicators, it is possible to decrease the user mobile terminal energy consumption, keeping traffic speed at an adequate level. The solution discussed was implemented in an experimental testbed with Software Defined Radio transmission systems. Downlink and uplink data links were toggled among different RATs according to the decisions that were taken by the end-to-end multi-RAT orchestrator based on the received proper network traffic-related indicators. The authors focused on finding an adequate algorithm that allowed for reduced power usage in the user terminal and made the attempt to verify how to reach the power reduction without introducing RAT-specific rules. The results showed that the proposed orchestration EE reduction was observed (from 11% to 42% for two different scenarios) in relation to the single LTE network deployment. The orchestration compared to the Wi-Fi network does not provide EE gain (−7% and 0%, respectively), but allows the user to achieve a higher data rate (23% and 39% gain, respectively), thus keeping the energy efficiency at almost the same level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Algorithms and Protocols for Networks, Volume II)
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Review

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Review
Open RAN—Radio Access Network Evolution, Benefits and Market Trends
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010408 - 01 Jan 2022
Viewed by 139
Abstract
Open RAN (radio access network) movement is perceived as a game changer, having robust potential to introduce shifts in mobile radio access networks towards tailor-made solutions based on the architecture decomposition. It is widely assumed that those changes will affect the approach to [...] Read more.
Open RAN (radio access network) movement is perceived as a game changer, having robust potential to introduce shifts in mobile radio access networks towards tailor-made solutions based on the architecture decomposition. It is widely assumed that those changes will affect the approach to network deployments and supply chains of network elements and their further integration and maintenance. First deployments of O-RAN-based networks have already delivered broadband services to end users. In parallel, many proof-of-concept feature evaluations and theoretical studies are being conducted by academia and the industry. In this review, the authors describe the RAN evolution towards open models and make an attempt to indicate potential open RAN benefits and market trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Algorithms and Protocols for Networks, Volume II)
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