Special Issue "Additive Manufacturing for Composite Materials"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Min Soo Park
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical System Design Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul, Korea
Interests: ceramic 3D printing; polymer PBF; food printing; laser machining; EDM

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The development of additive manufacturing has made it possible to produce small quantities of various parts and to realize complex shapes. This has made a high-functional lightweight structure possible by overcoming the limitations of design based on traditional manufacturing methods. In addition, as the diversity of available materials increases, functional additive manufacturing attempts are being made not only due to structural complexity but also material complexity. In particular, additive manufacturing based on complexing between various materials can be used in various ways in aviation, automobiles, sports, and national defense, where weight and function are important. While it has taken a lot of time and cost to fabricate composite materials structures in traditional production processes, additive manufacturing is very helpful in overcoming these limitations based on structural complexity. However, there are still very limited examples of composite material printing and its practical application in industry. Therefore, in this Special Issue, we are going to deal with research cases based on various functional materials and composite materials such as ceramics and fibers, and practical industrial applications.

Prof. Dr. Min Soo Park
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • additive manufacturing
  • composite materials
  • 3D printing
  • industrial application
  • ceramic printing

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Fast Fabrication of Conductive Copper Structure on Glass Material Using Laser-Induced Chemical Liquid Phase Deposition
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8695; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188695 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Glass is a very stable material at room temperature and has good resistance to gas, bacteria, and organisms. Due to the development of the electronic industry, the industrial demand for creating a conductive pattern on glass is increasing rapidly. To create conductive circuit [...] Read more.
Glass is a very stable material at room temperature and has good resistance to gas, bacteria, and organisms. Due to the development of the electronic industry, the industrial demand for creating a conductive pattern on glass is increasing rapidly. To create conductive circuit patterns on the glass surface, non-contact methods based on high energy sources or chemical methods are generally used. However, these methods have disadvantages such as low conductivity, high cost, and size limitations. Processes such as LCLD (laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition) have been widely studied to solve this problem. However, it has a fatal disadvantage of being slow. Therefore, in this study, various process changes were attempted to improve productivity and conductivity. In particular, sufficient thermal energy was supplied with high laser power for a stable chemical reduction, and the scanning path was changed in various shapes to minimize the ablation that occurs at this time. Through this, it was possible to disperse the overlapped laser energy of high power to widen the activation area of the reduction reaction. With this proposed LCLD process, it is possible to achieve good productivity and fabricate conductive circuit patterns faster than in previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Composite Materials)
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Article
Property Analysis of Photo-Polymerization-Type 3D-Printed Structures Based on Multi-Composite Materials
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(18), 8545; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188545 - 14 Sep 2021
Viewed by 393
Abstract
Additive manufacturing, commonly called 3D printing, has been studied extensively because it can be used to fabricate complex structures; however, polymer-based 3D printing has limitations in terms of implementing certain functionalities, so it is limited in the production of conceptual prototypes. As such, [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing, commonly called 3D printing, has been studied extensively because it can be used to fabricate complex structures; however, polymer-based 3D printing has limitations in terms of implementing certain functionalities, so it is limited in the production of conceptual prototypes. As such, polymer-based composites and multi-material 3D printing are being studied as alternatives. In this study, a DLP 3D printer capable of printing multiple composite materials was fabricated using a movable separator and structures with various properties were fabricated by selectively printing two composite materials. After the specimen was fabricated based on the ASTM, the basic mechanical properties of the structure were compared through a 3-point bending test and a ball rebound test. Through this, it was shown that structures with various mechanical properties can be fabricated using the proposed movable-separator-based DLP process. In addition, it was shown that this process can be used to fabricate anisotropic structures, whose properties vary depending on the direction of the force applied to the structure. By fabricating multi-joint grippers with varying levels of flexibility, it was shown that the proposed process can be applied in the fabrication of soft robots as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Composite Materials)
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Article
Experimental Study on Micro-Grinding of Ceramics for Micro-Structuring
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 8119; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11178119 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
In this study, micro-grinding was performed to investigate the machining characteristics of alumina and zirconia. The machining of ceramics remains highly challenging owing to their properties, such as high brittleness and wear resistance, which leads to a shorter tool life and high machining [...] Read more.
In this study, micro-grinding was performed to investigate the machining characteristics of alumina and zirconia. The machining of ceramics remains highly challenging owing to their properties, such as high brittleness and wear resistance, which leads to a shorter tool life and high machining costs. Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was selected as the tool material, as it is suitable for machining hard and brittle materials, and micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) was used to fabricate PCD micro-tools. When using a resistor-capacitor generator circuit in micro-EDM, the discharging energy is related to the working capacitance, and by controlling the working capacitance, the different edge radii and the surface roughness of the tool can be easily achieved. The feed rate, depth of cut, and rotation speed were set as experimental parameters to investigate the grinding characteristics of the ceramics. During the experiment, the grinding force and roughness of the bottom surface were monitored, and the roughness of the machined surfaces was measured using a three-dimensional surface profiler. A working capacitance of 1000 pF was used to fabricate a tool with an edge radius of 3.5 µm. The lower radius of the tool edge resulted in a decrease of the cutting force by 50% at most and a surface roughness of 19 nm Ra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Composite Materials)
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Article
Vibration Damping Behavior of Composite Laminates Interleaved with PZT- and SMA-Particle-Dispersed Resin Mixture Films
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7155; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157155 - 03 Aug 2021
Viewed by 421
Abstract
In this study, functional particles such as piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic and shape memory alloy (SMA) particles have been incorporated in composite laminates to accelerate the loss of vibration energy. PZT ceramic particles and SMA particles are mixed with epoxy resin and rolled into [...] Read more.
In this study, functional particles such as piezoelectric (PZT) ceramic and shape memory alloy (SMA) particles have been incorporated in composite laminates to accelerate the loss of vibration energy. PZT ceramic particles and SMA particles are mixed with epoxy resin and rolled into a film shape before they are interleaved between prepreg plies for better distribution of the particles. Loss factor (tan δ) was measured with various particle loadings to verify the effectiveness of interleaving in the vibration damping of laminate specimens. It was observed that there existed an optimal content for maximizing the damping ability avoiding an aggregation of the particles. In addition, when PZT and SMA particles are applied simultaneously, PZT could enhance the vibration damping capability of SMA because PZT particles could generate thermal energy, and it would accelerate the phase change of the SMA particles. In this research, the effective way for enhancing the particle dispersion was suggested, and the particle loading could be controlled by finding an optimal content. Flexural moduli of the specimens were also measured, and they exhibited no change as the content of the particles increases. Therefore, dispersed particles used in this study increased the vibration damping capacity without reducing the mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Composite Materials)
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Article
Enhancement of the Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of a Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Using Interleaved Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6821; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156821 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 460
Abstract
In this study, a carbon nanotube (CNT) buckypaper was interleaved in a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite to improve the interlaminar fracture toughness. Interleaving the film of a laminate-type composite poses the risk of deteriorating the in-plane mechanical properties. Therefore, the in-plane shear modulus [...] Read more.
In this study, a carbon nanotube (CNT) buckypaper was interleaved in a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite to improve the interlaminar fracture toughness. Interleaving the film of a laminate-type composite poses the risk of deteriorating the in-plane mechanical properties. Therefore, the in-plane shear modulus and shear strength were measured prior to estimating the interlaminar fracture toughness. To evaluate the effect of the buckypaper on the interlaminar fracture toughness of the CFRP, double cantilever beam (DCB) and end notch flexure (ENF) tests were conducted for mode I and mode II delamination, respectively. No significant change was observed for the in-plane shear modulus due to the buckypaper interleaving and the shear strength decreased by 4%. However, the interlaminar fracture toughness of the CFRP increased significantly. Moreover, the mode II interlaminar fracture toughness of the CFRP increased by 45.9%. Optical micrographs of the cross-section of the CFRPs were obtained to compare the microstructures of the specimens with and without buckypaper interleaving. The fracture surfaces obtained after the DCB and ENF tests were examined using a scanning electron microscope to identify the toughening mechanism of the buckypaper-interleaved CFRP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Composite Materials)
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Article
Application of an Additive Manufactured Hybrid Metal/Composite Shock Absorber Panel to a Military Seat Ejection System
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6473; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146473 - 13 Jul 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
In this work, a preliminary numerical assessment on the application of an additive manufactured hybrid metal/composite shock absorber panels to a military seat ejection system, has been carried out. The innovative character of the shock absorber concept investigated is that the absorbing system [...] Read more.
In this work, a preliminary numerical assessment on the application of an additive manufactured hybrid metal/composite shock absorber panels to a military seat ejection system, has been carried out. The innovative character of the shock absorber concept investigated is that the absorbing system has a thickness of only 6 mm and is composed of a pyramid-shaped lattice core that, due to its small size, can only be achieved by additive manufacturing. The mechanical behaviour of these shock absorber panels has been examined by measuring their ability to absorb and dissipate the energy generated during the ejection phase into plastic deformations, thus reducing the loads acting on pilots. In this paper the effectiveness of a system composed of five hybrid shock absorbers, with very thin thickness in order to be easily integrated between the seat and the aircraft floor, has been numerically studied by assessing their ability to absorb the energy generated during the primary ejection phase. To accomplish this, a numerical simulation of the explosion has been performed and the energy absorbed by the shock-absorbing mechanism has been assessed. The performed analysis demonstrated that the panels can absorb more than 60% of the energy generated during the explosion event while increasing the total mass of the pilot-seat system by just 0.8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing for Composite Materials)
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