Microbial Resistance to Carbapenems: Epidemiology, Detection and Treatment Options

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanism and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3721

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Street, 11527 Athens, Greece
Interests: penicillin derivative; carbapenem derivative; urinary tract infections; acinetobacter baumannii; carbapenems; colistin

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Guest Editor
Department of Microbiology, AHEPA University Hospital, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54636 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: antibiotic resistance mechanisms; phenotypic and molecular methods for antibiotic resistance detection; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Acinetobacter baumannii; SARS-CoV-2; clinical microbiology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last few years, we have been witnessing the adverse effects of the ‘post-antibiotic era’, characterized by ineffective drugs and the development of superbugs. Antimicrobial resistance represents a major threat to global health, and it has significant impacts regarding morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. In particular, carbapenem resistance has emerged in Gram-negative pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacterales, which are often implicated in serious, difficult-to-treat health-care-associated infections. The global epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant organisms is of great interest, as acquired carbapenem resistance via carbapenemases is transferrable among Gram-negative microorganisms. Notably, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are under surveillance in many countries. There is also an apparent need for timely detection methods in clinical diagnostics and appropriate therapeutic approaches.  Carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacteria are listed by the WHO as pathogens with critical priority for the development of new drugs. Currently, a few new drugs and combinations, as well as old, revived drugs, have been used for the treatment of infections due to carbapenem-resistant pathogens. Therefore, this Special Issue seeks manuscripts regarding:

  1. The epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria;
  2. Different laboratory methodologies for prompt detection;
  3. Treatment options for infections attributed to carbapenem-resistant pathogens.

Dr. Vasiliki Koumaki
Dr. Efthymia Protonotariou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • carbapenems
  • carbapenemases
  • Gram-negatives
  • multidrug resistance (MDR)
  • carpabenem-resistant organisms (CROs)
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • carbapenem resistance detection
  • epidemiology
  • antibiotics
  • carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB)

Published Papers (2 papers)

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8 pages, 1445 KiB  
Communication
Screening of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates for Carbapenemase and Hypervirulence-Associated Genes by Combining the Eazyplex® Superbug CRE and hvKp Assays
by Jürgen Rödel, Yvonne Pfeifer, Martin A. Fischer, Birgit Edel, Sylvia Stoll, Wolfgang Pfister and Bettina Löffler
Antibiotics 2023, 12(6), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12060959 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1737
Abstract
The acquisition of hypervirulence-associated genes by carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is being increasingly observed, and easy-to-use diagnostic tests are needed for the surveillance of the hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp). In this pilot study, 87 K. pneumoniae isolates from invasive infections collected in 2022 and [...] Read more.
The acquisition of hypervirulence-associated genes by carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is being increasingly observed, and easy-to-use diagnostic tests are needed for the surveillance of the hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp). In this pilot study, 87 K. pneumoniae isolates from invasive infections collected in 2022 and 2023 were analysed using the LAMP-based eazyplex® Superbug CRE and hvKp assays for the simultaneous identification of carbapenemases and virulence genes (rmpA/A2, iuC, iroC, ybt, clb). Nine isolates showed a Kleborate virulence score of 4 or 5 (10.3%). The time for the results of the eazyplex® assays ranged from 6.5 to 13 min, and the total turnaround time, including sample preparation, was less than 30 min. Five isolates, three of which produced New Delhi metallo-beta lactamase (NDM), were subjected to whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis for further characterisation. The eazyplex® test results for beta-lactamase and virulence genes were confirmed. The eazyplex® hvKp, currently only available as a Research Use Only assay, may be a useful tool for the rapid identification of hvKp without significant additional workload when combined with the eazyplex® Superbug CRE assay for the detection of carbapenemases. Full article
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9 pages, 232 KiB  
Brief Report
Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Acquisition and Colonization at a Korean Hospital over 1 Year
by Hye-Jin Kim, Jung-Hee Hyun, Hyo-Seon Jeong and Yeon-Kyeng Lee
Antibiotics 2023, 12(4), 759; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12040759 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are known to be primarily responsible for the increasing spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and have therefore been targeted for preventing transmission and appropriate treatment. This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of [...] Read more.
Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are known to be primarily responsible for the increasing spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and have therefore been targeted for preventing transmission and appropriate treatment. This study aimed to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of CPE infection in terms of acquisition and colonization. Methods: We examined patients’ hospital data, including active screening on patients’ admission and in intensive care units (ICUs). We identified risk factors for CPE acquisition by comparing the clinical and epidemiological data of CPE-positive patients between colonization and acquisition groups. Results: A total of 77 CPE patients were included (51 colonized and 26 acquired). The most frequent Enterobacteriaceae species was Klebsiella pneumoniae. Among CPE-colonized patients, 80.4% had a hospitalization history within 3 months. CPE acquisition was significantly associated with treatment in an ICU [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 46.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.08–430.09] and holding a gastrointestinal tube (aOR: 12.70, 95% CI: 2.61–61.84). Conclusions: CPE acquisition was significantly associated with ICU stay, open wounds, holding catheters or tubes, and antibiotic treatment. Active CPE screening should be implemented on admission and periodically for high-risk patients. Full article
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