Veterinary Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine

A topical collection in Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This collection belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Viewed by 61739

Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Physical Therapy, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN 37403, USA
Interests: canine rehabilitation and physical therapy; orthopedic rehabilitation; neurological rehabilitation; manual therapy; infection control; gait analysis

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
Interests: veterinary rehabilitation; sport medicine; outcome measures of physical dysfunction; pain assessment and treatment; functional anatomy

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Medical Imaging and Small Animal Orthopedics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Interests: small animal arthroscopy and orthopaedics; small animal physiotherapy; sports medicine; rehabilitation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Interests: orthopedic surgery; physical therapy; rehabilitation; small animals
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57 (Viikintie 49), 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Interests: animal physiotherapy; sport medicine; outcome measures of physical dysfunction; pain assessment and treatment; functional anatomy

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
Interests: horses; musculoskeletal; lameness in horses; orthopedic pain

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sports medicine and rehabilitation comprise a well-established discipline in human medicine, and the  benefits have been clearly documented and established in the medical literature. Awareness of this field in veterinary medicine has been rapidly growing, and the techniques used in human sports medicine and rehabilitation have been adapted for veterinary use. The growing interest in this field among veterinarians has led to the formation of new specialty colleges, such as the American College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation and the European College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation.

There is a clear need, and a significant interest on the part of the veterinary profession, to better understand the role of sports medicine and rehabilitation following injury, surgery, and illness, and to improve patient outcomes by incorporating this specialty. Objective outcome measures of physical dysfunction and pain are of great importance, in order to select the optimal treatments and to assess treatment effectiveness. Evidence-based veterinary rehabilitation and sports medicine require knowledge of these outcome measures, as well as the mechanisms of action and efficacy for different treatment protocols in specific diagnoses. The aim of this Collection is to publish original research papers or reviews concerning veterinary rehabilitation and sports medicine for both equine and small animal practice. We hope this information can provide a better understanding of the evidence related to assessment methods, treatment techniques, and interventions utilized.

We invite you to share your recent findings through this Topical Collection.

Prof. Dr. David Levine
Dr. Anna Bergh
Dr. Yves Samoy
Prof. Dr. Darryl Millis
Dr. Heli Katariina Hyytiäinen
Dr. Elin Hernlund
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • veterinary medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • physiotherapy
  • outcome measures
  • physical dysfunction
  • pain
  • assessment
  • sports medicine

Published Papers (14 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2022, 2021

17 pages, 569 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Literature Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: Laser Therapy
by Darryl L. Millis and Anna Bergh
Animals 2023, 13(4), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13040667 - 14 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4771
Abstract
Light therapy, or photobiomodulation, is a collective name for methods where tissue is irradiated with different types of light, with the aim of stimulating healing. Despite being frequently used, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment protocols for light therapy, nor its [...] Read more.
Light therapy, or photobiomodulation, is a collective name for methods where tissue is irradiated with different types of light, with the aim of stimulating healing. Despite being frequently used, there is no consensus regarding the optimal treatment protocols for light therapy, nor its clinical efficacy. A systematic literature review was conducted, searching the relevant literature regarding light therapy in three databases, published between 1980–2020. The risk of bias in each article was evaluated. Forty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; 24 articles were regarding dogs, 1 was regarding cats, and the rest were regarding horses. The indications for treatment were musculoskeletal and neurologic conditions, skin disease and wounds, and pain. The literature review showed conflicting study results and unclear application for clinical use. This can be explained by the wide variety of treatment parameters used in the searched studies, such as wavelength, laser class, dose, and effect, as well as the frequency and duration of treatment. Although some beneficial effects were reported for light therapy, the studies also had limited scientific quality regarding these therapies, with a high or moderate risk of bias. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

2022

Jump to: 2023, 2021

20 pages, 709 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine in Sport and Companion Animals: Electrotherapy
by Heli K. Hyytiäinen, Anna Boström, Kjell Asplund and Anna Bergh
Animals 2023, 13(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13010064 - 23 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2796
Abstract
Electrotherapy modalities are currently used in the treatment of animals, but the evidence base supporting their use has not yet been systematically reviewed. Cochrane guidelines, as adapted by the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, were followed for [...] Read more.
Electrotherapy modalities are currently used in the treatment of animals, but the evidence base supporting their use has not yet been systematically reviewed. Cochrane guidelines, as adapted by the Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, were followed for this systematic review. A literature search regarding all currently known electrotherapy modalities applied to horses, dogs, and cats was conducted for the years 1980–2020 using three databases: CABI, PubMed, and Web of Science Core Collection. Of the 5385 references found, 41 articles were included in the review: 13 papers on pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMFT), 7 on neural electrical muscle stimulation (NEMS), 5 on transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), 4 on static magnets, 3 on interference, 2 each on percutaneous electrical neural stimulation (PENS), bioelectricity, and diathermy, and 1 each on micro-pulsed stimulation, capacitive coupled electrical stimulation, and microwave therapy. The literature per modality was limited in quantity (mean 3.7 papers). Half of the articles were assessed to have a high risk of bias (20 high, 7 moderate, and 14 low). The existing literature used a spectrum of indications and treatment parameters, which makes comparisons and drawing conclusions to support the use of these modalities in clinical practice challenging. The current scientific evidence is not sufficient to support the clinical effects of electrotherapies for any clinical indication in horses, dogs or cats. The selected suggestive results warrant further high-quality research on PEMFT, NEMS, TENS, and PENS. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 922 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine in Sport and Companion Animals: Therapeutic Ultrasound
by Anna Boström, Kjell Asplund, Anna Bergh and Heli Hyytiäinen
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3144; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223144 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2795
Abstract
Background: To explore the scientific evidence for therapeutic ultrasound (TU), we conducted a systematic review of the literature on TU in dogs, horses, donkeys, and cats. Methods: In three major databases, relevant articles published in 1980–2020 were identified. The risk of bias in [...] Read more.
Background: To explore the scientific evidence for therapeutic ultrasound (TU), we conducted a systematic review of the literature on TU in dogs, horses, donkeys, and cats. Methods: In three major databases, relevant articles published in 1980–2020 were identified. The risk of bias in each article was evaluated. Results: Twenty-four relevant articles on the effects of TU in dogs, nine in horses, two in donkeys, and one in cats were identified. TU usually involved 2–6 treatments weekly for up to 4 weeks. Articles on tendon, ligament, and bone healing, acute aseptic arthritis, osteoarthritis, paraparesis, hindquarter weakness, and back muscle pain were identified. In experimental bone lesions in dogs, there is moderate scientific evidence for enhanced healing. For the treatment of other musculoskeletal conditions, the scientific evidence is insufficient due to the high risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that continuous TU increases tissue temperature in muscles and tendons by up to 5 °C in healthy animals. For disorders in tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints in sport and companion animals, there is insufficient evidence for the clinical effects of TU. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 937 KiB  
Systematic Review
Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine in Sport and Companion Animals: Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy
by Anna Boström, Anna Bergh, Heli Hyytiäinen and Kjell Asplund
Animals 2022, 12(22), 3124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12223124 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is increasingly used to treat different types of musculoskeletal conditions in sport and companion animals. To explore the scientific basis for the treatment, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on ECSWT used in horses, dogs, and [...] Read more.
Background: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) is increasingly used to treat different types of musculoskeletal conditions in sport and companion animals. To explore the scientific basis for the treatment, we conducted a systematic review of the literature on ECSWT used in horses, dogs, and cats. Methods: Relevant articles published in 1980–2020 were identified from three major databases. Each article was assessed for risk of bias. Results: The review identified 27 relevant articles on the effects of ECSWT in horses, nine in dogs, but none in cats. Typically, ECSWT involved one to three treatment sessions at 1- to 3-week intervals. We identified studies on bone mass and bone healing, wound healing, navicular disease, ligament injury, desmitis, sesamoiditis, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, and short-term analgesic effects. Common to all indications was that the scientific evidence was very limited. For each separate indication, there were relatively few studies, many of which had methodological flaws. Where favorable results were reported, they were usually not replicated in independent studies. A few encouraging results were found. Conclusions: In sport and companion animals, the scientific evidence for clinical effects of ECSWT in horses, dogs, and cats is limited. For some applications, notably short-term pain relief, ligament ailments, and osteoarthritis, the results seem promising and warrant further exploration in high-quality studies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3605 KiB  
Article
Timing of Vertical Head, Withers and Pelvis Movements Relative to the Footfalls in Different Equine Gaits and Breeds
by Marie Rhodin, Ineke H. Smit, Emma Persson-Sjodin, Thilo Pfau, Vikingur Gunnarsson, Sigridur Björnsdóttir, Ebba Zetterberg, Hilary M. Clayton, Sarah J. Hobbs, Filipe Serra Bragança and Elin Hernlund
Animals 2022, 12(21), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12213053 - 07 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2184
Abstract
Knowledge of vertical motion patterns of the axial body segments is a prerequisite for the development of algorithms used in automated detection of lameness. To date, the focus has been on the trot. This study investigates the temporal synchronization between vertical motion of [...] Read more.
Knowledge of vertical motion patterns of the axial body segments is a prerequisite for the development of algorithms used in automated detection of lameness. To date, the focus has been on the trot. This study investigates the temporal synchronization between vertical motion of the axial body segments with limb kinematic events in walk and trot across three popular types of sport horses (19 Warmbloods, 23 Iberians, 26 Icelandics) that are known to have different stride kinematics, and it presents novel data describing vertical motion of the axial body segments in tölting and pacing Icelandic horses. Inertial measurement unit sensors recorded limb kinematics, vertical motion of the axial body at all symmetrical gaits that the horse could perform (walk, trot, tölt, pace). Limb kinematics, vertical range of motion and lowest/highest positions of the head, withers and pelvis were calculated. For all gaits except walk and pace, lowest/highest positions of the pelvis and withers were found to be closely related temporally to midstance and start of suspension of the hind/fore quarter, respectively. There were differences in pelvic/withers range of motion between all breeds where the Icelandic horses showed the smallest motion, which may explain why lameness evaluation in this breed is challenging. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3854 KiB  
Case Report
Common Digital Extensor Tendon Injury in Three Sporting Dogs
by Alessio Franini and Maria Grazia Entani
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192619 - 29 Sep 2022
Viewed by 6015
Abstract
Injuries to canine athletes are becoming more and more frequent, and perfect knowledge of all injury-prone anatomic structures is mandatory to achieve correct diagnoses and treatments. In this small case series discussion, trauma-based injury to the common digital extensor tendon of digits III [...] Read more.
Injuries to canine athletes are becoming more and more frequent, and perfect knowledge of all injury-prone anatomic structures is mandatory to achieve correct diagnoses and treatments. In this small case series discussion, trauma-based injury to the common digital extensor tendon of digits III and IV of the forelimb is described for the first time. The anatomy as well as the clinical and ultrasonographic findings show similarities to the human spectrum of pathologies called boxer’s knuckle. The treatment options with a buddy taping technique led to a satisfactory outcome at three months from trauma, without a history of re-injury. Injuries to the extensor compartment of the forepaw should be considered in cases of forelimb lameness with dorsal metacarpophalangeal swelling in sporting patients, especially with a history of blunt force traumas. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

1 pages, 179 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Weiermayer et al. Evidence-Based Human Homeopathy and Veterinary Homeopathy. Comment on “Bergh et al. A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: “Miscellaneous Therapies”. Animals 2021, 11, 3356”
by Anna Bergh, Iréne Lund, Anna Boström, Heli Hyytiäinen and Kjell Asplund
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162098 - 17 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1325
Abstract
We appreciate the interest in our article A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: “Miscellaneous Therapies” published in Animals, Volume 11 [...] Full article
6 pages, 220 KiB  
Comment
Evidence-Based Human Homeopathy and Veterinary Homeopathy. Comment on Bergh et al. A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: “Miscellaneous Therapies”. Animals 2021, 11, 3356
by Petra Weiermayer, Michael Frass, Thomas Peinbauer, Liesbeth Ellinger and Edward De Beukelaer
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162097 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 10326
Abstract
(1) Background: Classical (=individualized) homeopathic therapy is based on the individual and not on the indication. (2) Methods: The prerequisite for conducting methodologically high-quality studies on indvidualized homeopathy is that the principles of homeopathy are considered, since the selection of the simile (the [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Classical (=individualized) homeopathic therapy is based on the individual and not on the indication. (2) Methods: The prerequisite for conducting methodologically high-quality studies on indvidualized homeopathy is that the principles of homeopathy are considered, since the selection of the simile (the individually appropriate homeopathic medicinal product) is decisive for the effectiveness of the homeopathic treatment, because only an application lege artis can be effective for the respective patient. Apart from this, criteria for evidence-based medicine must be considered for design, conduction, documentation, and rating of studies in homeopathy. (3) Results: When criteria for evidence-based medicine for design, conduction, documentation, and rating of studies in homeopathy are considered, effects on all quality levels according to Cochrane criteria are recognizable, especially for individualized homeopathy, even in the methodologically high-quality studies. (4) Conclusions: Based on the following three facts, the discussion of the evidence in human and veterinary homeopathy lays the foundations for a comprehensive presentation of the evidence on homeopathy: (a) homeopathic medicinal products without indication are 100% identical with regard to production, quality, safety, and principles of application, regardless of whether they are used in animals or humans; (b) if the simile principle (Similia similibus curentur, or ‘Let like be cured by like’) is adhered to that classical (=individualized) homeopathic therapy is based on the individual and not on the indication; and (c) if the proof of effectiveness of individualized homeopathy in one or more indications is available, the logical consequence seems to be that it can be concluded that it is effective in other indications. In view of One Health and of the demands of the European Green Deal (Farm2Fork Strategy) and the EU Organic Regulation 2018/848, the application of homeopathy in the sense of integrative veterinary medicine and the integration of complementary medicine including homeopathy at universities seems a necessary consequence and requirement in the interests of the patient, which is already expressed in the American consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum and is legally anchored in Switzerland by the Medical Professions Act for university teaching and research. Full article
8 pages, 249 KiB  
Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine in Sport and Companion Animals: Soft Tissue Mobilization
by Anna Bergh, Kjell Asplund, Iréne Lund, Anna Boström and Heli Hyytiäinen
Animals 2022, 12(11), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12111440 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3319
Abstract
Soft tissue mobilization is frequently used in the treatment of sport and companion animals. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for clinical effects of [...] Read more.
Soft tissue mobilization is frequently used in the treatment of sport and companion animals. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for clinical effects of massage and stretching in cats, dogs, and horses. A bibliographic search, restricted to studies in cats, dogs, and horses, was performed on Web of Science Core Collection, CABI, and PubMed. Relevant articles were assessed for scientific quality, and information was extracted on study characteristics, species, type of treatment, indication, and treatment effects. Of 1189 unique publications screened, 11 were eligible for inclusion. The risk of bias was assessed as high in eight of the studies and moderate in three of the studies, two of the latter indicating a decreased heart rate after massage. There was considerable heterogeneity in reported treatment effects. Therefore, the scientific evidence is not strong enough to define the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of massage and stretching in sport and companion animals. Full article
9 pages, 224 KiB  
Article
Military Working Dogs Operating in Afghanistan Theater: Comparison between Pre- and Post-Mission Blood Analyses to Monitor Physical Fitness and Training
by Giuseppe Spinella, Lorenzo Tidu, Lisa Grassato, Vincenzo Musella, Micheletino Matarazzo and Simona Valentini
Animals 2022, 12(5), 617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12050617 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
The intergovernmental organization known as the United Nations (UN) was born “to maintain international peace and security” through different operations and tasks, including “mine action” and “explosive detection”. Explosives are the most frequent cause of injuries in military personnel and an enormous danger [...] Read more.
The intergovernmental organization known as the United Nations (UN) was born “to maintain international peace and security” through different operations and tasks, including “mine action” and “explosive detection”. Explosives are the most frequent cause of injuries in military personnel and an enormous danger for civilians. The role of explosive detection dogs (EDDs) and mine detection dogs has gained great consideration over time, leading to their intense use in military operations. Literature regarding working injuries reported by EDDs during missions is limited. The aim of the present study is to investigate the hematological changes that occurred between pre- and post-mission blood analyses in military working dogs deployed to Afghanistan in order to evaluate signs of health problems or physical adjustments. Examining the clinical records, only three dogs reported a medical issue, one with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV), and two with lameness episodes. Lack of health issues occurring during the missions was reflected by the absence of significant differences between pre- and post-mission blood analyses. Blood results were also examined by dividing the EDDs into groups considering age at departure, sex, breed and mission length. A few categories demonstrated significant changes in some parameters; however, the mean values were always included in the ranges of normality, indicating that their physical fitness and training were adequate for the required tasks. Full article

2021

Jump to: 2023, 2022

27 pages, 672 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine: “Miscellaneous Therapies”
by Anna Bergh, Iréne Lund, Anna Boström, Heli Hyytiäinen and Kjell Asplund
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123356 - 24 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7642
Abstract
There is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM). There is, however, an uncertainty of the efficacy of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review is to assess the evidence for clinical efficacy of 24 CAVM therapies [...] Read more.
There is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM). There is, however, an uncertainty of the efficacy of these methods. Therefore, the aim of this systematic literature review is to assess the evidence for clinical efficacy of 24 CAVM therapies used in cats, dogs, and horses. A bibliographic search, restricted to studies in cats, dogs, and horses, was performed on Web of Science Core Collection, CABI, and PubMed. Relevant articles were assessed for scientific quality, and information was extracted on study characteristics, species, type of treatment, indication, and treatment effects. Of 982 unique publications screened, 42 were eligible for inclusion, representing nine different CAVM therapies, which were aromatherapy, gold therapy, homeopathy, leeches (hirudotherapy), mesotherapy, mud, neural therapy, sound (music) therapy, and vibration therapy. For 15 predefined therapies, no study was identified. The risk of bias was assessed as high in 17 studies, moderate to high in 10, moderate in 10, low to moderate in four, and low in one study. In those studies where the risk of bias was low to moderate, there was considerable heterogeneity in reported treatment effects. Therefore, the scientific evidence is not strong enough to define the clinical efficacy of the 24 CAVM therapies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 839 KiB  
Article
A Questionnaire Study on the Use of Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine for Horses in Sweden
by Karin Gilberg, Anna Bergh and Susanna Sternberg-Lewerin
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11113113 - 30 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3079
Abstract
Complementary or alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) includes treatment methods with limited scientific evidence. Swedish veterinarians are legally obliged to base treatments and recommendations on science or well-documented experience, but most CAVM methods are not well documented in animals. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Complementary or alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) includes treatment methods with limited scientific evidence. Swedish veterinarians are legally obliged to base treatments and recommendations on science or well-documented experience, but most CAVM methods are not well documented in animals. The aim of this study was to explore the use of CAVM in Swedish horses. Electronic questionnaires were distributed to horse owners, equine veterinary practitioners and CAVM therapists. Of the 204 responding horse owners, 83% contacted a veterinarian first in case of lameness, while 15% contacted a CAVM therapist. For back pain, 52% stated a CAVM therapist as their first contact and 45% a veterinarian. Only 10–15% of the respondents did not use any CAVM method for prevention or after injury. Of the 100 veterinarians who responded, more than half did not use CAVM themselves but 55% did refer to people who offer this service. Of the 124 responding CAVM therapists, 72% recommended their clients to seek veterinary advice when needed, 50% received referrals from a veterinarian, and 25% did not collaborate with a veterinarian. The two most common methods used by the respondents in all three categories were stretching and massage. Most veterinarians and therapists were not content with the current lack of CAVM regulation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 875 KiB  
Review
A Systematic Review of Musculoskeletal Mobilization and Manipulation Techniques Used in Veterinary Medicine
by Kevin K. Haussler, Amie L. Hesbach, Laura Romano, Lesley Goff and Anna Bergh
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102787 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 5586
Abstract
Mobilization and manipulation techniques are often used in small animal and equine practice; however, questions remain concerning indications, dosing and efficacy. A bibliographic search was performed to identify peer-reviewed publications from 1980 to 2020 that evaluated the clinical effects of musculoskeletal mobilization and [...] Read more.
Mobilization and manipulation techniques are often used in small animal and equine practice; however, questions remain concerning indications, dosing and efficacy. A bibliographic search was performed to identify peer-reviewed publications from 1980 to 2020 that evaluated the clinical effects of musculoskeletal mobilization and manipulation techniques in dogs, cats and horses. The search strategy identified 883 papers for review. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The clinical indications, dosages, outcome parameters, and reported efficacy within each publication were recorded and categorized for comparison with scientific quality assessed according to a standardized grading system. Fourteen articles were included in this systematic review of which 13 were equine and one was a canine study. Seven of these were cohort studies and seven were randomized controlled clinical trials. The canine study involved carpal immobilization-remobilization and all equine studies focused on the effects of passive mobilization (n = 5) or manipulation (n = 8) of the axial skeleton. Study quality was low (n = 4), moderate (n = 7), and high (n = 3) and included a wide array of outcome parameters with varying levels of efficacy and duration of therapeutic effects, which prevented further meta-analysis. Therefore, it was difficult to draw firm conclusions despite all studies reporting positive effects. Optimal technique indications and dosages need to be determined to improve the standardization of these treatment options. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 1718 KiB  
Article
Comparison of the Effect of High-Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on Skin Surface Temperature and Vein Diameter in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Skin in Healthy Racehorses
by Paulina Zielińska, Maria Soroko, Kevin Howell, Maria Godlewska, Weronika Hildebrand and Krzysztof Dudek
Animals 2021, 11(7), 1965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071965 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4014
Abstract
The aim of the study was to assess differences in the influence of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) on the skin surface temperature and vein diameter of the lateral fetlock joint region in a group of racehorses with pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to assess differences in the influence of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) on the skin surface temperature and vein diameter of the lateral fetlock joint region in a group of racehorses with pigmented and non-pigmented skin in the treatment area. Twenty Thoroughbreds were divided into two equal groups: pigmented and non-pigmented skin groups. Each horse received the same HILT treatment. Just before and immediately after HILT, thermographic examination was performed to measure the skin surface temperature and ultrasonographic examination assessed the lateral digital palmar vein diameter. After HILT, the pigmented skin surface temperature increased, while the non-pigmented skin surface temperature decreased, and the difference between both groups was significant (p < 0.001). The vein diameter increased after HILT in horses with pigmented and non-pigmented skin, but the difference between both groups was not significant (p = 0.14). In conclusion, melanin content in the epidermis plays an important role in light energy absorption and photothermal effects. The vein diameter changes after HILT application indicated that the increase in vessel diameter may partly depend on photothermal mechanisms occurring in irradiated tissue. Further research is necessary to describe the physiological and clinical effects of HILT performed on pigmented and non-pigmented skin. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop