Special Issue "Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 August 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Antony Prabhu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Fish Nutrition, Requirement and Welfare Research Group, Institute of Marine Research, 5817 Bergen, Norway
Interests: mineral requirement and welfare in farmed fish; optimizing mineral levels in novel feeds; mineral sources, bioavailability and environmental impact; functional role of minerals during specific life stages or challenges
Dr. Johan W. Schrama
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Aquaculture and Fisheries Group, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WD Wageningen, The Netherlands
Interests: biochemical pathways; energy metabolism; adaptation physiology; animal feeding; animal nutrition and feeding; animal welfare; fish; digestion; aquaculture, polysaccharides; stress; stress physiology; aquaculture and fisheries; feed-fish-system relations

Special Issue Information

Dear Peers,

Mineral nutrition has been and is still a challenging area within fish nutrition research. We are in the middle of an era where interest in mineral research on fish is on the rise. Sound research backed by the rapid dissemination of new knowledge is essential to retain and expand this interest. This Special Issue aims to put together high-quality original research and review papers in fish mineral nutrition and metabolism (both finfish and shellfish). The topics of interest for this Special Issue include but are not limited to mineral requirement, novel ingredients and antinutrients, dietary mineral sources and availability; and functional role of minerals in improving fish health, stress response, broodstock performance, and welfare in aquaculture. Fundamental or mechanistic studies on mineral absorption, transport, or metabolism at whole animal, tissue or cellular level, including in vitro models, are welcomed. Communications linking minerals to fish rearing systems, effluents, and their environmental impact will also be considered for this special issue.

Dr. Antony Prabhu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • mineral requirement
  • novel protein ingredients and mineral supply
  • mineral sources, feed enzymes, and availability
  • mineral absorption and transport
  • in vitro models in fish mineral research
  • minerals in fish health, physiology, and welfare
  • tissue mineral metabolism
  • minerals in aquaculture effluents and environmental impact

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Organic Selenium (OH-MetSe) Effect on Whole Body Fatty Acids and Mx Gene Expression against Viral Infection in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102877 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 584
Abstract
The supplementation of fish diets with OH-SeMet reduces oxidative stress and modulates immune response against bacterial infection. However, despite the importance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish nutrition and their high risk of oxidation, the potential protective effect of OH-SeMet on these [...] Read more.
The supplementation of fish diets with OH-SeMet reduces oxidative stress and modulates immune response against bacterial infection. However, despite the importance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish nutrition and their high risk of oxidation, the potential protective effect of OH-SeMet on these essential fatty acids has not been studied in detail. Moreover, while viral infection is very relevant in seabream production, no studies have focused the Se effects against viral infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary supplementation with OH-SeMet on gilthead seabream fatty acid profiles, growth performance and response against viral infection. Gilthead seabream juveniles (21.73 ± 0.27 g) were fed for 91 days with three experimental diets, a control diet without supplementation of Se (0.29 mg Se kg diet−1) and two diets supplemented with OH-SeMet (0.52 and 0.79 mg Se kg diet−1). A crowding stress test was performed at week 7 and an anti-viral response challenge were conducted at the end of the feeding trial. Selenium, proximate and fatty acid composition of diets and body tissues were analyzed. Although fish growth was not affected, elevation in dietary Se proportionally raised Se content in body tissues, increased lipid content in the whole body and promoted retention and synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Specifically, a net production of DHA was observed in those fish fed diets with a higher Se content. Additionally, both monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids were significantly reduced by the increase in dietary Se. Despite the elevation of dietary Se to 0.79 mg kg−1 not affecting basal cortisol levels, 2 h post-stress plasma cortisol levels were markedly increased. Finally, at 24 h post-stimulation, dietary OH-SeMet supplementation significantly increased the expression of the antiviral response myxovirus protein gene, showing, for the first time in gilthead seabream, the importance of dietary Se levels on antiviral defense. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
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Article
Addition of Bamboo Charcoal to Selenium (Se)-Rich Feed Improves Growth and Antioxidant Capacity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092585 - 03 Sep 2021
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Abstract
The ability of bamboo charcoal to reduce the negative effects of high dietary selenium (Se) concentrations was assessed by feeding juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) one of five Se-rich diets (1.5 mg/kg Se; 36% protein, 8.7% lipid) containing graded levels [...] Read more.
The ability of bamboo charcoal to reduce the negative effects of high dietary selenium (Se) concentrations was assessed by feeding juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) one of five Se-rich diets (1.5 mg/kg Se; 36% protein, 8.7% lipid) containing graded levels (0–4 g/kg) of bamboo charcoal powder for eight weeks. There were four tanks (350 L) of fish (initial weight 16.0 ± 0.5 g) for each treatment, and the fish were fed to satiation four times each day. At the end of the feeding trial, all of the fish from each tank were weighed to calculate the growth performance. Blood samples were firstly obtained to collect plasma for the biochemical indexes determination. Liver tissues were then collected to determine the antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression. Dorsal muscles were also collected to determine the nutrient composition. The results show that when the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed ranged between 0 and 3 g/kg, the weight growth rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) values increased with the higher dietary bamboo charcoal content, and the maximum WGR and SGR values were achieved when the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed was 2–3 g/kg (p < 0.05). The Se content in muscle tissues decreased significantly with the increased bamboo charcoal content (p < 0.05) in the Se-rich feed, which ranged from 0 to 4 g/kg. When the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed was 2–3 g/kg, the levels of glucose (GLU) and albumin (ALB) in plasma reached a maximum (p < 0.05), whereas the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reached a minimum (p < 0.05). Additionally, the activities of catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) when the bamboo charcoal content was 3 g/kg. In contrast, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level increased sharply when the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed was 1 g/kg, compared to the control group and the groups supplemented with 2–3 g/kg bamboo charcoal (p < 0.05). Regarding mRNA-level gene expression, the results show that dietary supplementation with 0 to 3 g/kg of bamboo charcoal increased the expression of keap1 and nrf2, whereas nfkb expression was inhibited (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzymes cat, gpx, and mn-sod was consistently enhanced in the group fed with the 3 g/kg bamboo charcoal diet (p < 0.05). The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tnfα and tgfβ was inhibited in the groups supplemented with 2–3 g/kg bamboo charcoal, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (il10) increased in the bamboo charcoal supplementation groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Generally, supplementation with 2–3 g/kg of bamboo charcoal in Se-rich feed improved the growth performance, physiological status, and antioxidant enzyme activities of blunt snout bream. Moreover, bamboo charcoal supplementation in Se-rich diets stimulated the antioxidant system and inhibited the inflammatory response by activating Nrf2-Keap1 and suppressing NF-κB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
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Article
Fecal Excretion and Whole-Body Retention of Macro and Micro Minerals in Atlantic Salmon Fed Torula Yeast Grown on Sugar Kelp Hydrolysate
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082409 - 14 Aug 2021
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Abstract
Yeast is a microbial feed ingredient that can be produced from non-food biomasses. Brown seaweed contains high levels of complex carbohydrates that are not digested to any extent by monogastric animals but can be used as carbon sources for yeast production. The objective [...] Read more.
Yeast is a microbial feed ingredient that can be produced from non-food biomasses. Brown seaweed contains high levels of complex carbohydrates that are not digested to any extent by monogastric animals but can be used as carbon sources for yeast production. The objective of this study was to investigate how minerals originating from brown macroalgae (Saccharina latissima) are incorporated in Cyberlindnera jadinii yeast and to assess the bioavailability of these different minerals as well as their accumulation into different organs of Atlantic salmon. The yeast C. jadinii was produced on a seaweed hydrolysate mixed with a sugar-rich wood hydrolysate in a 9:1 volume ratio and fed to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in two different experiments: a digestibility experiment with 30% dietary inclusion of yeast and a retention experiment with increasing inclusion of yeast (5, 10, and 20%). Seaweed minerals such as zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), and cobalt (Co) were incorporated to a high degree in the yeast. The apparent fecal excretion of minerals was similar in both experiments, in general, with low excretion of, I, bromine (Br), and arsenic (As) (ranging from 18.0% to 63.5%) and high excretion of iron (Fe), Cu, Mn, aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) (ranging from 56.9% to <100%), despite the different fish size and fecal sampling method. High levels of Cu, I, Br, and Co in the yeast resulted in a linear decrease (p < 0.05) in retention of these minerals in salmon fed increasing levels of yeast. Despite increasing amounts of these minerals in the feed, whole-body levels of Cu and Mn remained stable, whereas whole-body levels of Co, somewhat unexpectedly, decreased with increased dietary yeast inclusion. The Cd from the yeast had low bioavailability but was concentrated more in the kidney (0.038 mg kg−1) and liver (0.025 mg kg−1) than in muscle (0.0009 mg kg−1). The given Cd level in fish strengthens the indication that it is safe to feed salmon with up to 20% inclusion of seaweed yeast without exceeding the maximum limit for Cd of 0.05 mg kg−1 w.w. in fish meat. The level and retention (p < 0.05) of As were lower in the yeast compared to fishmeal. The high level of iodine in S. latissima (3900 mg kg−1) was partly transferred to the yeast, and salmon fed increasing levels of yeast displayed a linear increase in whole-body I content (p < 0.05). There is, however, a need for a growth experiment with larger fish to draw any firm conclusions regarding food safety. Overall, this study shows that yeast grown on hydrolyzed seaweed can be a suitable mineral source for Atlantic salmon, especially when diets are low in fishmeal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
Article
Response in Growth, Scute Development, and Whole-Body Ion Composition of Acipenser fulvescens Reared in Water of Differing Chemistries
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1419; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051419 - 15 May 2021
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Abstract
In fishes, environmental ion availability can have substantial effects on growth and development. This study examined the development of Lake Sturgeon in response to the varying environmental ion availability that they experience as part of a conservation stocking program. We reared sturgeon in [...] Read more.
In fishes, environmental ion availability can have substantial effects on growth and development. This study examined the development of Lake Sturgeon in response to the varying environmental ion availability that they experience as part of a conservation stocking program. We reared sturgeon in natural water from the Coosa River, which had higher concentrations of Mg2+, Na+, and Zn2+ than standard hatchery conditions, while [Ca2+] at the Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery was 2× higher than in the Coosa River. Eggs were hatched in each water type and the larvae were sampled at time points before and after yolk absorption during the first 8 weeks of development. Total length and weight in WSNFH larvae were significantly higher than larvae in Coosa River water starting at 8 dph, indicating that growth was dependent on the different environmental ion levels. Concentrations of the ions of interest were also determined for whole-body acid digests of the exposed Lake Sturgeon. We found that Lake Sturgeon reared in Coosa River water had significantly higher magnesium and zinc than Lake Sturgeon reared in WSNFH water (p < 0.05), while calcium was significantly higher in WSNFH than Coosa River water. This difference shows that different environmental ion concentrations also impact the overall development of larval Lake Sturgeon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
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Article
The Impact of Lake Ecosystems on Mineral Concentrations in Tissues of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041000 - 02 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
This study evaluates the differences in mineral and toxic trace element concentrations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tissues from three aquatic ecosystems in Ethiopia—Lake Ziway, Lake Langano, and Gilgel Gibe reservoir—with a focus on edible (fillet) and discarded (digestive tract, gills, [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the differences in mineral and toxic trace element concentrations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tissues from three aquatic ecosystems in Ethiopia—Lake Ziway, Lake Langano, and Gilgel Gibe reservoir—with a focus on edible (fillet) and discarded (digestive tract, gills, skin, and liver) parts. A total of sixty (n = 60) Nile tilapia samples were collected, comprising twenty (n = 20) fish from each lake, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All elements varied markedly among tissues and between the lakes. Some differences in element concentrations were attributed to differences in nutrient load in the ecosystems and the function of the tissues. For instance, the calcium concentrations in skin and gill were distinctly higher in fish from calcium-rich Lake Langano. The d iscarded parts were richer in essential trace elements, showing an opportunity to promote their use in human nutrition to increase the intake of important minerals. However, the accumulation of elements toxic to humans, such as aluminum, should be monitored and, in particular, controlled when rearing these fish in aquaculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
Article
Characterization and Localization of Calb2 in Both the Testis and Ovary of the Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091503 - 26 Aug 2020
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Abstract
Although its function in mammalian gonads has been gradually recognized, the expression and function of calretinin (CALB2)—a Ca2+-binding protein—in the testis and ovary of fish are still unclear. Here, we identified the cDNA sequences of calb2 in Paralichthys olivaceus ( [...] Read more.
Although its function in mammalian gonads has been gradually recognized, the expression and function of calretinin (CALB2)—a Ca2+-binding protein—in the testis and ovary of fish are still unclear. Here, we identified the cDNA sequences of calb2 in Paralichthys olivaceus (P. olivaceus); analyzed its gene structure and phylogenetic and syntenic relationship by bioinformatics; and investigated its tissue distribution and localization in the gonads by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The P. olivaceuscalb2 gene has 11 exons and 10 introns, and the full-length cDNA is 1457 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 816 bp encoding 271 amino acids. The CALB2 of P. olivaceus has a higher homology with Lates calcarifer (99%) compared with other species. The conserved synteny of calb2 neighboring gene loci was also detected in fish. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of calb2 mRNA is abundant not only in the brain, but also in the gonads, and exhibits a higher expression in the testis than in the ovary. Western blotting indicated that the CALB2 protein has a higher expression in the testis compared with the ovary. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the CALB2 protein appears in Leydig cells and the ovarian germ epithelium. These results reveal that calb2 plays an important role in the gonads of P. olivaceus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
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Review

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Review
Nutrition and Metabolism of Minerals in Fish
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092711 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1352 | Correction
Abstract
Aquatic animals have unique physiological mechanisms to absorb and retain minerals from their diets and water. Research and development in the area of mineral nutrition of farmed fish and crustaceans have been relatively slow and major gaps exist in the knowledge of trace [...] Read more.
Aquatic animals have unique physiological mechanisms to absorb and retain minerals from their diets and water. Research and development in the area of mineral nutrition of farmed fish and crustaceans have been relatively slow and major gaps exist in the knowledge of trace element requirements, physiological functions and bioavailability from feed ingredients. Quantitative dietary requirements have been reported for three macroelements (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and six trace minerals (zinc, iron, copper, manganese, iodine and selenium) for selected fish species. Mineral deficiency signs in fish include reduced bone mineralization, anorexia, lens cataracts (zinc), skeletal deformities (phosphorus, magnesium, zinc), fin erosion (copper, zinc), nephrocalcinosis (magnesium deficiency, selenium toxicity), thyroid hyperplasia (iodine), muscular dystrophy (selenium) and hypochromic microcytic anemia (iron). An excessive intake of minerals from either diet or gill uptake causes toxicity and therefore a fine balance between mineral deficiency and toxicity is vital for aquatic organisms to maintain their homeostasis, either through increased absorption or excretion. Release of minerals from uneaten or undigested feed and from urinary excretion can cause eutrophication of natural waters, which requires additional consideration in feed formulation. The current knowledge in mineral nutrition of fish is briefly reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)

Other

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Correction
Correction: Lall, S.P.; Kaushik, S.J. Nutrition and Metabolism of Minerals in Fish. Animals 2021, 11, 2711
Animals 2021, 11(12), 3510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11123510 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 342
Abstract
The authors found some omissions and errors in the original paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
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