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Article

Organic Selenium (OH-MetSe) Effect on Whole Body Fatty Acids and Mx Gene Expression against Viral Infection in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles

1
Aquaculture Research Group (GIA), Institute of Sustainable Aquaculture and Marine Ecosystems (ECOAQUA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Crta. Taliarte s/n, 35214 Telde, Spain
2
Adisseo France S.A.S., 10 Place du General de Gaulle, Antony, 92160 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antony Prabhu
Animals 2021, 11(10), 2877; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102877
Received: 13 August 2021 / Revised: 21 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 30 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
Dietary hydroxy-selenomethionine (OH-SeMet) reduces oxidative stress and modulates immune response against bacterial infection in fish. However, the effect of OH-SeMet on essential fatty acids with a high oxidation risk or on the response against viral infection has not been sufficiently studied. This study aimed to assess the impact of dietary OH-SeMet supplementation on whole-body fatty acid profiles and response against viral infection. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) juveniles were fed for 91 days with three experimental diets, a control diet without Se supplementation (0.29 mg Se kg diet−1) and two diets supplemented with OH-SeMet (0.52 and 0.79 mg Se kg diet−1). Afterwards, a crowding stress challenge and an anti-viral response challenge were conducted. Selenium (Se), proximate and fatty acid composition of diets and body tissues were analyzed, as well as plasma cortisol and the antiviral response protein Mx gene expression. Elevation in dietary Se (from 0.29 to 0.79 mg kg−1) proportionally raised Se contents in body tissues (from 0.79 to 1.35 mg kg−1), increased lipid contents in whole body (from 9.46 to 10.83%), and promoted the retention and synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (from 44.59 to 72.91%), reducing monounsaturated (from 44.07 to 42.00 %) and saturated fatty acids (29.77 to 26.92 %) contents in whole-body lipids. Additionally, it increased 2 h post-stress plasma cortisol levels and after poly I:C injection up-regulated Mx and other immune response related genes, showing, for the first time in gilthead seabream, the importance of dietary Se levels on antiviral defense.
The supplementation of fish diets with OH-SeMet reduces oxidative stress and modulates immune response against bacterial infection. However, despite the importance of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish nutrition and their high risk of oxidation, the potential protective effect of OH-SeMet on these essential fatty acids has not been studied in detail. Moreover, while viral infection is very relevant in seabream production, no studies have focused the Se effects against viral infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of dietary supplementation with OH-SeMet on gilthead seabream fatty acid profiles, growth performance and response against viral infection. Gilthead seabream juveniles (21.73 ± 0.27 g) were fed for 91 days with three experimental diets, a control diet without supplementation of Se (0.29 mg Se kg diet−1) and two diets supplemented with OH-SeMet (0.52 and 0.79 mg Se kg diet−1). A crowding stress test was performed at week 7 and an anti-viral response challenge were conducted at the end of the feeding trial. Selenium, proximate and fatty acid composition of diets and body tissues were analyzed. Although fish growth was not affected, elevation in dietary Se proportionally raised Se content in body tissues, increased lipid content in the whole body and promoted retention and synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Specifically, a net production of DHA was observed in those fish fed diets with a higher Se content. Additionally, both monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids were significantly reduced by the increase in dietary Se. Despite the elevation of dietary Se to 0.79 mg kg−1 not affecting basal cortisol levels, 2 h post-stress plasma cortisol levels were markedly increased. Finally, at 24 h post-stimulation, dietary OH-SeMet supplementation significantly increased the expression of the antiviral response myxovirus protein gene, showing, for the first time in gilthead seabream, the importance of dietary Se levels on antiviral defense. View Full-Text
Keywords: gilthead seabream; mineral nutrition; organic selenium; hydroxy-selenomethionine gilthead seabream; mineral nutrition; organic selenium; hydroxy-selenomethionine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tseng, Y.; Dominguez, D.; Bravo, J.; Acosta, F.; Robaina, L.; Geraert, P.-A.; Kaushik, S.; Izquierdo, M. Organic Selenium (OH-MetSe) Effect on Whole Body Fatty Acids and Mx Gene Expression against Viral Infection in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles. Animals 2021, 11, 2877. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102877

AMA Style

Tseng Y, Dominguez D, Bravo J, Acosta F, Robaina L, Geraert P-A, Kaushik S, Izquierdo M. Organic Selenium (OH-MetSe) Effect on Whole Body Fatty Acids and Mx Gene Expression against Viral Infection in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles. Animals. 2021; 11(10):2877. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102877

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tseng, Yiyen, David Dominguez, Jimena Bravo, Felix Acosta, Lidia Robaina, Pierre-André Geraert, Sadasivam Kaushik, and Marisol Izquierdo. 2021. "Organic Selenium (OH-MetSe) Effect on Whole Body Fatty Acids and Mx Gene Expression against Viral Infection in Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Juveniles" Animals 11, no. 10: 2877. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11102877

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