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Article

Addition of Bamboo Charcoal to Selenium (Se)-Rich Feed Improves Growth and Antioxidant Capacity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)

by 1,†, 1, 1,2,* and 2
1
Key Laboratory for Genetic Breeding of Aquatic Animals and Aquaculture Biology, Freshwater Fisheries Research Centre (FFRC), Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), Wuxi 214081, China
2
Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Shandong Wedo Agribusiness and Technology Co., Ltd., Weifang 261000, China.
Academic Editors: Antony Prabhu, Johan W. Schrama and Enric Gisbert
Animals 2021, 11(9), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092585
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 3 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Nutrition and Metabolism in Fish)
In our previous studies, we determined that juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) require a selenium (Se) dietary intake of 0.958–0.959 mg/kg based on the quadratic fitting method. Nevertheless, growth rates were significantly affected, and the expression of anti-inflammatory factors was inhibited when the feed contained excessively high Se concentrations. Given its activity as an insoluble carrier, bamboo charcoal can be used as a dietary supplement in fish feed to absorb and slowly release excess nutrients. However, these hypotheses have not been evaluated in diets containing excess Se. The present study determined that 2–3 g/kg bamboo charcoal inclusion in Se-rich feed could improve the growth performance of blunt snout bream. Dietary bamboo charcoal supplementation mobilized the antioxidant system and inhibited the inflammatory response by activating Nrf2-Keap1 signaling while suppressing NF-κB signaling.
The ability of bamboo charcoal to reduce the negative effects of high dietary selenium (Se) concentrations was assessed by feeding juvenile blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) one of five Se-rich diets (1.5 mg/kg Se; 36% protein, 8.7% lipid) containing graded levels (0–4 g/kg) of bamboo charcoal powder for eight weeks. There were four tanks (350 L) of fish (initial weight 16.0 ± 0.5 g) for each treatment, and the fish were fed to satiation four times each day. At the end of the feeding trial, all of the fish from each tank were weighed to calculate the growth performance. Blood samples were firstly obtained to collect plasma for the biochemical indexes determination. Liver tissues were then collected to determine the antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression. Dorsal muscles were also collected to determine the nutrient composition. The results show that when the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed ranged between 0 and 3 g/kg, the weight growth rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) values increased with the higher dietary bamboo charcoal content, and the maximum WGR and SGR values were achieved when the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed was 2–3 g/kg (p < 0.05). The Se content in muscle tissues decreased significantly with the increased bamboo charcoal content (p < 0.05) in the Se-rich feed, which ranged from 0 to 4 g/kg. When the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed was 2–3 g/kg, the levels of glucose (GLU) and albumin (ALB) in plasma reached a maximum (p < 0.05), whereas the level of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) reached a minimum (p < 0.05). Additionally, the activities of catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) when the bamboo charcoal content was 3 g/kg. In contrast, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level increased sharply when the bamboo charcoal content in the Se-rich feed was 1 g/kg, compared to the control group and the groups supplemented with 2–3 g/kg bamboo charcoal (p < 0.05). Regarding mRNA-level gene expression, the results show that dietary supplementation with 0 to 3 g/kg of bamboo charcoal increased the expression of keap1 and nrf2, whereas nfkb expression was inhibited (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of the antioxidant enzymes cat, gpx, and mn-sod was consistently enhanced in the group fed with the 3 g/kg bamboo charcoal diet (p < 0.05). The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tnfα and tgfβ was inhibited in the groups supplemented with 2–3 g/kg bamboo charcoal, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (il10) increased in the bamboo charcoal supplementation groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Generally, supplementation with 2–3 g/kg of bamboo charcoal in Se-rich feed improved the growth performance, physiological status, and antioxidant enzyme activities of blunt snout bream. Moreover, bamboo charcoal supplementation in Se-rich diets stimulated the antioxidant system and inhibited the inflammatory response by activating Nrf2-Keap1 and suppressing NF-κB. View Full-Text
Keywords: Megalobrama amblycephala; bamboo charcoal; selenium; growth performance; antioxidant ability; Nrf2/Keap1/NF-κB Megalobrama amblycephala; bamboo charcoal; selenium; growth performance; antioxidant ability; Nrf2/Keap1/NF-κB
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, F.; Lin, Y.; Miao, L.; Hao, J. Addition of Bamboo Charcoal to Selenium (Se)-Rich Feed Improves Growth and Antioxidant Capacity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Animals 2021, 11, 2585. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092585

AMA Style

Jiang F, Lin Y, Miao L, Hao J. Addition of Bamboo Charcoal to Selenium (Se)-Rich Feed Improves Growth and Antioxidant Capacity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala). Animals. 2021; 11(9):2585. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092585

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jiang, Fang, Yan Lin, Linghong Miao, and Jingyuan Hao. 2021. "Addition of Bamboo Charcoal to Selenium (Se)-Rich Feed Improves Growth and Antioxidant Capacity of Blunt Snout Bream (Megalobrama amblycephala)" Animals 11, no. 9: 2585. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11092585

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