Special Issue "Gut and Bone in Health and Disease"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Ewa Tomaszewska
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Interests: prenatal programming; postnatal development; physiology; nutrition; probiotics; glucocorticoids; heavy metals; toxicology; bone metabolism and development; bone and tendon mechanical properties; gut structure; gut-bone axis; skin in fur animals
Dr. Siemowit Muszyński
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biophysics, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
Interests: nutrition; muscoseletal system; bone metabolism and development; bone loss; bone and tendon mechanical properties

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bone and cartilage homeostasis fluctuates with age and health and depends on hormonal and nutritional modification in both humans and animals. Connective tissue homeostasis is regulated by many factors, which vary in prenatal and postnatal life and can be affected by several hormones, including glucocorticoids needed for normal physiological prenatal growth. Nutrition and toxicological factors also play a special role in development. The quality of food consumed during postnatal life plays an important role in subsequent development. Throughout history, nutrition has served a therapeutic role in the management of many diseases and a main role in the structural development of mammals. It has long-term effects that might be evident later in life.

This is consistent with the hypothesis of the existence of the gut–bone axis. The gastrointestinal tract is a place where basal mineral elements and nutritional ingredients are absorbed. They are needed for proper development of all systems, ensuring proper growth, including bone development, ensuring proper locomotor activity.

In particular, original manuscripts that address any aspects of gut and bone development are invited for this Special Issue. We also invite original research papers and reviews that address any aspect of the prenatal programming of different systems in laboratory and livestock animals as well as postnatal growth and development. Topics of special interest are the use of hormones, supplements, nutritional factors, as well as nutrition in general in relation to occurrence of antinutritional or toxic factors; animal health and disease; etc.

Prof. Ewa Tomaszewska
Dr. Siemowit Muszyński
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Prenatal programming
  • Hormonal factors
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Nutrition
  • Gut structure and function
  • Bone metabolism and development
  • Osteoporosis
  • Bone mechanical examination

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Multienzyme Super-Dosing in Broiler Chicken Diets: The Implications for Gut Morphology, Microbial Profile, Nutrient Digestibility, and Bone Mineralization
Animals 2021, 11(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11010001 - 22 Dec 2020
Abstract
Optimizing gut health has a large impact on nutrient digestibility and bioavailability, and super-dosing feed enzymes may be one solution to achieve this. A 42-day grow-out trial was conducted using 192 Ross 308 broilers to determine if super-dosing Natuzyme at 0 g/t, 350 [...] Read more.
Optimizing gut health has a large impact on nutrient digestibility and bioavailability, and super-dosing feed enzymes may be one solution to achieve this. A 42-day grow-out trial was conducted using 192 Ross 308 broilers to determine if super-dosing Natuzyme at 0 g/t, 350 g/t, 700 g/t, and 1000 g/t dose rates could improve the gut morphology, alter the cecal microbial profile, enhance bone mineralization, and improve nutrient digestibility of a wheat–corn–soybean diet (six replicates per treatment, eight birds per pen). One bird per pen was slaughtered at day 42 and gut morphology, cecal microbial profile, and nutrient digestibility were studied. The addition of enzymes tended to increase the villus height in the duodenum, villus height, width, and crypt depth in the jejunum, and villus width and the number of goblet cells in the ileum. Microbial profiling revealed diverse communities; however, they did not significantly differ between treatment groups. Yet, 700 g/t Natuzyme promoted microbes belonging to the genus Romboutsia and Ruminococcus gauvreauii, while 1000 g/t Natuzyme promoted Barnesiella species. The nutrient digestibility demonstrated a significant improvement in all enzyme doses compared to the control. In conclusion, based on the outcomes of this study, a dose rate of 700 g/t Natuzyme is recommended to improve gut morphology and nutrient digestibility, and promote unique microbes which aid in feed efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Bisphenol A (BPA) Affects the Enteric Nervous System in the Porcine Stomach
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2445; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122445 - 20 Dec 2020
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely utilized in plastic production process all over the world. Previous studies have shown that BPA, with its similarity to estrogen, may negatively affect living organisms. It is acknowledged that BPA distorts the activity of multiple internal systems, including [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely utilized in plastic production process all over the world. Previous studies have shown that BPA, with its similarity to estrogen, may negatively affect living organisms. It is acknowledged that BPA distorts the activity of multiple internal systems, including the nervous, reproductive, urinary, and endocrine systems. BPA also affects the gastrointestinal tract and enteric nervous system (ENS), which is placed throughout the wall from the esophagus to the rectum. Contrary to the intestine, the influence of BPA on the ENS in the stomach is still little known. This study, performed using the double immunofluorescence method, has revealed that BPA affects the number of nervous structures in the porcine gastric wall immunoreactive to vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, a marker of cholinergic neurons), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART). The character and severity of noted alterations depended on the part of the ENS, the BPA dose, and the type of neuronal substance. Administration of BPA resulted in an increase in the number of nervous structures containing SP, GAL, and/or CART, and a decrease in the number of cholinergic neurons in all parts of the gastric wall. The number of VIP-positive nervous structures increased in the enteric myenteric ganglia, along with the muscular and mucosal layers, whilst it decreased in the submucous ganglia. The exact mechanism of noted changes was not absolutely obvious, but they were probably related to the neuroprotective and adaptive processes constituting the response to the impact of BPA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Alpha-Ketoglutarate: An Effective Feed Supplement in Improving Bone Metabolism and Muscle Quality of Laying Hens: A Preliminary Study
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2420; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122420 - 17 Dec 2020
Abstract
The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) supplementation on performance, serum hormonal indices, duodenum and jejunum histomorphometry, meat quality characteristics, bone quality traits and cartilage degradation in laying hens with a mature skeletal system. Forty-eight 30 [...] Read more.
The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) supplementation on performance, serum hormonal indices, duodenum and jejunum histomorphometry, meat quality characteristics, bone quality traits and cartilage degradation in laying hens with a mature skeletal system. Forty-eight 30 week-old Bovans Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to a control group or the group fed the basal diet plus 1.0% AKG. The experimental trial lasted 30 weeks. The supplementation of AKG increases blood serum content of leptin, ghrelin, bone alkaline phosphatate and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand, while osteoprotegerin and osteocalcin decrease. While dietary AKG was given to laying hens negatively influenced villus length, crypt depth, villus/crypt ratio and absorptive surface area in duodenum and jejunum, these changes have no effect on feed intake, weight gain, nor laying performance. In breast muscles, no significant changes in skeletal muscle fatty acid composition were observed, however, a higher shear force and decreased cholesterol content following AKG supplementation were noted, showing the improvement of muscle quality. While dietary AKG supplementation did not affect the general geometric and mechanical properties of the tibia, it increased collagen synthesis and enhanced immature collagen content. In medullary bone, an increase of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, fractal dimension and decrease of trabecular space were observed in AKG supplemented group. The trabeculae in bone metaphysis were also significantly thicker after AKG supplementation. AKG promoted fibrillogenesis in articular cartilage, as indicated by increased cartilage oligomeric matrix protein immunoexpression. By improving the structure and maintaining the proper bone turnover rate of highly reactive and metabolically active medullar and trabecular bones AKG showed its anti-osteoporotic action in laying hens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Proteomic Analysis of Tear Film Obtained from Diabetic Dogs
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2416; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122416 - 17 Dec 2020
Abstract
Canine diabetes mellitus is a significant health burden, followed with numerous systemic complications, including diabetic cataracts and retinopathy, leading to blindness. Diabetes should be considered as a disease damaging all the body organs, including gastrointestinal tract, through a complex combination of vascular and [...] Read more.
Canine diabetes mellitus is a significant health burden, followed with numerous systemic complications, including diabetic cataracts and retinopathy, leading to blindness. Diabetes should be considered as a disease damaging all the body organs, including gastrointestinal tract, through a complex combination of vascular and metabolic pathologies, leading to impaired gut function. Tear film can be obtained in a non-invasive way, which makes it a feasible biomarker source. In this study we compared proteomic changes ongoing in tear film of diabetic dogs. The study group consisted of 15 diabetic dogs, and 13 dogs served as a control group. After obtaining tear film with Schirmer strips, we performed 2-dimensional electrophoresis, followed by Delta2D software analysis, which allowed to select statistically significant differentially expressed proteins. After their identification with MALDI-TOF (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionisation time of flight) spectrometry we found one up-regulated protein in tear film of diabetic dogs—SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1 (SRCIN1). Eight proteins were down-regulated: phosphatidylinositol-4 kinase type 2 alpha (PI4KIIα), Pro-melanin concentrating hormone (Pro-MCH), Flotillin-1, Protein mono-ADP ribosyltransferase, GRIP and coiled coil domain containing protein 2, tetratricopeptide repeat protein 36, serpin, and Prelamin A/C. Identified proteins were analyzed by Panther Gene Ontology software, and their possible connections with diabetic etiopathology were discussed. We believe that this is the first study to target tear film proteome in canine diabetes. We believe that combined with traditional examination, the tear film proteomic analysis can be a new source of biomarkers both for clinical practice, and experimental research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Concentrations of Circulating Irisin and Myostatin in Race and Endurace Purebred Arabian Horses—Preliminary Study
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122268 - 01 Dec 2020
Abstract
Skeletal muscle is considered to be the largest endocrine organ determining the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Adaptive changes in skeletal muscles in response to physical exercise influence the production as well as secretion of myokines, which are bioactive factors that play a crucial [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle is considered to be the largest endocrine organ determining the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Adaptive changes in skeletal muscles in response to physical exercise influence the production as well as secretion of myokines, which are bioactive factors that play a crucial role in energy expenditure processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of two different types of exercise on the circulating level of two of these, myostatin and irisin, in trained horses. Twenty purebred Arabian horses were involved in the study: 10 three-year-old horses trained on the racetrack and 10 endurance horses aged 7.4 ± 1.9 years. The horses from both groups were regularly trained throughout the entire season, during which they also participated in Polish National competitions. To assess the influence of the training sessions on plasma myostatin and irisin concentrations, blood samples taken at rest and 30 min after the end of exercise were analyzed. In the studied horses, the single bout of exercise did not influence plasma irisin but induced an increase in plasma myostatin concentration. In racehorses, plasma irisin concentration decreased with the length of the training season. Plasma myostatin was higher in endurance horses than in three-year-old racehorses. Lack of exercise-induced fluctuation in circulating irisin in studied horses suggests that myostatin released in response to exercise provides a negative feedback signal to irisin release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Dietary Rye Inclusion and Xylanase Supplementation on Structural Organization of Bone Constitutive Phases in Laying Hens Fed a Wheat-Corn Diet
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2010; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112010 - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary rye inclusion and xylanase supplementation on the bone quality of ISA Brown laying hens. Ninety-six laying hens were assigned to four groups: fed with wheat–corn diet or rye–wheat–corn diet (25% of hybrid rye [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary rye inclusion and xylanase supplementation on the bone quality of ISA Brown laying hens. Ninety-six laying hens were assigned to four groups: fed with wheat–corn diet or rye–wheat–corn diet (25% of hybrid rye inclusion) or nonsupplemented or supplemented with xylanase (200 mg/kg of feed) for a period of 25 weeks, from the 26th to the 50th week of age. X-ray absorptiometry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were used to provide comprehensive information about the structural organization of bone constitutive phases of the tibia mid-diaphysis in hens from all treatment groups. Bone hydroxyapatite size was not affected by diet. Xylanase supplementation influenced the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio and crystallinity index in hens fed with both diets. Xylanase had more pronounced effects on bone mineral density and collagen maturity in hens fed with the rye–wheat–corn diet versus those fed with the wheat–corn diet. The results of this study showed that modern rye varieties, when supplemented with exogenous xylanase, can be introduced to the diet of laying hens without any adverse effects on bone structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Fermented Soybean Meal on Salmonella typhimurium Infection in Neonatal Turkey Poults
Animals 2020, 10(10), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10101849 - 11 Oct 2020
Abstract
This study’s objective was to evaluate the effect of the fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on Salmonella typhimurium (ST) to turkey poults using two models of infection. In the prophylactic model, one-day-old turkeys were randomly allocated to one of four different groups (n [...] Read more.
This study’s objective was to evaluate the effect of the fermented soybean meal (FSBM) on Salmonella typhimurium (ST) to turkey poults using two models of infection. In the prophylactic model, one-day-old turkeys were randomly allocated to one of four different groups (n = 30 turkeys/group): (1) Control group, (2) FSBM group, (3) Control group challenged with ST (Control + ST), and (4) FSBM group challenged with ST (FSBM + ST). On day 9 of age, all poults were orally challenged with 106 colony forming units (CFU) ST and 24 h post-inoculation, intestinal samples were collected to determine ST recovery and morphometric analysis. Blood samples were collected to evaluate serum fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d). In the therapeutic model, a similar experimental design was used, but turkeys were orally gavaged 104 CFU ST on day 1, and samples were collected at day 7. FSBM improved performance and reduced leaky gut in both experimental infective models. In the prophylactic model, FSBB induced morphology changes in the mucosa. Although the strains (Lactobacillus salivarius and Bacillus licheniformis) used for the fermentation process showed in vitro activity against ST, no significant effect was observed in vivo. The fermentation with different beneficial bacteria and different inclusion rates of FSBM requires further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Bioavailability of Methionine-Coated Zinc Nanoparticles as a Dietary Supplement Leads to Improved Performance and Bone Strength in Broiler Chicken Production
Animals 2020, 10(9), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10091482 - 24 Aug 2020
Abstract
Recently, nanotechnology has been widely adopted in many fields. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential for amino acid coated nano minerals as a supplement in broiler feed. Zinc was selected as a model mineral for this test and supplementation [...] Read more.
Recently, nanotechnology has been widely adopted in many fields. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential for amino acid coated nano minerals as a supplement in broiler feed. Zinc was selected as a model mineral for this test and supplementation of nano zinc, both coated and uncoated was compared with organic and inorganic commercial forms of zinc. A total of 48 pens (8 birds each) were assigned to one of the following dietary treatments: Control, methionine-Zinc chelate (M-Zn), nano zinc oxide (Nano-ZnO), and methionine coated nano zinc oxide (M-Nano-ZnO). All experimental diets were formulated with the same total zinc, methionine, protein, and energy content with just the zinc source as a variable. Bird weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratios were recorded weekly, with three birds culled (sacrificed) at day 21 and day 35 for sampling measures. Ileal digestibility of zinc was determined at day 21 and day 35 using titanium dioxide as an inert marker. Blood serum, liver and spleen samples were collected at day 21 and day 35 and analysed for zinc content via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tibia strength and morphometrics were measured from both legs of three birds per pen at day 21 and day 35. The study was conducted at Nottingham Trent University Poultry Unit, UK. The novel method of producing nano minerals coated with amino acids was successfully tested with zinc and material produced to test in the feeding study. Methionine coated nano zinc oxide supplementation significantly improved bird weight gain and the increased feed intake of broilers compared to an inorganic zinc form. Ileal digestibility was also improved with this methionine-nano zinc. Moreover, this supplementation improved the tibia strength of broilers at the age of 21 days, though this was not observed at day 35. Therefore, M-Nano-ZnO could be used to supplement broilers to improve both performance and digestibility with a limited positive impact on bone strength. The results of the current study suggest that the amino acid coating of nano minerals can improve the digestibility of minerals which may have further implications for the field of mineral nutrition in animal feeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Enterococcus faecium Modulates the Gut Microbiota of Broilers and Enhances Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071232 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Modern broiler chickens have ongoing bone health problems. Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in bone development and increased understanding of P metabolism should improve the skeletal health of broilers. Enterococcus faecium has been widely used as a probiotic in broiler production and [...] Read more.
Modern broiler chickens have ongoing bone health problems. Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in bone development and increased understanding of P metabolism should improve the skeletal health of broilers. Enterococcus faecium has been widely used as a probiotic in broiler production and is shown to improve skeletal health of rats, but its effect on the bones of broilers remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of E. faecium on P absorption and utilization in broilers and the associated changes in the gut microbiota using 16S rDNA sequencing. Dietary supplementation with E. faecium improved P absorption through upregulation of the expression of intestinal NaP-IIb mRNA and increased the concentration of serum alkaline phosphatase. These actions increased P retention and bone mineralization in E. faecium-treated broilers. The positive effects of E. faecium on P metabolism were associated with changes in the populations of the intestinal microbiota. There was increased relative abundance of the following genera, Alistipes, Eubacterium, Rikenella and Ruminococcaceae and a decrease in the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Escherichia-Shigella. Dietary supplementation with E. faecium changed gut microbiota populations of broilers, increased the relative abundance of SCFA (short-chain fatty acid)-producing bacteria, improved intestinal P absorption and bone forming metabolic activities, and decreased P excretion. E. faecium facilitates increased utilisation of P in broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Phytase Supplementation at Increasing Doses from 0 to 1500 FTU/kg on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Bone Status in Grower–Finisher Pigs Fed Phosphorus-Deficient Diets
Animals 2020, 10(5), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050847 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
The objective of the current study is to assess the effects of the inclusion of 6-n phytase to a phosphorous-deficient diet on the growth performance (feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio), apparent digestibility of calcium and phosphorus, and bone characteristics [...] Read more.
The objective of the current study is to assess the effects of the inclusion of 6-n phytase to a phosphorous-deficient diet on the growth performance (feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio), apparent digestibility of calcium and phosphorus, and bone characteristics of grower–finisher pigs. The experimental diets included a phosphorus-deficient diet containing 0 (negative control), 250, 500, 1000, or 1500 FTU/kg of 6-phytase, and a diet formulated to meet the phosphorus nutrient requirements of pigs (positive control). Pigs were fed the experimental diets from the time they were ~35 kg body weight until they reached slaughter weight of ~110 kg. Bone status of the metacarpal (ash, mineral content) and femur (mineralization, geometry, and mechanical strength) bones were assessed. There was no effect of dietary treatment on feed intake. Feed conversion ratio was improved following inclusion of phytase at a dose of 500 FTU/kg or higher. Phytase inclusion at a dose of 1000 FTU/kg increased the average daily weight gain of grower–finisher pigs. Phytase inclusion at a dose of 500 FTU/kg was sufficient to increase metacarpal phosphorus content. Femur mid-diaphysis ash percentage was significantly increased even after the inclusion of the lowest dose of phytase. Analysis of structural parameters of femur mechanical strength (Young’s modulus, yield stress, yield strain, ultimate stress, ultimate strain) showed that the inclusion of a phytase dose of 500 FTU/kg in growing/finishing diets was sufficient to significantly improve bone status of grower–finisher pigs at slaughter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Maternal Diet and Medium Chain Fatty Acids Supplementation for Piglets on Their Digestive Tract Development, Structure, and Chyme Acidity as Well as Performance and Health Status
Animals 2020, 10(5), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050834 - 11 May 2020
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oils for sows during late pregnancy and lactation on offspring performance. In addition, the effect of caprylic acid (C8) or medium-chain triglyceride oil (MCT) in piglets’ feed on their gut development, [...] Read more.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oils for sows during late pregnancy and lactation on offspring performance. In addition, the effect of caprylic acid (C8) or medium-chain triglyceride oil (MCT) in piglets’ feed on their gut development, performance, and health status was determined. The experiment was conducted on 24 sows allocated to two treatments: diet with rapeseed oil or with coconut oil. Newborn piglets were randomly allocated to three treatments: feed with no supplement or supplemented with 0.3% MCT or with 0.3% C8. The results showed that both oils had no effect on sow reproductive rates; however, fatty acid patterns of milk differed significantly and the number of lost piglets was lower in sow fed with coconut oil. Both caprylic and MCT oil significantly improved piglet performance and villus height. These additives did not change triacylglycerol content in blood, but C8 lowered total cholesterol and MCT increased IgG content. It can be concluded that coconut oil fed to pregnant and lactating sows can markedly reduce the mortality of piglets and that caprylic acid and medium-chain fatty acid oil can be a good supplement in weaned piglet feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Is Dietary 2-Oxoglutaric Acid Effective in Accelerating Bone Growth and Development in Experimentally-Induced Intrauterine Growth Retarded Gilts?
Animals 2020, 10(4), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040728 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this study, the effect of long-term 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-Ox) supplementation to experimentally-induced intrauterine growth retarded gilts was examined. Sows were treated with synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) every second day, during the last 45 days of pregnancy, at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg b.w. [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of long-term 2-oxoglutaric acid (2-Ox) supplementation to experimentally-induced intrauterine growth retarded gilts was examined. Sows were treated with synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) every second day, during the last 45 days of pregnancy, at a dose of 0.03 mg/kg b.w. At birth, the gilts were randomly divided into two groups: unsupplemented and supplemented with 2-Ox for nine months (0.4 g/kg body weight/day). Oral supplementation of 2-Ox to experimentally-induced intrauterine growth retarded gilts increased body weight at weaning as well as final body weight at the age of nine months, and showed a regenerative effect on bone mineralization and morphology of trabeculae and articular cartilage. The positive effects on bone structure were attributed to the 2-Ox-induced alterations in bone metabolism, as evidenced by the changes in the expression of proteins involved in bone formation and remodeling: osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Quality Characteristics in Young Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica): The Role of Sex on the Action of the Gut-Bone Axis
Animals 2020, 10(3), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030440 - 05 Mar 2020
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in bone geometry, histological structure, and selected mechanical characteristics in young male and female Japanese quails supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Quails were fed a basal diet containing no yeast or a basal [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in bone geometry, histological structure, and selected mechanical characteristics in young male and female Japanese quails supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Quails were fed a basal diet containing no yeast or a basal diet supplemented with 1.5% (15 g per 1 kg of diet) of inactive S. cerevisiae, for a period of 42 days. S. cerevisiae inclusion had no effect on bone weight, length, and density, diaphysis geometry (cross-sectional area, wall thickness, moment of inertia) or on the mechanical strength (yield load, ultimate load, stiffness, Young’s modulus, yield stress, ultimate stress). Yeast supplementation improved the morphology of the articular cartilage both in male and female quails, as the total thickness of the articular cartilage was significantly increased. In trabecular bone, an increase in real bone volume and trabecular thickness was observed in females supplemented with S. cerevisiae, while in males the increase in trabecular number was accompanied by a reduction in trabecular thickness. The results of the present study demonstrate that S. cerevisiae, through a sex-dependent action on the gut-bone axis, improved the structure of articular cartilage and microarchitecture of trabecular bone. The positive effects of S. cerevisiae supplementation were more evident in female quails. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Selected Biological Medicinal Products and Their Veterinary Use
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122343 - 09 Dec 2020
Abstract
Definitions of biological medicinal products (BMPs) vary depending on the source. BMPs are manufactured using complex biological/biotechnological processes involving living cell lines, tissues and organisms such as microorganisms, plants, humans and even animals. Advances in modern biotechnological methods and genetic engineering have made [...] Read more.
Definitions of biological medicinal products (BMPs) vary depending on the source. BMPs are manufactured using complex biological/biotechnological processes involving living cell lines, tissues and organisms such as microorganisms, plants, humans and even animals. Advances in modern biotechnological methods and genetic engineering have made it possible to search for new drugs with a targeted effect and simultaneous reduction of adverse effects, which has resulted in BMPs dynamically increasing their share in the pharmaceutical market. Currently, these drugs are widely used in the treatment of many human diseases, but an increasing number of drugs of this group are also being used in the treatment of animals, mainly in dermatology, rheumatology and oncology. This article presents the current state of knowledge in the field of biological medicinal products used in animal therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)

Other

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Open AccessBrief Report
A Few TH-Immunoreactive Neurons Closely Appose DMX-Located Neuronal Somata Projecting to the Stomach Prepyloric Region in the Pig
Animals 2020, 10(11), 2008; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10112008 - 31 Oct 2020
Abstract
The vagus nerve is responsible for efferent innervation and functional control of stomach functions. The efferent fibers originate from neurons located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX) and undergo functional control of the local neuroregulatory terminals. The aim of the [...] Read more.
The vagus nerve is responsible for efferent innervation and functional control of stomach functions. The efferent fibers originate from neurons located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMX) and undergo functional control of the local neuroregulatory terminals. The aim of the present study was to examine the existence of morphological foundations for direct regulatory action of the local TH-immunoreactive neurons on parasympathetic efferent neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach. Combined injection of neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue into the stomach prepyloric region with TH immunostaining was used in order to visualize spatial relationship between DMX-located stomach prepyloric region supplying neuronal stomata and local TH-IR terminals. We confirmed existence of TH-immunoreactive neural terminals closely opposing the stomach prepyloric region innervating neurons at the porcine DMX area. The observed spatial relationship points out the possibility of indirect catecholaminergic control of the stomach function exerted through preganglionic parasympathetic efferent neurons in the pig. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
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