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Communication

Chemically-Induced Inflammation Changes the Number of Nitrergic Nervous Structures in the Muscular Layer of the Porcine Descending Colon

1
Department of Internal Disease with Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Street Oczapowskiego 14, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Students’ Scientific Club of Pathophysiologists, Department of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Interdisciplinary Center for Preclinical and Clinical Research, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Pigonia 1 str., 35-310 Rzeszow, Poland
4
Department of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steven Kopp
Animals 2021, 11(2), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020394
Received: 18 November 2020 / Revised: 30 January 2021 / Accepted: 1 February 2021 / Published: 4 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Gut and Bone in Health and Disease)
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the part of the nervous system that is located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and regulates the majority of the functions of the stomach and intestine. The ENS is characterized by a complex structure and a high degree of independence from the brain. It is known that the ENS changes under the impact of physiological and pathological stimuli. One of the active substances synthetized by enteric neurons is nitric oxide (NO), which is involved in the regulation of intestinal motility, blood flow, secretory activity, and immunological processes in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, the influence of chemically-induced inflammatory process on a number of nitrergic neuronal structures located in the muscular layer of the descending colon is investigated. An increase in the number of structures that nitric oxide takes part in is correlated with the inflammatory processes.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the part of the nervous system that is located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and regulates the majority of the functions of the stomach and intestine. Enteric neurons may contain various active substances that act as neuromediators and/or neuromodulators. One of them is a gaseous substance, namely nitric oxide (NO). It is known that NO in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract may possess inhibitory functions; however, many of the aspects connected with the roles of this substance, especially during pathological states, remain not fully understood. An experiment is performed here with 15 pigs divided into 3 groups: C group (without any treatment), C1 group (“sham” operated), and C2 group, in which experimental inflammation was induced. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of inflammation on nitrergic nervous structures in the muscular layer of the porcine descending colon using an immunofluorescence method. The obtained results show that inflammation causes an increase in the percentage of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive neurons in the myenteric plexus of the ENS, as well as the number of nitrergic nerve fibers in the muscular layer of the descending colon. The obtained results suggest that NO is involved in the pathological condition of the large bowel and probably takes part in neuroprotective and/or adaptive processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitric oxide; inflammation; enteric nervous system; descending colon nitric oxide; inflammation; enteric nervous system; descending colon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rytel, L.; Gonkowski, I.; Grzegorzewski, W.; Wojtkiewicz, J. Chemically-Induced Inflammation Changes the Number of Nitrergic Nervous Structures in the Muscular Layer of the Porcine Descending Colon. Animals 2021, 11, 394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020394

AMA Style

Rytel L, Gonkowski I, Grzegorzewski W, Wojtkiewicz J. Chemically-Induced Inflammation Changes the Number of Nitrergic Nervous Structures in the Muscular Layer of the Porcine Descending Colon. Animals. 2021; 11(2):394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020394

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rytel, Liliana, Ignacy Gonkowski, Waldemar Grzegorzewski, and Joanna Wojtkiewicz. 2021. "Chemically-Induced Inflammation Changes the Number of Nitrergic Nervous Structures in the Muscular Layer of the Porcine Descending Colon" Animals 11, no. 2: 394. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020394

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