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Special Issue "Coagulopathies in Dogs and Cats: Diagnosis, Pathomechanisms and Treatment"

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Physiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 3783

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Nadja E. Sigrist
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Vetsuisse Faculty of Zürich and VET ECC CE (Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Consulting & Education), University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Interests: Coagulopathies in Dogs and Cats

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Coagulation disorders in dogs and cats are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Identification of some coagulation abnormalities such as hyperfibrinolysis or thromboembolism is challenging despite the availability of viscoelastic coagulation testing, and the pathophysiology of many coagulopathies is still mainly unknown or extrapolated from studies in people.

Further research for straightforward diagnosis, identification of pathomechanisms, and appropriate treatment is needed for the successful management of coagulopathies in dogs and cats. Interaction with each other, sharing of experiences, and publication in a timely manner play a crucial role in achieving these goals. With the Special Issue “Coagulopathies in Dogs and Cats: Diagnosis, Pathomechanisms, and Treatment”, we invite you to submit studies prospectively or retrospectively investigating any objective regarding coagulopathies in dogs and cats. The aim of this Special Issue is to collate a body of work on the subject of coagulopathies in companion animals and to demonstrate and share current standards and new insights as well as future solutions of this important hemostatic abnormality.

I look forward to your submissions!

Thank you,

Dr. Nadja E. Sigrist
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • coagulation
  • coagulopathy
  • ROTEM
  • TEG
  • rotational thromboelastometry
  • thromboelastography
  • platelet
  • coagulation factor
  • coagulation time
  • fibrinogen
  • PT
  • aPTT
  • fibrinogen
  • CT
  • MCF
  • MA
  • hemophilia
  • DIC
  • hemostasis

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Biomarkers of Coagulation and Inflammation in Dogs after Randomized Administration of 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or Hartmann’s Solution
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192691 - 06 Oct 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Synthetic colloid fluids containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES) have been associated with impairment of coagulation in dogs. It is unknown if HES causes coagulation impairment in dogs with naturally occurring critical illness. This study used banked plasma samples from a blinded, randomized clinical trial [...] Read more.
Synthetic colloid fluids containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES) have been associated with impairment of coagulation in dogs. It is unknown if HES causes coagulation impairment in dogs with naturally occurring critical illness. This study used banked plasma samples from a blinded, randomized clinical trial comparing HES and balanced isotonic crystalloid for bolus fluid therapy in 39 critically ill dogs. Blood was collected prior to fluid administration and 6, 12, and 24 h thereafter. Coagulation biomarkers measured at each time point included prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen concentration, and the activities of coagulation factors V, VII, VIII, IX, and X, von Willebrand factor antigen, antithrombin, and protein C. Given the links between coagulation and inflammation, cytokine concentrations were also measured, including interleukins 6, 8, 10, and 18, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Data were analyzed with linear mixed effects models. No significant treatment-by-time interactions were found for any biomarker, indicating that the pattern of change over time was not modified by treatment. Examining the main effect of time showed significant changes in several coagulation biomarkers and keratinocyte-derived chemokines. This study could not detect evidence of coagulation impairment with HES. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Jugular vs. Saphenous Blood Samples, Intrarater and In-Between Device Reliability of Clinically Used ROTEM S Parameters in Dogs
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162101 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 445
Abstract
Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) allows for the global assessment of hemostasis in whole blood samples. Preanalytical and analytical factors may influence test results, and data about the reliability and reproducibility of lyophilized ROTEM tests are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) allows for the global assessment of hemostasis in whole blood samples. Preanalytical and analytical factors may influence test results, and data about the reliability and reproducibility of lyophilized ROTEM tests are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of blood collection site on ROTEM S parameters and to assess intrarater and in-between device variability. A total of thirty, healthy, staff-owned dogs were included. Blood collection and ROTEM analysis were performed by trained staff according to a standardized protocol. Extrinsically activated (tissue factor; Ex-TEM S), with the addition of cytochalasin for platelet inhibition (Fib-TEM S), and intrinsically activated (In-TEM) analyses were performed. Analysis of our data showed significant variability for various Ex-TEM S and Fib-TEM S parameters from different collection sites and intrarater and in-between device measurements. We conclude that serial monitoring with ROTEM should be performed on the same device, with blood always taken from the same collection site using a standardized blood sampling technique. While In-TEM S, apart from maximum lysis, showed very stable and reliable results, we suggest interpreting especially clotting and clot formation parameters from Ex-TEM S and Fib-TEM S tests with caution and using duplicate measurements to detect outliers and to prevent initiation of incorrect therapies. Full article
Article
Evaluation of the Effect of Storage Time on ROTEM S® Parameters in Healthy and Ill Dogs
Animals 2022, 12(15), 1996; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12151996 - 07 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
Viscoelastic testing as a bedside test to assess global haemostasis has gained popularity in the past decade, with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) being the two commonly used devices. TEG studies suggest analysis 30 min after blood sampling. However, the reproducibility of [...] Read more.
Viscoelastic testing as a bedside test to assess global haemostasis has gained popularity in the past decade, with rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and thromboelastography (TEG) being the two commonly used devices. TEG studies suggest analysis 30 min after blood sampling. However, the reproducibility of results over time for ROTEM analysis using lyophilized samples in dogs has not been established. In this study, we investigated the influence of time on viscoelastic testing, using 33 healthy staff-/client-owned dogs for blood sampling and repeated measurements of ROTEM tracings at three different time points after blood collection. Additionally, a group of 21 hospitalized patients with suspected coagulation disorders were included to investigate whether stability over time was comparable between healthy and ill dogs. We demonstrated a significant difference of ROTEM tracings over time, with a tendency towards hypocoagulability over time. These changes do have a clinical relevance as they exceed reference intervals and could therefore lead to erroneous conclusions about a patient’s coagulation status. Therefore, time-specific reference intervals are proposed and presented in this publication. Full article
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Article
Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Enoxaparin Administration in Feline Arterial Thromboembolism
Animals 2022, 12(15), 1977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12151977 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949
Abstract
Induction of a hypocoagulable state is imperative in the treatment of feline arterial thromboembolism. Publications in human medicine report the use of enoxaparin intravenously in selected cases. The aim of our retrospective study was to report the regain of perfusion, short-term outcome, and [...] Read more.
Induction of a hypocoagulable state is imperative in the treatment of feline arterial thromboembolism. Publications in human medicine report the use of enoxaparin intravenously in selected cases. The aim of our retrospective study was to report the regain of perfusion, short-term outcome, and complications of cats treated with a novel intravenous enoxaparin protocol (1 mg/kg bolus injection followed by 3 mg/kg/day continuous infusion) combined with oral clopidogrel administration. The secondary aim was to report the monitoring of enoxaparin with anti-Xa activity. There were 36 cats included. The probability of reaching limb reperfusion was significantly (p = 0.0148) higher with anti-Xa activity within or above the target range compared to results below the target range (19/21, 90% versus 11/20, 55%). The complications observed were acute kidney injury (15/36, 42%), hemorrhage (2/36, 6%), and neurological signs (6/36, 17%). The most common causes of death/euthanasia were cardiac instability, acute kidney injury, neurological abnormalities, and limb necrosis. The hospital discharge rate was 83% (10/12) for single limb and 29% (7/24) for dual limb thrombosis; the difference was significant (p = 0.0039). The median hospitalization time for the survivors was 119.5 (95–480) h. Our study supports the use of intravenous continuous rate infusion of enoxaparin in combination with oral clopidogrel for cats with aortic thromboembolism. We report similar discharge rates and lower hemorrhage rates than previously reported with thrombolytic treatment. Full article
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Review

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Review
Fibrinolysis in Dogs with Intracavitary Effusion: A Review
Animals 2022, 12(19), 2487; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12192487 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Physiologic fibrinolysis is a localized process in which stable fibrin strands are broken down by plasmin in response to thrombosis. Plasmin activation can also take place separately from the coagulation process, resulting in pathologic fibrinolysis. When plasmin activation exceeds the neutralizing capacity of [...] Read more.
Physiologic fibrinolysis is a localized process in which stable fibrin strands are broken down by plasmin in response to thrombosis. Plasmin activation can also take place separately from the coagulation process, resulting in pathologic fibrinolysis. When plasmin activation exceeds the neutralizing capacity of plasmin inhibitors, severe bleeding can potentially take place. Although the processes which regulate coagulation and fibrinolysis in the blood are well known, it is less clear as to what extent the same processes take place in the body cavities and whether they influence systemic hemostasis. The results of the studies herein cited demonstrate that coagulation followed by fibrinogenolytic/fibrinolytic activity takes place in all kinds of canine ascitic and pleural fluids. Moreover, systemic clotting abnormalities suggesting primary fibrinolysis/primary hyperfibrinolysis (i.e., elevated plasma fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products [FDPs] and normal D-dimer concentrations with fibrinogen concentrations ≤ 100 mg/dL or above this cut-off, respectively) occur in dogs with intracavitary effusion. Enhanced fibrinolytic activity in dogs with intracavitary effusion can also be detected using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), although the degree of agreement between ROTEM and FDPs, D-dimer and fibrinogen concentrations is poor. Finally, contrary to the thrombotic events commonly documented in some humans and cats with cardiac diseases, bleeding tendencies due to primary fibrinolysis/primary hyperfibrinolysis have been documented in dogs with cardiogenic ascites. Full article
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