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Anatomia, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 2 articles

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8 pages, 793 KiB  
Communication
Effects of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) and Biological Sex on Brain Size
by Eileen Luders, Christian Gaser, Debra Spencer, Ajay Thankamony, Ieuan Hughes, Umasuthan Srirangalingam, Helena Gleeson, Melissa Hines and Florian Kurth
Anatomia 2024, 3(3), 155-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3030012 - 18 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) has been reported to involve structural alterations in some brain regions. However, it remains to be established whether there is also an impact on the size of the brain as a whole. Here, we compiled the largest CAH sample [...] Read more.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) has been reported to involve structural alterations in some brain regions. However, it remains to be established whether there is also an impact on the size of the brain as a whole. Here, we compiled the largest CAH sample to date (n = 53), matched pair-wise to a control group (n = 53) on sex, age, and verbal intelligence. Using T1-weighted brain scans, we calculated intracranial volume (ICV) as well as total brain volume (TBV), which are both common estimates for brain size. The statistical analysis was performed using a general linear model assessing the effects of CAH (CAH vs. controls), sex (women vs. men), and any CAH-by-sex interaction. The outcomes were comparable for ICV and TBV, i.e., there was no significant main effect of CAH and no significant CAH-by-sex interaction. However, there was a significant main effect of sex, with larger ICVs and TBVs in men than in women. Our findings contribute to an understudied field of research exploring brain anatomy in CAH. In contrast to some existing studies suggesting a smaller brain size in CAH, we did not observe such an effect. In other words, ICV and TBV in women and men with CAH did not differ significantly from those in controls. Notwithstanding, we observed the well-known sex difference in brain size (12.69% for ICV and 12.50% for TBV), with larger volumes in men than in women, which is in agreement with the existing literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue From Anatomy to Clinical Neurosciences)
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19 pages, 6940 KiB  
Review
Clinical Anatomy of the Lower Extremity Veins—Topography, Embryology, Anatomical Variability, and Undergraduate Educational Challenges
by Marian Simka, Joanna Czaja and Agata Kawalec
Anatomia 2024, 3(3), 136-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3030011 - 5 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Veins of the lower extremity can be categorized into three hierarchically ordered groups: the epifascial, the interfascial, and the deep ones. In the past, the interfascial veins, e.g., the great saphenous vein, were categorized as superficial veins. But nowadays, experts recommend regarding these [...] Read more.
Veins of the lower extremity can be categorized into three hierarchically ordered groups: the epifascial, the interfascial, and the deep ones. In the past, the interfascial veins, e.g., the great saphenous vein, were categorized as superficial veins. But nowadays, experts recommend regarding these veins as a separate group because of their unique topography and clinical relevance. In order to better understand the venous anatomy of the lower limbs, which is highly variable, one should also comprehend their embryological development. Venous embryogenesis in the lower limb consists of three stages. During the first stage the primitive fibular vein is the main vein of the extremity. During the second stage it is replaced by the axial vein and finally by the femoral vein. In some adult individuals this embryonic or fetal venous anatomy is still present. Unfortunately, current anatomical textbooks and atlases, as well as traditional cadaver dissections, are not very useful regarding these issues. Therefore, undergraduate teaching of anatomy can be challenging. New educational tools, such as ultrasonography, seem indispensable to teach the anatomy of these veins properly. Full article
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