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Anatomia, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 5 articles

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12 pages, 770 KiB  
Review
The Complexity of the Pancreatic Lymphatic System and the Key Role of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Prognosis Prediction: A Comprehensive Review
by Fábio França Vieira e Silva, Andrea Ballini, Marina Di Domenico and María Elena Padín-Iruegas
Anatomia 2024, 3(2), 124-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3020010 - 3 Jun 2024
Viewed by 507
Abstract
The pancreas is a vital organ nestled deep within the abdomen, playing a crucial role in both endocrine and exocrine functions. It is elongated and tadpole-shaped, with a head, body, and tail. The intricate connections to adjacent structures through a network of blood [...] Read more.
The pancreas is a vital organ nestled deep within the abdomen, playing a crucial role in both endocrine and exocrine functions. It is elongated and tadpole-shaped, with a head, body, and tail. The intricate connections to adjacent structures through a network of blood vessels, ducts, and supportive tissue transform pancreatic cancer into one of the most fatal malignancies globally as a result of a typically late diagnosis and metastatic form of the disease. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is prevalent in the majority of individuals diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, signifying a critical factor influencing prognostic outcomes. The para-aortic lymph nodes (PALN) play an important role in the lymphatic drainage of various organs, including the kidneys, pancreas, and parts of the gastrointestinal tract. In pancreatic cancer, the risk of PALN metastasis holds considerable clinical significance, and diagnosing your involvement is primordial to therapeutic decisions and to increase the survival expectations of these patients. Full article
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14 pages, 5299 KiB  
Article
Vertebral Bone Density Variations in Scoliotic vs. Non-Scoliotic Juveniles, and Its Implications for Schmorl’s Node Development: A CT-Based Analysis Using the New Mexico Decedent Image Database
by Ellen Shakeshaft, Matteo Borrini and Constantine Eliopoulos
Anatomia 2024, 3(2), 110-123; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3020009 - 29 May 2024
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Abstract
Scoliosis, characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, is predominantly idiopathic, underscoring the need to delve into its underlying causes for effective treatment and preventive strategies. This study investigates a potential correlation between scoliosis and Schmorl’s nodes (intervertebral disc herniations) influenced [...] Read more.
Scoliosis, characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, is predominantly idiopathic, underscoring the need to delve into its underlying causes for effective treatment and preventive strategies. This study investigates a potential correlation between scoliosis and Schmorl’s nodes (intervertebral disc herniations) influenced by Wolff’s law, which posits that bones adapt to external pressures. We analyzed CT scans from 108 juvenile decedents, including 56 with scoliosis and 52 without. After running multiple statistical tests, there was no significance between the mean bone density when compared to having scoliosis. An independent t-test provided a t-value of 0.041, which, when compared to the original significance level of 0.05, is statistically significant, although weak. When compared to the Bonferroni correction level of 0.008, it throws out the significance to give a result of not being statistically significant. It was the same in the cases of L3 (t = 0.103), L2 (t = 0.084), and L1 (t = 0.053). If compared to the regular significance level of 0.05, T12 (t = 0.012) and T11 (t = 0.042) had weak significance, but that was then excluded when the Bonferroni correction was applied. When looking at any significance of densities in different vertebral regions, the results from a one-way ANOVA (p-value = 0.213) suggest that it is likely that the results are due to random variability or chance, and that there is no statistical significance. With a value of 0.273 from a Chi-squared (χ2)/Fisher’s exact test, it suggests that there is no statistically significant correlation or difference between the variables of scoliosis and Schmorl’s nodes. The general pattern seems to follow that as the spine ascends, the density increases, and this is true in both scoliotic and non-scoliotic individuals. As a whole, it is evident that those with scoliosis have a lower vertebral density than those without, in all of the vertebral regions. There is, however, a weak negative linear relationship between bone density and age in both scoliotic and non-scoliotic individuals. A p-value of −0.229 obtained from a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis in non-scoliotic individuals, as well as a p-value of −0.069 in scoliotic individuals, was obtained. Overall, the findings of this study are comparable to some existing studies on similar topics, but there are few results that hold statistical significance and so this would be interesting to research further, potentially using a different dataset or a larger sample size that is more representative. Full article
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17 pages, 4913 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Bone Structure and Cell–Cell Communication in a Rat Osteoporosis Model
by Kristina Glenske, Asmaa Eldaey, Stephanie Schaalo, Stefan Arnhold, Christian Heiss, Reiner Schnettler, Sabine Wenisch and Mohamed I. Elashry
Anatomia 2024, 3(2), 93-109; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3020008 - 10 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Bone remodeling is essential for maintaining bone health. The imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption leads to bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction molecule that plays an important role in bone homeostasis. The present study investigates the [...] Read more.
Bone remodeling is essential for maintaining bone health. The imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption leads to bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Connexin43 (Cx43) is a gap junction molecule that plays an important role in bone homeostasis. The present study investigates the morphological characteristics of bone trabeculae and the distribution of Cx43 in bone cells using osteoporotic rat models to explore the relationship between osteoporosis and bone remodeling. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham, ovarectomy with food deprivation (OVX+diet), and ovarectomy with steroid administration (OVX+steroid) for 3 and 12 months to induce osteoporosis. The lumbar vertebrae were processed for histomorphometric and immunohistochemical evaluation of the trabeculae and the distribution of Cx43 in bone cells. The data showed a significant reduction in trabecular bone in both osteoporotic groups. After 12 months, the OVX+diet treatment resulted in reduced mineralization and an increase in unmineralized bone. The percentage of alkaline phosphatase-positive areas in the OVX+diet vertebrae was lower at 12 months compared to the sham group. A significant increase in tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclasts was observed in the OVX+diet group. Both osteoporotic groups showed a decrease in Cx43-positive osteoblasts areas. An increase in the number of osteoclasts positive for Cx43 was detected in the OVX+diet group. The changes in Cx43 distribution in bone cells, together with trabecular mineralization, suggest that Cx43 may play a role in the progression of osteoporosis and could be a valuable target to improve bone remodeling. Full article
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25 pages, 11908 KiB  
Article
Cytoarchitectonic Analysis and 3D Maps of the Mesial Piriform Region in the Human Brain
by Olga Kedo, Sebastian Bludau, Christian Schiffer, Hartmut Mohlberg, Timo Dickscheid and Katrin Amunts
Anatomia 2024, 3(2), 68-92; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3020007 - 7 Apr 2024
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Abstract
The mesial piriform region plays a central role in olfaction. Its small size and complex geometry, however, make it a difficult target in functional neuroimaging studies, while histological maps often represent schematic drawings, which are not compatible with requirements for modern imaging. To [...] Read more.
The mesial piriform region plays a central role in olfaction. Its small size and complex geometry, however, make it a difficult target in functional neuroimaging studies, while histological maps often represent schematic drawings, which are not compatible with requirements for modern imaging. To bridge this gap, cytoarchitectonic analysis and mapping of the region was performed in serial histological sections over their full extent in 10 postmortem brains. The temporobasal areas PirTBd and PirTBv and temporal areas PirTu and PirTit were identified and analyzed. Probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps of the piriform areas in MNI reference space and high-resolution maps of the amygdala-piriform region on the BigBrain model were calculated as part of the Julich-Brain. Differences in the cytoarchitectonic “texture” of the region were quantified based on the Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix. Results showed that allocortical areas were not consistently associated with the rostral Limen insulae, although it was often suggested as a landmark in neuroimaging protocols. PirTu was associated with the uncal tip. PirTit was the largest area, reaching to the temporal pole, with a “temporal” (caudal) and a “temporopolar” (rostral) part having complex neighborhood relationships. The probabilistic maps reflect interindividual variability; they are openly available via the digital EBRAINS platform to serve as an anatomical reference for studies related to olfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Human Hippocampus Histological Studies)
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11 pages, 2903 KiB  
Case Report
Detection of the Lassa Virus in a Group of Odontogenic Bone Tumor Tissues
by Marco de Feo, Frédéric Dilu Tamba, Anguy Makaka Mutondo, Gracia Kashitu Mujinga, Opiyo Stephen Odong, Chiara Castellani, Luca Pavesi, Patrick I. Mpingabo, Steve Ahuka-Mundeke and Silvia Di Agostino
Anatomia 2024, 3(2), 57-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/anatomia3020006 - 26 Mar 2024
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Abstract
Odontogenic bone tumor (OT) is a rare pathology in the world, but it is very common in developing countries; its etiology is still unknown, and it causes serious deformities of the mandible and maxilla if it is not operated upon soon. Lassa virus [...] Read more.
Odontogenic bone tumor (OT) is a rare pathology in the world, but it is very common in developing countries; its etiology is still unknown, and it causes serious deformities of the mandible and maxilla if it is not operated upon soon. Lassa virus (LASV) belongs to the Arenaviridae family, and its reservoir is a rodent of the genus Mastomys. The transmission of the LASV to humans can occur through ingestion or inhalation by contact with dirty objects, the consumption of contaminated food, or exposure to wounds, as rodents shed the virus in their urine and excrement. In this observational study, we aim to evaluate the presence of LASV in OT patient tissues collected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. For this purpose, a group of nine patients affected by OT were enrolled, and the tissues derived from the surgery were collected. In total, 81.5% of the tissues were positive for LASV presence. Interestingly, we found that not only was the tumor LASV-positive, but in some cases, the bone was close to the tumor and the oral mucosa lining. These preliminary data could suggest the hypothesis that LASV may be involved with the onset of OT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Anatomy and Pathophysiology, 2nd Volume)
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