Next Issue
Volume 19, OneHealth 2022
Previous Issue
Volume 17, ICRN ESEP 2022
 
 
msf-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Med. Sci. Forum, 2023, NSNZ 2022

Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022

Wellington, New Zealand | 1–2 December 2022

Volume Editors:
Claire Smith, University of Otago, New Zealand
Sally Mackay, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Shabnam Jalili-Moghaddam, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand
Michelle Gibbs, Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand

Number of Papers: 32
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image): The annual scientific conference of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand took place virtually on 1–2 December 2022. The conference was a meeting that brought together nutrition and health [...] Read more.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

2 pages, 176 KiB  
Editorial
Peer Review Statement for Abstracts Submitted for the 2022 Annual Conference for the Nutrition Society of New Zealand
by Claire Smith, Sally Mackay, Shabnam Jalili-Moghaddam and Michelle Gibbs
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018032 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 623
Abstract
The 2022 Annual Conference for the Nutrition Society of New Zealand took place in Wellington, New Zealand, at Massey University [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

2 pages, 180 KiB  
Abstract
Antibacterial Properties of Hass Avocado By-Products (Peel and Seed)
by Danxia Shi, Marie Wong and David Popovich
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018001 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill) by-products (peel, and seed) are rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. The current study used thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) as a colour indicator to evaluate the antibacterial capacities of ‘Hass’ avocado by-product extracts from China, Chile, [...] Read more.
‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill) by-products (peel, and seed) are rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. The current study used thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) as a colour indicator to evaluate the antibacterial capacities of ‘Hass’ avocado by-product extracts from China, Chile, and New Zealand. MTT reagent can react with mitochondrial dehydrogenases in living bacterial cells to produce formazan. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus were linearly correlated with formazan content. The current study used a formazan–CFU standard curve to evaluate the antibacterial properties of ‘Hass’ avocado by-product extracts by monitoring the CFU of S. aureus after 12 h treatment with the by-product extracts. The results showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in S. aureus survival if the ‘Hass’ avocado by-product extracts were recovered from mature unripe fruit or mature ripe fruit derived from the three countries. Chilean ripe seed extracts resulted in the lowest bacterial survival percentage (2% ± 0.98) after 12 h of treatment. Chilean ripe seed extracts had the highest S. aureus inhibition activity among all the extracts. In addition, there was a linear correlation between the total polyphenol content (TPC) and S. aureus (r = 0.546, p < 0.0010) bacterial survival percentage. Therefore, the current results lead us to consider that the main antioxidant polyphenol compounds of avocado by-product extracts are also the main compounds required to provide antibacterial activity inhibiting bacteria growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 174 KiB  
Abstract
Yacon Prebiotic Functional Drinks, the Sensory and Antioxidant Profiles: Dietotherapy Applications of Yacon Concentrate
by Mary Yan, Keegan Chessum, Saleshni Nand, Ben Terzaghi and Rothman Kam
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018002 - 7 Mar 2023
Viewed by 620
Abstract
The increasing awareness of the overall health consumers, in particular young people, has driven a shift from fruit juices and carbonated drinks to functional beverages. Functional drinks utilising new ingredients (e.g., prebiotics and probiotics) have now created a niche in the food industry. [...] Read more.
The increasing awareness of the overall health consumers, in particular young people, has driven a shift from fruit juices and carbonated drinks to functional beverages. Functional drinks utilising new ingredients (e.g., prebiotics and probiotics) have now created a niche in the food industry. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a perennial plant of the family Asteraceae native to the Andean regions in South America, is an abundant source of prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Yacon was introduced into New Zealand in the 1980s. Yacon fruits are harvested and made into juice concentrate with high-pressure low-temperature processes to reserve the bioactive components. Recently, yacon concentrate (NZFOS+) was awarded Nutra Ingredients Asia Awards. This research aimed to incorporate yacon concentrate to the formulation of functional drinks to improve the health-related properties. By using yacon concentrate as the main ingredients, three prototypes of functional drinks have been developed: yacon with collagen, yacon with blackcurrant, and yacon with vitamin(c). Sensory evaluation for yacon collagen and yacon blackcurrant drinks was conducted by a nine-point hedonic scale from one (very slight perception) to nine (very intense perception). The antioxidant activities of three yacon drinks were evaluated using the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Yacon collagen and yacon blackcurrant drinks were sensorily acceptable, with ratings above the middle point of the scores (all ratings > 5, n = 50) for four sensory attributes (appearance, sweetness, flavour, and overall liking). The antioxidant capacity of yacon collagen, yacon blackcurrant, and yacon vitamin(c) drinks were 317 mg/368 mg/482 mg TE/100 g (CUPRAC assay) and 163 mg/258 mg/427 mg TE/100 g (FRAP assay), respectively. The antioxidant capacities of yacon blackcurrant and yacon vitamin(c) were much higher than that of yacon-collagen because of the blackcurrant and vitamin c additions that enhanced the antioxidant capacity. The development of yacon functional drinks, as new dietotherapy applications of yacon concentrate (NZFOS+), could provide healthier food products for our consumers to exercise healthier food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 182 KiB  
Abstract
Supplement Use during Pregnancy in Aotearoa, New Zealand
by Ciara Funnell, Jane Coad and Louise Brough
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018003 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for thyroid function, and is essential during pregnancy for growth and development. Manatū Hauora (MoH) recommends an iodine supplement of 150 µg/day during pregnancy and breastfeeding. To reduce the risk of brain and spinal cord birth defects, [...] Read more.
Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for thyroid function, and is essential during pregnancy for growth and development. Manatū Hauora (MoH) recommends an iodine supplement of 150 µg/day during pregnancy and breastfeeding. To reduce the risk of brain and spinal cord birth defects, the MoH also recommends a folic acid (FA) supplement of 800 µg/day preconception (four weeks) and during the first trimester of pregnancy. A self-administered Qualtrics XM survey was designed for pregnant women between 20–23 weeks of gestation and advertised on Facebook between March 2021–June 2021 throughout Aotearoa. The aim of the survey was to ascertain supplement usage during pregnancy, with a particular focus on iodine and FA. In total, one hundred and sixty pregnant women completed the online survey. A total of 50% were of New Zealand/European ethnicity, 11% were Māori, and 3.2% of a Pacific Island ethnicity. Furthermore, 43% were educated to university level, and 80% were in either voluntary and/or paid employment. In addition, 66% consumed iodine-only supplements (Neurotab; 150 µg/day), 44% consumed FA-only supplements (800 µg/day), and 34% consumed multiple-micronutrient (MN) supplements containing iodine and FA, predominately Elevit or Blackmore pregnancy supplements. Concerningly, 11% of participants took no supplements, and only 45% of the FA supplement users reported taking the FA prior to conception. Furthermore, 13% took both folic and an MN supplement, putting them at risk of an intake over the upper level of intake (1000 mg/day). Additionally, 18% of the participants consumed both an iodine-only and an MN supplement. Only 37% of those using an iodine supplement planned to stop taking it when breastfeeding ceased, suggesting that many were not aware of the recommendation for continuation of use. Despite the high educational status, many did not adhere to the supplement use recommendations. Public health strategies are required to ensure that women of childbearing age are aware of these recommendations for supplement use pre-, during, and post-pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 178 KiB  
Abstract
Reaching for Sustainable Development Goal 12.3 in Aotearoa’s Tertiary Institutes
by Briar Mills, Miranda Mirosa, Ray O’Brien and Sheila Skeaff
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018004 - 6 Mar 2023
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Food waste is a growing issue globally, with estimates that 40% of all food is being wasted. Despite a growing body of research on food waste, information regarding the tertiary education sector is lacking. The variety and size of food service operations at [...] Read more.
Food waste is a growing issue globally, with estimates that 40% of all food is being wasted. Despite a growing body of research on food waste, information regarding the tertiary education sector is lacking. The variety and size of food service operations at tertiary institutes provide an opportunity to address food waste and work towards the Sustainable Development Goal Target 12.3, which aims for a halving of food waste by 2030. We investigated the food waste initiatives at thirteen tertiary institutes (eight universities, four polytechnics, and one wānanga) in Aotearoa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in March, April, and May 2022, with staff working in sustainability at each institute. Initiatives were summarised using the “Target, Measure, Act” approach. Only 38% had formal targets for food waste reduction, while just over half (54%) of the institutes consistently measured food waste. All institutes had at least two initiatives in place that aimed at reducing food waste; the most common being worm farms (n = 11), solutions for leftover foods (n = 11), and composting (n = 9). Several challenges to the initiatives were identified from the interviews. These included the COVID-19 pandemic; contamination of organic food waste destined for composting; attitudes of individuals and institutes; and funding and resources. Although a range of initiatives were found to be in place, these approaches, such as worm farms and composting, are near the bottom of the waste hierarchy. New initiatives should be developed to reduce the volume of excess food, focusing on prevention and avoidance rather than recycling and recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 174 KiB  
Abstract
Three-Dimensional Printing—Spicing Up Gluten-Free Diets!
by Alison Wallace, Deepa Agarwal, Esther Kim, Yukiko Wadamori, Limei Feng, Duncan Hedderley and Marco P. Morgenstern
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018005 - 7 Mar 2023
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Coeliac disease, presenting in about 1.4% of the world’s population, is an auto-immune disorder triggered by the gluten protein found in wheat, barley, rye and other grains, which can result in damage to the gastro-intestinal tract villi, leading to malnourishment, loss of bone [...] Read more.
Coeliac disease, presenting in about 1.4% of the world’s population, is an auto-immune disorder triggered by the gluten protein found in wheat, barley, rye and other grains, which can result in damage to the gastro-intestinal tract villi, leading to malnourishment, loss of bone density, and more serious consequences. A common complaint of people with coeliac disease is the lack of gluten-free products with high nutritional value and unique sensory qualities, especially regarding the textural aspects. The aim of this work was to use 3D printing to create nutritious, tasty gluten-free foods. Our hypothesis was that the layer-by-layer alignment of protein filaments and air gaps in a 3D-printed object would result in a modified protein network and that the effects on aspects of sensory perception, such as texture and taste, would ultimately be due to this. The products were created with chickpea flour and lupin flour in combination with pea protein isolates. These ingredients were used because they are gluten-free and readily available and provide a good taste and texture. There were significant differences between the 3D-printed and non-3D-printed objects. The longer the bars were cooked for, the lower the moisture content was, and there was greater moisture loss in the 3D-printed objects. In the sensory analysis, the traditionally cooked bars were perceived as softer and more beany than the 3D-printed bars with a similar moisture content. The 3D-printed objects were perceived as more crumbly than the traditionally cooked bars. More work is needed to improve the sensory attributes of the 3D-printed bars. Additionally, we will need to determine whether we can apply 3D-printing-based knowledge to the current commercial processing methods, such as extrusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 181 KiB  
Abstract
A Comprehensive Chemical Analysis of New Zealand Yacon Concentrate
by Keegan Chessum, Rothman Kam, Tony Chen and Mary Yan
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018006 - 7 Mar 2023
Viewed by 825
Abstract
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an ancient Andean crop, traditionally used for both food and medicinal purposes, which was first introduced to New Zealand in the 1980s. In recent years, there has been growing global interest in yacon due to its potential [...] Read more.
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is an ancient Andean crop, traditionally used for both food and medicinal purposes, which was first introduced to New Zealand in the 1980s. In recent years, there has been growing global interest in yacon due to its potential as a functional food, which could be related to its unique profile of bioactive compounds, including prebiotic compounds, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and phenolic compounds, which may have a range of activities, including antioxidant ones. FOS are non-digestible prebiotic carbohydrates, providing low calorific value and a positive impact on gut microflora. Our objective was to conduct a comprehensive chemical analysis of New Zealand yacon concentrate (NZYC, a sweet syrup produced from juice extracted from New Zealand grown yacon roots). Analysis included proximate composition, mineral, sugar, phenolic, amino acid, and organic acid profiles as well as antioxidant activity. The major mineral identified in NZYC was potassium (658 ± 6 mg/100 g), with significant concentrations of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and iron also determined by microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The FOS content of NZYC ranged from 17.6 ± 0.3 to 52.7 ± 0.8 g/100 g as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled with an evaporating light scattering detector (ELSD). The total phenolic content of NZYC ranged from 565 ± 9 to 785 ± 43 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid were quantified as the major phenolic compounds. The major amino acids quantified were L-arginine, L-glutamic acid, L-proline, L-aspartic acid, and asparagine. The major organic acids quantified were citric, malic, quinic, and fumaric acids. The antioxidant activity of NZYC was determined by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and it was several times higher than both Manuka honey and goji berries by the basis of weight. These results support the classification of New Zealand yacon concentrate as a nutraceutical food product and its use in further development of novel food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 186 KiB  
Abstract
Associations of Inflammatory Markers with Subjective Measures of Knee Osteoarthritis and Dietary Inflammatory Index Score
by Cassandra Slade, Marlena Kruger, Matt Miller, Hajar Mazahery, Kathryn L. Beck, Cathryn A. Conlon and Pamela R. von Hurst
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018007 - 7 Mar 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability in older adults worldwide. This study aimed to determine the associations between inflammatory markers, dietary intake and OA symptoms and pain. Understanding these associations has the potential to improve OA diagnostic and monitoring outcomes. Data [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability in older adults worldwide. This study aimed to determine the associations between inflammatory markers, dietary intake and OA symptoms and pain. Understanding these associations has the potential to improve OA diagnostic and monitoring outcomes. Data from the ROAM (Researching Osteoarthritis and GreenShell Mussels) study collected from adults 55–80 years screened for OA signs and symptoms (n = 107, 65.7 years ± 6.34, 69% female) were assessed for associations between serum inflammatory markers (pg/mL), dietary inflammatory index (DII) scores and participants’ subjective measures of OA pain and symptoms. These included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire (KOOS) subscales: pain (P), symptoms other than pain (S), function in activities of daily living (ADL), function in sports/recreation (SP) and quality of life (QoL); Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP); Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) of pain (VAS1) and symptoms (VAS2). The DII score was determined from a food frequency questionnaire and based on 34 components. The inflammatory marker IL-23 was negatively associated with all the KOOS subscales P: β coefficient −0.18, (95%CI −0.31, −0.04), S: −0.31 (−0.48, −0.14), ADL: −0.20 (−0.34, −0.05), SP: −0.43 (−0.72, −0.15) and QoL: −0.28 (−0.48, −0.08) and was positively associated with VAS measures, VAS1: 0.36 (0.17, 0.55) and VAS2: 0.25 (0.002, 0.50). MCP-1 was negatively associated and IL-12 was positively associated with KOOS P: −0.14, (−0.28, −0.01) and 0.23 (0.07, 0.40), respectively. IL-17 was positively associated with KOOS SP: 0.45, (0.14, 0.77), and IFN-α2 was positively associated with VAS1: 0.24 (0.003, 0.48). ICOAP was not associated with inflammatory markers. Inflammatory markers and subjective measures were not associated with DII. The levels of IL-23, MCP-1 and IFN-α2 increase as the symptoms worsen, while the levels of IL-12 and IL-17 increase as the symptoms improve. These markers may be useful as diagnostic and assessment tools, however, further research is needed to confirm their exact roles in OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 190 KiB  
Abstract
Heat Treatment of Bovine Milk Impacts Gastric Emptying and Nutrient Appearance
by Amber M. Milan, Matthew P. G. Barnett, Warren C. McNabb, Nicole C. Roy, Schynell Coutinho, Caroline L. Hoad, Luca Marciani, Samson Nivins, Hayfa Sharif, Timothy R. Angeli-Gordon, Peng Du, Armen A. Gharibans, Greg O’Grady, Pankaja Sharma, Aahana Shrestha and Richard F. Mithen
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018008 - 8 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 863
Abstract
Milk structural assemblies (e.g., casein micelles) occur naturally and can be altered during processing, and this may influence the milk’s nutritional properties. Heat treatment of dairy ensures microbiological safety and extends shelf-life. Both pasteurisation and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing are known to alter [...] Read more.
Milk structural assemblies (e.g., casein micelles) occur naturally and can be altered during processing, and this may influence the milk’s nutritional properties. Heat treatment of dairy ensures microbiological safety and extends shelf-life. Both pasteurisation and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing are known to alter natural structural assemblies, but despite widespread use, only four human studies have addressed how heat treatment affects nutrient delivery. In vitro, animal, and human models have all shown more rapid nutrient release or appearance from UHT vs. pasteurised milk, with altered gastric emptying rate proposed as a mechanism. We hypothesised that differences in bovine milk structural assemblies arising from different processing methods would speed up gastric emptying and nutrient delivery following consumption of UHT relative to pasteurised milk. A randomised double-blind crossover trial assessed gastric emptying rate (using magnetic resonance imaging measuring gastric content volume) over 3 h and plasma amino acid appearance (using ultra-performance liquid chromatography) over 5 h following 500 mL of each milk in healthy women (n = 20). Gastric electrical activity was measured using body surface gastric mapping, and abdominal distension using stretch sensors. The time to empty 25% of the stomach contents was greater following UHT vs. pasteurised milk (45 ± 4 vs. 33 ± 4 min p < 0.05). While gastric content remained greater for longer following UHT milk, the incremental area under the curve of plasma essential amino acids was greater than pasteurised milk (55324 ± 3809 vs. 36598 ± 5673 μmol·min·L−1 p < 0.05). The greater amino acid appearance following UHT milk aligns with more rapid release of proteins from the gastric curd observed in vitro, yet the greater gastric content volume implies gastric content composition (e.g., solid vs. liquid) is an important determinant of nutrient release. Dairy processing using different heat treatments, which induced structural modifications, impacted gastric emptying and plasma amino acid appearance, with implications for appetite regulation and nutrient utilisation for metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 178 KiB  
Abstract
Nutrient Intakes and Associations with Socioeconomic Deprivation in Young Children Living in New Zealand
by Rosario Jupiterwala, Cathryn Conlon, Kathryn Beck, Rachael Taylor, Anne-Louise Heath, Jillian Haszard, Lisa Te Morenga, Ridvan Firestone, Elizabeth Fleming, Ioanna Katiforis, Jenny McArthur, Rebecca Paul, Kimberley Brown, Maria Casale, Emily Jones, Andrea Wei, Louise Fangupo, Bailey Bruckner, Veisinia Pulu, Megan Healy and Pamela Von Hurstadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018009 - 8 Mar 2023
Viewed by 872
Abstract
Optimal nutrition during early childhood is essential to support physiological and cognitive development. However, data on nutrient intakes and associations with socioeconomic deprivation are lacking in young children living in New Zealand (NZ). As a component of Young Foods NZ, a multi-centre cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Optimal nutrition during early childhood is essential to support physiological and cognitive development. However, data on nutrient intakes and associations with socioeconomic deprivation are lacking in young children living in New Zealand (NZ). As a component of Young Foods NZ, a multi-centre cross-sectional study, this research aims to determine nutrient intakes and their associations with socioeconomic deprivation in young NZ children aged 1–3.9 years. Dietary intake data (two 24 h diet recalls) and socioeconomic deprivation (NZDep2018) were collected from 289 children living in Auckland, Wellington, and Dunedin. The multiple source method was utilised to determine the usual dietary intake. All participants exceeded the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein (12 g/day), with a mean (SD) intake of 45.5 (10.4) g/day. Using the full probability approach, the prevalence of inadequate intake for iron was 38.2%, with an overall mean (SD) intake of 6.6 (2.2) mg/day. The prevalence of inadequate intake for fibre (<14 g/day) was 54.3%, with a mean (SD) intake of 14.0 (4.4) g/day. Saturated fat contributed 14%, and total sugars contributed 23% of the total energy intake. Living in a neighbourhood of low deprivation (NZDep1–3) is a significant predictor of higher dietary fibre and iron intakes and lower fat intake for young children compared with those living in deprivation (NZDep4–10). In this cohort, a high proportion of children do not have the best start in life due to the suboptimal intake of iron and dietary-fibre-containing foods, and the disproportionate consumption of saturated fat and sugar-rich foods. Children living in areas of deprivation are particularly at risk. Effective policies are needed to reduce these disparities and ensure that all children have equitable access to healthy and nutritious foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 182 KiB  
Abstract
What Is the Efficacy of the Autoimmune Protocol (AIP) Diet in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis? A Mixed-Methods Pilot Intervention Study
by Julianne McNeill, Caryn Zinn, Gael Mearns and Rebecca Grainger
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018010 - 9 Mar 2023
Viewed by 4567
Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by inflammation of the synovial lining of joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness with potential for joint deformity. RA affects about 2.3% of New Zealanders and 2.8% of Māori. Despite pharmacological treatment, people with [...] Read more.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by inflammation of the synovial lining of joints, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness with potential for joint deformity. RA affects about 2.3% of New Zealanders and 2.8% of Māori. Despite pharmacological treatment, people with RA report unmet needs, experiencing unacceptable levels of pain, physical disability, fatigue, and suboptimal mental health. The autoimmune protocol or paleo diet (AIP), popularised in social media, is reportedly used by many with autoimmune disease to manage their symptoms. No clinical trials have tested its efficacy in RA. We report a two-phase design, 12 week intervention; a 4-week control, where participants with RA consumed their usual diet, followed by 8-weeks AIP diet. Participants needed to be on stable medication and supplements for >8 weeks, and an unrestricted diet for inclusion. Participants completed weekly validated questionnaires; RAID (RA Impact of Disease), and RAPID3 (Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3). Biometric measures and 3-day diet dairies were taken at baseline and weeks 4, 8 and 12. Post study, a 1-hour interview was conducted with each participant to explore their experience of using the AIP diet. Nine people (7 female, 2 male) completed the study. The mean RAPID3 showed a reduction from baseline to the end of week 12 from 2.53 (Range 0.67–5.33) to 0.99 (Range 0–2.5). Four participants reached a clinically meaningful reduction in RAPID3 of >1.2 and endpoint <2, while on AIP. Three domains that are meaningful for RA patients also improved: Fatigue, (mean baseline: 4.44 (0–10) to Week 12: 1.11 (0–4)); Sleep (mean baseline: 3.77 (0–10) to Week 12: 1.22 (0–2)). Pain: (mean baseline: 3.27 (0–4.5) to Week 12: 1.38 (0–3.5)). These results show that the AIP diet has potential as an adjunct therapy in RA, and further investigations are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 183 KiB  
Abstract
The Prevalence of Vegetarians, Vegans and Other Dietary Patterns That Exclude Some Animal-Sourced Foods in a Representative Sample of New Zealand Adults
by James Greenwell, Megan Grant, Leanne Young, Sally Mackay and Kathryn E. Bradbury
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018011 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Previous estimates of the prevalence of vegetarians in New Zealand are unreliable. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of vegetarians, vegans and other dietary patterns that exclude some animal-sourced foods in a large representative sample of New Zealand adults. We also examined [...] Read more.
Previous estimates of the prevalence of vegetarians in New Zealand are unreliable. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of vegetarians, vegans and other dietary patterns that exclude some animal-sourced foods in a large representative sample of New Zealand adults. We also examined sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of these dietary patterns. The New Zealand Health Survey is a rolling representative survey of New Zealanders aged 15 years and older. Data from the 2018/19 and 2019/20 waves (in total, n = 23,292) were used for this analysis. Participants were asked if they completely excluded red meat, poultry, fish/shellfish, eggs or dairy from their diets. The rates of prevalence of red meat excluders (2.89%, 95% CI: 2.56–3.22), pescatarians (1.40%, 95% CI: 1.16–1.64), vegetarians (2.04%, 95% CI: 1.77–2.32) and vegans (0.74%, 95% CI: 0.57–0.91) were low. After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, women (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.22–1.95), Asian people (OR = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.96–4.45), people with tertiary education (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.18–2.48) and physically active people (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04–1.76) were found to be more likely to be vegetarian/vegan. Those aged ≥ 75 years (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.14–0.53), those with a higher BMI (OR for every 1 unit increase in BMI = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94–0.98) and current smokers (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.23–0.76) were less likely to be vegetarian/vegan. Similar associations were observed between sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and the odds of being a red meat excluder/pescatarian. Approximately 93% of New Zealand adults eat red meat, and a very small number exclude all animal-sourced foods from their diets. The New Zealand Eating and Activity Guidelines recommend a largely plant-based diet, with moderate amounts of animal-sourced foods. A comprehensive national nutrition survey would provide detailed information on the amount of red meat and other animal-sourced foods currently consumed by the New Zealand population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 200 KiB  
Abstract
Meat-Free Mondays at Hospital Cafés in Aotearoa
by Ella Ewens, Leanne Young and Sally Mackay
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018012 - 10 Mar 2023
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Reducing human meat intake contributes to a reduction in environmental degradation and non-communicable diseases, but meat-reduction policy interventions are limited, and globally, meat intake remains high. Meat-Free Mondays (MFM) is a global campaign to reduce meat consumption by 15% to improve human and [...] Read more.
Reducing human meat intake contributes to a reduction in environmental degradation and non-communicable diseases, but meat-reduction policy interventions are limited, and globally, meat intake remains high. Meat-Free Mondays (MFM) is a global campaign to reduce meat consumption by 15% to improve human and planetary health. In 2020, Nelson Marlborough District Health Board (DHB) introduced an MFM policy at their staff and guest cafes, and Northland DHB trialled an MFM policy for two months. We conducted a mixed-methods investigation at these District Health Boards along with Auckland (who were not considering an MFM policy) of the attitudes of DHB staff and managers towards MFMs and the implementation barriers and enablers. We conducted an online staff survey at two DHBs and eleven semi-structured interviews with food-service managers, café managers, and sustainability managers. The online survey received 194 responses (105 from Auckland and 89 from Nelson and Marlborough). Of those surveyed, 51% were actively cutting back on meat, mainly for health and environmental concerns and enjoyment of plant-based dishes. Of those surveyed, 59% were positive towards MFMs, and 31% were negative. Qualitative analysis of the interviews and open-ended questions of the survey identified four key themes (1) ‘Change and choice’, MFMs’ impact on personal choice and resistance to changing eating habits; (2) ‘Getting it right—product and price’, food quality, appearance, nutritional balance, and the impact of an MFM policy on customer retention and sales; (3) ‘Human and planetary health’, the co-benefits of MFMs and hospitals as leaders in healthy, sustainable diets; (4) ‘Implementation success’, including consultation, communications, and education, for a successful MFM policy and maintaining staff wellbeing. Recommendations for the successful implementation of MFMs included wide consultation with food-service and DHB staff, the need to provide evidence on the success of MFMs and alternatives, consideration of the wider food environment, and provision of dietitian support for the food service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 179 KiB  
Abstract
Aotearoa’s Food Environment Dashboard: Sharing and Holding to Account
by Caitlin Haliburton, Kelly Garton, Sally Mackay and Gary Sacks
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018014 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Unhealthy diets and excess energy intake are the greatest contributors to disease and disability in Aotearoa. Unhealthy diets are heavily influenced by obesogenic food environments. Governments and the private sector have critical roles to play in creating healthier food environments, yet New Zealand [...] Read more.
Unhealthy diets and excess energy intake are the greatest contributors to disease and disability in Aotearoa. Unhealthy diets are heavily influenced by obesogenic food environments. Governments and the private sector have critical roles to play in creating healthier food environments, yet New Zealand consistently falls behind international best practice, suggesting a lack of accountability. The accountability cycle has five phases: setting the account, taking account, sharing the account, holding to account, and responding to the account. The ongoing monitoring of the healthiness of food environments is essential to identify key problems, assess the impact of policies, hold governments and food companies to their commitments, measure progress, and support future implementation. The Food Environments Dashboard Aotearoa was created to collate and translate more than a decade’s worth of food environment monitoring studies and their findings for policy-makers and public health advocacy groups to encourage policy change. Based on Australia’s Food Environments Dashboard, the key indicators from these studies have been identified and assessed against defined criteria to give a green (promotes health), amber (needs improvement) or red (unhealthy) rating. Data from studies implemented between 2014 and 2022 were reviewed and 65 key indicators were selected for ten domains: government, food composition, settings (schools, hospitals), food labelling, food affordability, food promotion, food retail, private sector, trade and investment, and equity. Most domains were assessed as red and none as green. The Dashboard contributes to sharing and holding to account by providing key indicators in an accessible format that will be regularly updated. We encourage the public health nutrition community of practice to contribute to, and utilise, the Dashboard to improve food environments for Aotearoa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 183 KiB  
Abstract
Do Early Learning Service Menus Meet Healthy Food and Drink and Choking Guidance in New Zealand?
by Olivia Hall, Ajmol Ali and Carol Wham
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018015 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Healthy food and drink guidance for early learning services (ELS) provided by the Ministry of Health (MoH) assists ELS to develop policies and practices to promote healthy eating habits in childhood. This study aimed to assess alignment of food and drinks served to [...] Read more.
Healthy food and drink guidance for early learning services (ELS) provided by the Ministry of Health (MoH) assists ELS to develop policies and practices to promote healthy eating habits in childhood. This study aimed to assess alignment of food and drinks served to NZ children in ELS with the MoH Healthy Food and Drink and choking guidance. Menus (n = 271) collected remotely from 148 ELS between November 2020 and March 2021 were analysed for their nutritional quality (percentage of ‘green’, ‘amber’, and ‘red’ menu items) using a scoring system based on the MoH guidance. Points were awarded based on the availability of healthy (green) menu items and the exclusion of unhealthy (red) menu items. Overall, of all menus, 2.6% met the MoH Healthy Food and Drink guidance and one-fifth (18.5%) met the MoH choking guidance. Menus for children over two-year-olds (over-2s) scored, on average, 12% higher than menus for children under two-year-olds (under-2s; p < 0.01). Services with a Health Heart Award from the NZ Heart Foundation provided more green items to over-2s (p = 0.04) and under-2s (p = 0.01) and less red items to over-2s (p = 0.04). Providing more green menu items was inversely correlated with providing less high-choking-risk foods (p < 0.01, r = −0.347 over-2s, r = −0.504 under-2s, respectively). Menu scores did not vary by service location, neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation or type (services operating independently versus those part of an education group chain). Alignment with MoH nutritional guidance is low, particularly in ELS caring for very young children (under-2s). Service characteristics, except for Healthy Heart Award status, are a poor predictor of nutritional quality of menus at ELS. Greater uptake of the Healthy Heart Award scheme could assist ELS to provide healthier food and drinks, which may also reduce food-related choking risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 198 KiB  
Abstract
Adherence to Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Guidelines within the First Foods New Zealand Study
by Kimberley Brown, Kathryn Beck, Pamela von Hurst, Anne-Louise Heath, Rachael Taylor, Jillian Haszard, Lisa Daniels, Lisa Te Morenga and Cathryn Conlon
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018016 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The importance of breastfeeding and the appropriate introduction of complementary feeding are well recognised. Our objective was to investigate adherence to breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines in New Zealand (NZ) infants aged 7.0 to 10.0 months, based on the Ministry of Health’s healthy [...] Read more.
The importance of breastfeeding and the appropriate introduction of complementary feeding are well recognised. Our objective was to investigate adherence to breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines in New Zealand (NZ) infants aged 7.0 to 10.0 months, based on the Ministry of Health’s healthy eating guidelines for NZ babies and toddlers (0–2 years), which recommend exclusive breastfeeding to “around” six months of age, at which time, complementary feeding should be initiated. This investigation was conducted within the First Foods New Zealand (FFNZ) study. From 2020 to 2022, FFNZ recruited an ethnically diverse sample of 625 infants living in Auckland and Dunedin. Participants completed two study visits, which included two 24-hour diet recalls and the completion of demographic and feeding questionnaires. Infants and caregivers were aged 8.4 (0.8) months (mean (SD)) and 32.7 (4.9) years, respectively. The majority (98%) of caregivers were the infant’s mother. More than half of the caregivers had a university education (64.9%) and were not currently employed (66.9%). Approximately half the caregivers were first-time mothers (48.7%). In FFNZ, exclusive breastfeeding was defined as exclusive breastfeeding to at least five and less than seven months of age. Within FFNZ, 43.2% of infants met this guideline. At the time of participation, 66.2% continued to breastfeed. The introduction of solid food at around six months of age was achieved by 75.2% of participants. Most infants were provided puréed foods (80.3%) and were spoon fed (74.1%) when starting solid foods. The findings indicate that most FFNZ infants met guidelines for the age of introduction, texture, and method of feeding complementary foods. However, our guidelines for breastfeeding in NZ were not met to the same extent, indicating the need for further support for NZ whānau to achieve to current breastfeeding recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 193 KiB  
Abstract
Timing of Introduction to Complementary Foods in Māori, Pasifika, and Other Infants in Aotearoa New Zealand
by Maria Casale, Kathryn Beck, Cathryn Conlon, Lisa Te Morenga, Jillian Haszard, Anne-Louise Heath, Rachael Taylor and Pamela von Hurst
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018017 - 14 Mar 2023
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Transitioning from milk to complementary food (CF) is a critical time for infants, with the non-timely introduction associated with poorer health outcomes. We aimed to describe the timing of the introduction of CF and its sociodemographic associations in an ethnically diverse cohort of [...] Read more.
Transitioning from milk to complementary food (CF) is a critical time for infants, with the non-timely introduction associated with poorer health outcomes. We aimed to describe the timing of the introduction of CF and its sociodemographic associations in an ethnically diverse cohort of urban-dwelling infants. The timing of CF introduction and sociodemographic characteristics (ethnicity, maternal education, parity, deprivation index, infant sex) were collected by questionnaire when infants were 7.0–10.0 months. Early CF introduction was defined as ≤4 months and late as ≥7 months of age. Of 625 infants, 131 (20.1%) were identified as Māori, 82 (13.2%) as Pasifika, and 450 (72.1%) as other. The mean (SD) age of CF introduction was 4.9 (1.1) months for both Māori and Pasifika infants and 5.3 (0.8) months for other. 6.9% of Māori infants were introduced to CF before 4 months, 33.6% at 4 months, and 3.1% at 7 months. For Pasifika, the percentages were 9.8%, 24.4%, and 3.7%, respectively. For others, percentages were lower at <1%, 16.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, Māori and Pasifika had higher odds of early CF introduction for infants with mothers whose highest education was secondary school (Māori: 3.8 ([95% CI] 1.5, 9.8); Pasifika: 3.3 (1.1, 10.3)). The odds of early CF introduction for other infants were higher for those with mothers whose highest education was secondary school (2.1 (1.2, 3.5)), who lived in areas of high deprivation (1.8 (1.0, 3.2)), and whose infant sex was male (1.7 (1.1, 2.9)). Parity was not associated with early CF introduction for any group. Most infants in all groups were introduced to CF between 4 and 6 months of age and over half at around 6 months of age. A small proportion of infants were introduced before 4 months. This research identifies groups that would benefit from more targeted infant feeding support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 186 KiB  
Abstract
Prevalence of Household Food Insecurity in New Zealand Families with Infants
by Ioanna Katiforis, Claire Smith, Jillian J. Haszard, Sara E. Styles, Claudia Leong, Rachael W. Taylor, Cathryn A. Conlon, Kathryn L. Beck, Pamela R. von Hurst, Lisa A. Te Morenga, Neve McLean, Rosario Jupiterwala, Alice Cox, Emily Jones, Kimberley Brown, Madeleine Rowan, Maria Casale, Andrea Wei and Anne-Louise M. Heath
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018018 - 15 Mar 2023
Viewed by 834
Abstract
Household food insecurity, defined in New Zealand (NZ) as a ‘limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited ability to acquire acceptable foods in a socially acceptable way’, is a serious public health concern associated with poorer diet quality [...] Read more.
Household food insecurity, defined in New Zealand (NZ) as a ‘limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited ability to acquire acceptable foods in a socially acceptable way’, is a serious public health concern associated with poorer diet quality and nutritional deficiencies. Preventing food insecurity in infancy is crucial because adequate nutrition is essential for normal infant growth and development. Household food insecurity was investigated in the First Foods NZ study, a cross-sectional study of families with infants aged 6.9–10.1 months in Auckland and Dunedin. A NZ-specific questionnaire consisting of eight validated food security indicator statements relating to household financial constraint over the previous 12 months was administered. The participants’ responses were scored using a total scoring protocol developed in the study. Cut-offs were applied to the total scores to create categories of food insecurity (secure, moderately insecure, severely insecure), and each household (n = 604) was classified into a category. In total, 17.4% (n = 105) of the households were moderately food insecure and 7.6% (n = 46) were severely food insecure. Of the food security indicators, the participants most frequently reported that the variety of foods the household was able to eat was limited by a lack of money (18.5% sometimes; 3.3% often), feeling stressed because of not having enough money for food (16.6% sometimes; 3.2% often), or feeling stressed because they could not provide the food they wanted for social occasions (13.9% sometimes; 3.0% often). Severe food insecurity was most prevalent in participants of Māori or Pasifika ethnicity, <25 years of age, not in work or on leave from work, or for whom school was their highest level of education. One quarter (25%) of the families experienced a degree of food insecurity, highlighting the need for dignified solutions that support all NZ families to acquire foods that are nutritious, affordable, and culturally acceptable to them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 177 KiB  
Abstract
Evidence of Limited Iron Education Provided to 11–14-Year-Old Females in New Zealand Schools
by Jerushah Keightley, Claire Badenhorst, Renee Jansen, Hajar Mazahery and Pamela von Hurst
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018019 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide and is the leading cause of anaemia. Iron deficiency is disproportionately represented in the female population, partially due to the significant blood loss experienced during menstruation. Awareness of a female’s increased risk [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional deficiencies worldwide and is the leading cause of anaemia. Iron deficiency is disproportionately represented in the female population, partially due to the significant blood loss experienced during menstruation. Awareness of a female’s increased risk and symptoms associated with iron deficiency may aid early diagnosis, and treatment. Additionally, increases in iron education may serve as a preventative method for reducing iron deficiency incidence in females in the general population. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of dietary iron education currently provided to 11–14-year-old females in intermediate and secondary schools in New Zealand. An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed to nutrition, physical education, and health teachers nationwide to gain their perspective of what iron (dietary and menstruation) education is provided within their schools. A total of 182 teachers were recruited via work email addresses and of these, 50 completed the questionnaire (response rate = 27%). The results reflect a low level of iron education currently being provided, with 52% (26/50) of participants reporting that iron education was not part of their current curricula. The delivery of iron education did appear to be affected by the subject the participant primarily taught (χ2 =12.641, p = 0.002). Health and physical education teachers were 5.07 times more likely to report that they did not teach any iron-specific education compared to nutrition teachers. The primary reasons for not including iron education were a lack of time (36%, 9/26) followed by iron education being too specific (28%, 7/26). Our findings indicate that there is limited iron education provided to 11–14-year-old female students in intermediate and secondary schools in New Zealand. This low amount of iron education appears to be due to a lack of time available for teachers to cover the specific topic in the health and nutrition curricula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 177 KiB  
Abstract
“Baby” Food Pouches and Their Use in 1–3.9-Year-Old New Zealand Children
by Bailey Bruckner, Anne-Louise Heath, Pamela von Hurst, Cathryn Conlon, Kathryn Beck, Lisa Te Morenga, Jillian Haszard, Ridvan Firestone, Jenny McArthur, Rosario Jupiterwala, Kimberley Brown, Maria Casale, Louise Fangupo and Rachael Taylor
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018020 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 871
Abstract
Baby food pouches are becoming an increasingly popular way to assist the transition from breast milk or infant formula to solid foods, both in New Zealand (NZ) and worldwide. These pouches have overtaken the market in NZ supermarkets, with 63.9% of total baby [...] Read more.
Baby food pouches are becoming an increasingly popular way to assist the transition from breast milk or infant formula to solid foods, both in New Zealand (NZ) and worldwide. These pouches have overtaken the market in NZ supermarkets, with 63.9% of total baby foods sold in 2021 being in pouch form. While most pouches are aimed at infants, some are pitched to an older age group, and it is possible that some toddlers and preschoolers continue to consume baby food pouches well beyond 12 months of age. Despite concerns raised by a number of health agencies, there has been almost no research undertaken on the use of “baby” food pouches by children, and related health effects. Therefore, this study aims to describe how “baby” food pouches are being used by young children in NZ. In Young Foods NZ, an observational cross-sectional study, 287 participants with children aged 1–3.9 years completed a feeding questionnaire about the child’s “baby” food pouch consumption including frequency, method of use, and setting. The majority (85.4%) of children had used a pouch at some time in their life; however, only 11.1% were current ‘frequent’ pouch users (i.e., used baby food pouches five or more times a week). Sixty-five percent of pouch users always consumed the contents by sucking straight from the nozzle. Chair (22.8%), highchair (25.7%), and while “on the go” (23.1%) were the most common locations where pouches were consumed. Overall, while most young children had tried a “baby” food pouch at some point in their life, relatively few were considered frequent pouch users. These findings suggest pouches are not contributing substantially to most young NZ children’s diets. However, over half of pouch users sucked the contents directly from the nozzle, and this may have implications for dental health and oral motor skill development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 187 KiB  
Abstract
Measuring Adherence with the New Zealand Dietary Guidelines Using an Index and Associations with Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function in Older Adults Living in Auckland, New Zealand
by Karen Mumme, Jamie de Seymour, Cathryn Conlon, Pamela von Hurst, Beatrix Jones, Crystal Haskell-Ramsay and Kathryn Beck
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018021 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 597
Abstract
Poor diet is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and poor cognitive function. This study uses the Eating Index in Older Adults (the index) to measure adherence to New Zealand’s dietary guidelines in older adults and associations with metabolic [...] Read more.
Poor diet is associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome and poor cognitive function. This study uses the Eating Index in Older Adults (the index) to measure adherence to New Zealand’s dietary guidelines in older adults and associations with metabolic syndrome and cognitive function. This cross-sectional study uses data from the Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health (REACH) study, 371 adults (65–74 years, 36% male) living in Auckland, New Zealand. A validated 109-item food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Adherence to the dietary guidelines was scored using the index, which comprises a total score (maximum = 100) and two sub-scores based on adequacy (60) and moderation (40). Higher scores indicate better adherence to guidelines. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Six cognitive domains were tested using COMPASS (Computerised Mental Performance Assessment System). Regression analyses were performed, adjusted for age, sex, index of multiple deprivation, education (cognitive function only), physical activity, Apolipoprotein E-ε4 genotype (cognitive function only) and energy intake. Because of the number of tests, p ≤ 0.001 was considered statistically significant. The mean [standard deviation] index scores, for males and females, were 62 [9] and 64 [10] for total (p = 0.03); 42 [8] and 43 [7] for adequacy (p = 0.03) and 21 [5] and 21 [6] (p = 0.54) for moderation scores. Adherence to the index was not associated with metabolic syndrome (total score p = 0.55) nor cognitive function (total score and global p = 0.50; attention p = 0.32; executive function p = 0.46; episodic memory p = 0.68; working memory p = 0.04; spatial memory p = 0.17). Higher deprivation was positively associated with metabolic syndrome, while higher education was positively associated with cognitive function (both, p < 0.001). In this population, deprivation and education rather than adherence to the index were more influential factors affecting metabolic syndrome and cognitive function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 175 KiB  
Abstract
Sodium Reduction Targets for Fast-Food Products: Methods for Estimation and an Investigation of Potential Acceptability and Implementation
by Shona Gomes, Sally Mackay, Sarah Gerritsen and Helen Eyles
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018022 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Fast foods contribute to excessive intake of sodium in New Zealand (~3373–3544 mg/day). High sodium consumption is associated with hypertension, a leading risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Our objectives were to (1) estimate sodium reduction targets for New Zealand (NZ) fast-food products and [...] Read more.
Fast foods contribute to excessive intake of sodium in New Zealand (~3373–3544 mg/day). High sodium consumption is associated with hypertension, a leading risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Our objectives were to (1) estimate sodium reduction targets for New Zealand (NZ) fast-food products and to (2) investigate the potential acceptability of sodium reduction targets, including barriers and facilitators to implementation, and potential methods for execution and monitoring. Sodium contents and serving size of fast-food products were sourced from a 2019 fast food database (Nutritrack). A step-by-step process was used to create food categories and develop sodium targets that are currently met by 35–45% of products. Semi-structured interviews were held with 12 expert stakeholders who work within public health, government agencies, and food science via videoconferencing. Sodium reduction targets per 100 g and per serving were estimated for 17 fast-food categories. The targets ranged from 158 mg (salads) to 665 mg per 100 g (mayonnaise and dressings). On a per serving basis, the targets ranged from 118 mg (sauce) to 1270 mg (burgers with cured meat). The experts agreed that sodium reduction targets for NZ fast foods are needed and acceptable. Barriers to implementation include unequal participation by industry and limited data for monitoring. A voluntary approach led by cross-government collaboration, along with mandating if there is limited uptake, and a robust monitoring system were deemed to be important for implementation. The sodium reduction targets estimated for NZ fast foods were supported by the non-industry stakeholders. While further review and consultation with the industry may be necessary, the newly estimated targets provide a platform for one aspect of a much-needed government-led sodium reformulation programme for NZ, which should also include targets for packaged foods and consumer awareness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 188 KiB  
Abstract
An Investigation of Dietary Iron Intake and Literacy among 11–14 Year Old Females in New Zealand
by Renee Jansen, Pamela von Hurst, Jerushah Keightley, Hajar Mazahery and Claire E. Badenhorst
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018023 - 21 Mar 2023
Viewed by 590
Abstract
Iron deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency globally and is a common diagnosis in adolescent females. Causal factors for this population include low dietary iron intake, iron bioavailability, increased iron requirements and excessive iron losses. Iron intakes of adolescent females were last [...] Read more.
Iron deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency globally and is a common diagnosis in adolescent females. Causal factors for this population include low dietary iron intake, iron bioavailability, increased iron requirements and excessive iron losses. Iron intakes of adolescent females were last analysed in the 2002 New Zealand Children’s Nutrition Survey, reporting an average intake of 9.9mg/day. Up-to-date information on dietary iron intake and literacy in adolescent females is not available to health professionals. Therefore, this study’s aim was to determine dietary iron literacy and its associations with dietary intakes of iron-rich foods in young adolescent females within New Zealand. Females (n = 286) aged 11–14 years from all-girls schools around New Zealand were recruited to complete an anonymous online questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised demographic questions, an adapted iron literacy questionnaire and a validated iron food frequency questionnaire. The results suggest a moderate level of iron literacy in most participants (66.8%, n = 191), with 21.7% (n = 62) demonstrating low dietary iron literacy and 11.5% (n = 33) demonstrating high dietary iron literacy. Vegetarian, pescatarian, and vegan participants had higher iron knowledge scores than those not on a particular diet (p = 0.001). Age had a weak relationship with iron knowledge score category (χ2 = 6.27, p = 0.044). Significant differences were found between ethnic groups and food group consumption frequency. Seafood and legumes, eggs, nuts and seeds were eaten more frequently among Asian participants, while iron-fortified foods were eaten more frequently among Māori participants. Participants from higher decile schools were found to consume red meat (p = 0.009), seafood (p = 0.024) and fruit (p = 0.021) more frequently than those from moderate decile schools. There was no relationship between dietary iron literacy score and intake of iron-rich foods. Our results demonstrate that iron literacy is low to moderate among adolescent females within New Zealand and is not associated with current dietary iron intake behaviours. Future studies may consider educational interventions to change intake behaviours, and objective measures of iron status and food intake via biochemical data and food recalls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 191 KiB  
Abstract
The Major Packaged Food Sources of Sodium for New Zealand Children and Trends in the Sodium Content of Commonly Consumed Foods
by Kava Fuavao, Cliona Ni Mhurchu, Boyd Swinburn, Vili Nosa, Teresa Gontijo de Castro and Helen Eyles
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018024 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 751
Abstract
In children, diets high in sodium and low in potassium lead to increased blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. This study aimed to describe the major packaged food sources of sodium for New Zealand children aged 5 to 14 [...] Read more.
In children, diets high in sodium and low in potassium lead to increased blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. This study aimed to describe the major packaged food sources of sodium for New Zealand children aged 5 to 14 years and explored changes in the sodium content of these foods. Descriptive secondary analysis of 24 h dietary recall data from the 2002 National Children Nutrition Survey was undertaken to identify the major sources of sodium for children, and linear regression using Nutritrack data was used to assess changes in the sodium content of these foods from 2013 to 2019. For all NZ children, the major packaged food sources of sodium were white bread (contributing 23.1% to sodium intake),sausages (4.2%), ham (4.0%), canned spaghetti (3.5%) and wholemeal bread (3.2%). The results were comparable when analysed by gender, although boys attained more sodium from wholemeal bread and canned baked beans than girls (3.8% vs. 2.3% and 3.9% vs 1.8%, respectively). By age, white bread was the top contributor to sodium intake (25.6% for children aged 5–6 years and 22.6% for children aged 7–10 years and 11–14 years). Differences by ethnicity show that white bread made sodium contributions of 27.2% for Māori, 32.5% for Pacific and 20.6% for New Zealand European and others (NZEO). Sodium obtained from noodles was also higher among Māori and Pacific children (3.3% and 4.7%, respectively) than NZEO children (2.3%) as was sodium attained from extruded snacks and other crisps (Māori 2.0%, 2.5% Pacific and 0.9% NZEO). From 2013 to 2019, a significant decrease of 0.2 mg/100 g (95% CI: −70.2, −13.5) was found in the sodium content of white bread and whole hams and similar products (−0.4 mg/100 g, 95% CI: −636.2, −151.0) but an increase in the sodium content of noodles (0.2 mg/100 g, CI: 197.7, 703.2) over the same period of time. Understanding the major contributing packaged food sources of sodium and potassium for diverse New Zealand children is essential in protecting against future risk of cardiovascular disease and impetus for future public health initiatives aimed at reducing sodium intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Perspectives of Green Prescription Personnel in Providing Nutrition Support for Clients
by Cherise Pendergrast, Cathryn Conlon, Rachel Batty and Pamela von Hurst
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018025 - 22 Mar 2023
Viewed by 482
Abstract
Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and diet, are proven to have a significant effect on chronic disease conditions. Over two decades ago, New Zealand implemented an initiative to support increasing physical activity to reduce chronic disease burden. This initiative, Green Prescription [...] Read more.
Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and diet, are proven to have a significant effect on chronic disease conditions. Over two decades ago, New Zealand implemented an initiative to support increasing physical activity to reduce chronic disease burden. This initiative, Green Prescription (GRx), continues to have a distinct focus on physical activity, however, over its history, nutrition support has also been included by some providers. GRx could be a vehicle for nutrition support delivery with a preventative focus in the community, but little is known about the current situation. The study aim was to survey GRx staff about the scope of nutrition support available, and develop a basis for future investigation on its provision in the community. An online survey was conducted among the GRx staff to investigate whether nutrition support is part of their program, who provides it, what it includes and whether there is sufficient qualification and support for the personnel. Respondent perspectives on benefits and concerns of nutrition support provision were included. Responses from 46 personnel, within 15 GRx providers, were received. Results indicated that physical activity makes up more than half of GRx program delivery, while nutrition support contributes to just under one-third, on average. Over twice as many qualifications held by the personnel specialised in physical activity as nutrition. Most respondents identified nutrition support as being of high importance and indicated that although there are professional development opportunities, resources and support were limited. Physical activity remains the key focus for GRx programs, however nutrition support is perceived as important, indicated by its inclusion in programs and number of personnel with nutrition qualifications. In the future, the opportunities for professional development need more clarification, and further investigation into resources and personnel support is warranted, in order to investigate the feasibility of nutrition support at a preventative level in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 181 KiB  
Abstract
Concentration of 12 Oligosaccharides in the Milk of New Zealand Breastfeeding Women
by Lili L. Jia, Louise Brough and Janet L. Weber
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018026 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component in breast milk. HMOs benefit infant gut health, modulate immune responses, and promote brain development. The profile and concentration of HMOs vary considerably among breastfeeding women, and are reported to be associated with [...] Read more.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component in breast milk. HMOs benefit infant gut health, modulate immune responses, and promote brain development. The profile and concentration of HMOs vary considerably among breastfeeding women, and are reported to be associated with genetic, maternal, and environmental factors as well as feeding practices. One reason for the diversity in HMO concentration is the secretor gene, which determines the presence of an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of 2′-FL and LNFP-I. To date, there is no report about HMO concentration or profile in the New Zealand population. Our objective was to investigate 12 HMO concentrations in a small sample of New Zealand women. Sixty-eight breastfeeding mothers (mean age 32 years, 77% Caucasian) of singleton infants (median age [Q1, Q3] 108 [70, 166] days) were included, with 65% exclusively breastfeeding and 54% who had two or more children. Concentrations of 12 HMOs were measured by UHPLC with fluorescence detection. Overall, 68% of mothers were secretors, which was defined by the presence of 2′-FL in the milk. HMO profiles varied widely; total HMO concentration varied 4.2-fold between women; and individual HMOs varied from 4.8-fold to >100-fold. The median of total HMO concentration (Q1, Q3) of the secretors and non-secretors were 6774.9 (6395.4, 8245.6) mg/L and 7128.0 (6093.1, 7880.1) mg/L respectively. Significant differences in concentration of 2′-FL, 3-FL, A-Tet, LNFP-I, LNFP-II, LNFPV, and LNnT between secretors and non-secretors were found by Mann–Whitney tests. However, there was no significant difference in concentrations of LNFP-III, LNnFP, 3′-SL, 6′-SL, LNT, or total HMOs between the secretors and the non-secretors. HMO concentrations vary broadly between breastfeeding women. A longitudinal cohort of a larger sample size is required to fully investigate HMO profiles at different lactation stages of New Zealand women and to further explore the influence of maternal and environmental factors on HMO concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 185 KiB  
Abstract
Respiratory Health of Pacific Youth: Nutrition Resilience and Risk in Childhood
by Siwei Zhai, Alain C. Vandal, Shabnam Jalili-Moghaddam, Catherine A. Byrnes, Conroy Wong, Leon Iusitini and El-Shadan Tautolo
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018027 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 582
Abstract
In New Zealand, 7% of deaths are related to respiratory diseases, and Pacific people are at higher risk. This work investigated the causal effects of early-life nutritional factors on early-adulthood lung function among Pacific Islands Families Study cohort members, who consist of the [...] Read more.
In New Zealand, 7% of deaths are related to respiratory diseases, and Pacific people are at higher risk. This work investigated the causal effects of early-life nutritional factors on early-adulthood lung function among Pacific Islands Families Study cohort members, who consist of the 1398 individuals born from Pacific Island families in Middlemore Hospital between March and December 2000.A total of 466 people from the cohort participated in the respiratory study. The primary outcome was the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) z-score at age 18 years. FEV1 and healthy lung function (HLF), defined as the z-score being larger than −1.64, were secondary outcomes. Nutrition and other information were previously collected in 4 measurement waves at ages 4, 6, 9, and 14 years. Food portions consumed daily were totaled within each of the 12 food categories at each measurement wave. Exploratory and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses identified 4 eating patterns represented by nutritional factor scores (NFS), identified as “Occasional”, “Seafood”, “Fruit and vegetables”, and “Meat”. The NFS were scaled to portions per day. Confounders were identified using a causal-directed acyclical graph. Semi-parametric linear and relative risk regression models were fitted to estimate the causal effects of NFS on respiratory outcomes, using estimated weights compensating for attrition-induced selection bias. The population-attributable fractions of HLF for each NFS were estimated for each measurement wave. HLF cohort prevalence was estimated at 90% (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.86, 1.00]), lower than the expected 95%. Only the “Fruit and vegetables” eating pattern at 9 years was found to have a statistically significant causal effect on the FEV1 z-score in early adulthood (change in FEV1 z-score: +0.25, 95%CI [0.00, 0.43]). The proportion of HLF attributable to the “Fruit and vegetables” eating pattern at 9 years was estimated at 11% (95%CI [0.00, 0.19]). Results suggest a positive impact of consuming more fruit and vegetables during childhood on respiratory health later in life. There is a need to support healthier food environments for Pacific children and provide access to healthier food choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 184 KiB  
Abstract
Perceptions and Experiences of Using Intermittently Scanned Continuous Glucose Monitoring among Youth Ages 13–20 Years with Type 1 Diabetes and Above Recommended HbA1c: A Qualitative Study
by Sara E. Styles, Hamish R. Crocket, Esko J. Wiltshire, Martin I. de Bock and Benjamin J. Wheeler
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018028 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 581
Abstract
The experiences of youth with high-risk glycaemic control using intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) systems are not well known. In the context of a randomised controlled trial investigating a 6-month isCGM intervention, this sub-study aimed to explore the experiences of youth using [...] Read more.
The experiences of youth with high-risk glycaemic control using intermittently scanned continuous glucose monitoring (isCGM) systems are not well known. In the context of a randomised controlled trial investigating a 6-month isCGM intervention, this sub-study aimed to explore the experiences of youth using isCGM for 6 months. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 youth aged 14–20 years who had Type 1 diabetes for ≥12 months and a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of ≥75 mmol/mol (≥9%) pre-isCGM intervention. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using Nvivo. A thematic analytic approach was used to identify key themes overall and by comparing participants who at 6 months had: (1) experienced a ≥10 mmol/L (0.9%) reduction in HbA1c and (2) sustained scanning frequency ≥3/day to those who did not. All participants expressed a strong preference for isCGM over self-monitoring blood glucose. Overall, isCGM contributed to perceived reduced diabetes burden without a requirement for more support in diabetes management. Increased engagement with self-management, including successful changes in dosage of basal or bolus insulin and increased frequency of administration of insulin, were behaviours reported by those experiencing the greatest improvement in HbA1c (>10 mmol/L [>0.9%], n = 6). They noted feeling more energetic, thus, making it easier to maintain self-management behaviours. Most youths reported best practices, such as following prompts to rescan in 10 min and timely sensor replacement; however, most did not check capillary blood glucose levels in recommended situations. Over 6 months, youth with high-risk diabetes experienced isCGM as a useful short-term tool for overcoming diabetes burden and facilitating self-management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 175 KiB  
Abstract
Prevalence of Inadequacy of Micronutrient Intake in a Sample of Vegetarian and Non-Vegetarian Female Adolescents in New Zealand
by Chaya Ranasinghe, Meredith Peddie, Claire Smith, Tessa Scott, Elizabeth Fleming, Kirsten Webster, Rachel Brown, Jillian Haszard and Lisa Houghton
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018029 - 30 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate; however, without careful planning, some nutrients may be at risk of inadequacy, especially in adolescence, when energy and nutrient requirements are higher relative to body mass. The aim of this study was to compare intakes [...] Read more.
Appropriately planned vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate; however, without careful planning, some nutrients may be at risk of inadequacy, especially in adolescence, when energy and nutrient requirements are higher relative to body mass. The aim of this study was to compare intakes of at-risk micronutrients in a group of New Zealand female adolescents consuming vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. A cross-sectional Survey of Nutrition, Dietary Assessment and Lifestyle (SuNDiAL project) was conducted among females aged 15 to 18 years, recruited from across NZ. Data were collected via an online questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were taken to determine body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Energy and dietary intake of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, folate, vitamin A and vitamin B12 (B12) were determined using two 24 h recalls, adjusted to reflect usual intake. In total, 254 adolescents provided dietary intake data, comprising 38 self-identified vegetarians. The majority of the participants were NZ European and Other (NZEO) (78%), lived in neighbourhoods of low to medium deprivation (81.5%), and were a healthy weight (66.5%). Across the total sample, more than 80% did not meet the recommended intake for calcium, with values of 71% for selenium and 58% for folate. Dietary intakes among vegetarians were significantly lower than non-vegetarians, resulting in a higher prevalence of inadequacy for zinc (42% vs. 19%), selenium (92% vs. 67%) and vitamin B12 (40% vs. 16%), respectively. Vegetarians were six times more likely to have inadequate selenium intake, at a three-times-greater risk of having inadequate zinc intake and four times more likely to not meet the recommendations for B12 intake compared to non-vegetarians. In conclusion, adolescents had inadequate intakes of calcium, selenium and folate, whereas vegetarian adolescents had suboptimal intakes of selenium, zinc and B12, leading to an increased risk of deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 183 KiB  
Abstract
Maternal Plasma Selenium and the Occurrence of Infection Symptoms among Women at Six and Twelve Months Postpartum
by Ying Jin, Jane Coad and Louise Brough
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018030 - 3 Apr 2023
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Selenium is essential for human health because it produces selenoproteins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles. Recently published data have suggested high selenium status (high hair selenium concentration) improved outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infections. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of [...] Read more.
Selenium is essential for human health because it produces selenoproteins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory roles. Recently published data have suggested high selenium status (high hair selenium concentration) improved outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infections. Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of infectious symptoms and selenium status among postpartum women. This is a secondary analysis of data collected in the Mother and Infant Nutrition Investigation—an observational, longitudinal cohort study spanning the first postpartum year of mother and infant pairs (n = 87) in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Plasma selenium was measured in women at six months postpartum (6MPP), and the validated Carr Infection Symptom Checklist (CISC) measured the type and frequency of infection symptoms experienced at 6MPP and twelve months postpartum (12MPP). The checklist contains 30 symptoms of infection; each symptom is scored from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe symptoms), thus the possible total score ranges from zero to 120. The data were expressed as the median (q25, q75). The median maternal plasma selenium was 105.8 (95.6, 115.3) µg/L, with 41% of women meeting the criteria for the maximum expression of selenoprotein P (>110 µg/L). The median CISC scores were 12 (8, 18) at 6MPP and 13 (8, 21) at 12MPP, which were weakly correlated (r = 0.363, p = 0.002). Plasma selenium levels among women with a low CISC score ≤ 15 (n = 56) at 6MPP were significantly higher (110.05 µg/L) than those women with a high score of symptoms of infection (score > 15, n = 23) at 102.18 µg/L (p = 0.048, Mann–Whitney U test). Further research is warranted to investigate whether higher plasma selenium levels contribute to a lower rate of maternal infection during the postpartum period. The association between wider selenium biomarkers and maternal immune function should be determined by examining inflammatory markers or immunoglobulin concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 173 KiB  
Abstract
Food Labels: Trends in Use of Nutrition and Health Claims on New Zealand Foods and Beverages
by Julie North, Sara Collie, Kelsey Paterson, Libby Hattersley, Evelyn Mete and Donnell Alexander
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018031 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Nutrition and health claims have been regulated by Standard 1.2.7 of the Food Standards Code since 2016. Standard 1.2.7 was introduced in 2013, with a three-year transition period. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Standard 1.2.7 by a) identifying the number [...] Read more.
Nutrition and health claims have been regulated by Standard 1.2.7 of the Food Standards Code since 2016. Standard 1.2.7 was introduced in 2013, with a three-year transition period. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Standard 1.2.7 by a) identifying the number of nutrition and health claims across 16 product categories, and b) identifying changes in the use of claims since the introduction of the Standard by comparing the present findings against those of previous similar surveys (in 2014/15 and 2016/7). Packaged food labels (700) were randomly selected from 16 prespecified categories in GS1 NZ’s On Pack label database, representative of foods and beverages available in New Zealand retail. Labels were assessed for the presence of nutrition and health claims, and against regulations. A total of 44% of products had at least one nutrition content claim (NCC) or general level health claim (GLHC). Since 2016/17, the proportion of products carrying claims increased among the categories “meat and meat products”, “dairy and dairy products” and “eggs”. Among the remaining 13 categories, the proportion of claims decreased or remained the same. NCCs appeared in 43% of products, but among categories this ranged from 10% (alcohol) to 70% (special-purpose foods). The three most common types of NCCs (in descending order) were about vitamins (mostly vitamin C and B vitamins), “gluten free” and minerals (mostly iron and calcium). In comparison with 2016/17, NCCs regarding vitamins, minerals, sugar and protein were more common, while NCCs for dietary fibre, sodium and fat (including cholesterol) were less common. “Gluten free claims” remain consistently popular. Individual use of GLHCs has increased since 2016/17 (6% compared with 3%), with the highest numbers in “special purpose foods” (40%). Further analysis of these survey data will reveal the proportion of claims that meet the regulatory requirements and identify areas requiring further guidance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
2 pages, 173 KiB  
Abstract
The Use of Fruit and Vegetable Pastes, Purees, Pulps, and Powders as Added Sugar Ingredients in Selected Packaged Foods
by Katherine Daniel, Leanne Young and Sally Mackay
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2023018013 - 13 Mar 2023
Viewed by 564
Abstract
The excess consumption of added sugars is associated with dental caries and an increased risk of chronic disease. Based on WHO recommendations, less than 10% of energy should come from free sugars; however, the current New Zealand (NZ) estimated intake exceeds this. Added [...] Read more.
The excess consumption of added sugars is associated with dental caries and an increased risk of chronic disease. Based on WHO recommendations, less than 10% of energy should come from free sugars; however, the current New Zealand (NZ) estimated intake exceeds this. Added sugar labelling is one tool to address this excess consumption. NZ only requires the declaration of total sugar on the Nutrition Information Panel (NIP). The 2022 P1058 FSANZ proposal on added sugar labelling on the NIP currently proposes a definition of added sugar that excludes processed fruit and vegetables. However, processed fruit (pastes, purees, pulps, and powders), in which the cell walls are no longer intact, is considered to be a free sugar by Public Health England. Therefore, a comprehensive definition that includes all types of added sugars to minimise the industry use of processed fruit and vegetables as sweeteners is needed. This research aimed to determine the proportion of packaged products in selected food categories that contain processed fruit and vegetables. We selected the four food product categories that were most likely to contain processed fruit, yet were often marketed as healthy: breakfast cereals, cereal bars, fruit bars, and yoghurts. Using the packaged food database Nutritrack, ingredient lists were searched for the presence of fruit or vegetable pastes, purees, pulps, and powders. Overall, 22.2% of breakfast cereals, 20.8% of cereal bars, 66.7% of fruit bars, and 13.9% of yoghurts contained at least one paste, puree, pulp, or powder. Puree was the most common form of processed fruit in all the categories except for breakfast cereals, where powder was the most common form. There was a minimal use of processed vegetables. These results suggest that a reasonable proportion of key packaged foods contain processed fruit, and given that these are high in free sugars, it should be included in the definition of added sugar to reduce industry use and enable consumers to identify lower-sugar options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)
Back to TopTop