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Antibacterial Properties of Hass Avocado By-Products (Peel and Seed) †

School of Food and Advanced Technology, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Alpha-Massey Natural Nutraceutical Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Auckland 0745, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022, Wellington, New Zealand, 1–2 December 2022.
Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18(1), 1;
Published: 6 March 2023
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Annual Scientific Meeting of the Nutrition Society of New Zealand 2022)


‘Hass’ avocado (Persea americana Mill) by-products (peel, and seed) are rich sources of potential antimicrobial agents. The current study used thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) as a colour indicator to evaluate the antibacterial capacities of ‘Hass’ avocado by-product extracts from China, Chile, and New Zealand. MTT reagent can react with mitochondrial dehydrogenases in living bacterial cells to produce formazan. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus were linearly correlated with formazan content. The current study used a formazan–CFU standard curve to evaluate the antibacterial properties of ‘Hass’ avocado by-product extracts by monitoring the CFU of S. aureus after 12 h treatment with the by-product extracts. The results showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in S. aureus survival if the ‘Hass’ avocado by-product extracts were recovered from mature unripe fruit or mature ripe fruit derived from the three countries. Chilean ripe seed extracts resulted in the lowest bacterial survival percentage (2% ± 0.98) after 12 h of treatment. Chilean ripe seed extracts had the highest S. aureus inhibition activity among all the extracts. In addition, there was a linear correlation between the total polyphenol content (TPC) and S. aureus (r = 0.546, p < 0.0010) bacterial survival percentage. Therefore, the current results lead us to consider that the main antioxidant polyphenol compounds of avocado by-product extracts are also the main compounds required to provide antibacterial activity inhibiting bacteria growth.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, D.S., M.W. and D.P.; methodology, D.S.; validation, M.W. and D.P.; formal analysis, D.S.; writing—original draft preparation, D.S.; writing—review and editing, D.P.; supervision and editing, D.P.; project administration, D.P.; funding acquisition, D.S. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was funded by the Alpha Natural Nutraceutical Research Centre: RM18873.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Data is available on the request from the corresponding author.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Shi, D.; Wong, M.; Popovich, D. Antibacterial Properties of Hass Avocado By-Products (Peel and Seed). Med. Sci. Forum 2023, 18, 1.

AMA Style

Shi D, Wong M, Popovich D. Antibacterial Properties of Hass Avocado By-Products (Peel and Seed). Medical Sciences Forum. 2023; 18(1):1.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shi, Danxia, Marie Wong, and David Popovich. 2023. "Antibacterial Properties of Hass Avocado By-Products (Peel and Seed)" Medical Sciences Forum 18, no. 1: 1.

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