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Biol. Life Sci. Forum, 2023, la ValSe-Food 2023

V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link

Valencia, Spain | 4–6 October 2023

Volume Editors:
Claudia Monika Haros, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Spain
Loreto A. Muñoz, Universidad Central de Chile, Chile
María Dolores Ortolá, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain

Number of Papers: 20

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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume brings together the complete presentations of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link, held from 4 to 6 October 2023 in Valencia, Spain. The conference, [...] Read more.
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2 pages, 205 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Claudia M. Haros, Loreto A. Muñoz and María Dolores Ortolá
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025014 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 449
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to the Biology and Life Sciences Forum, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
4 pages, 1697 KiB  
Editorial
Preface of the V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link
by Claudia M. Haros, Loreto A. Muñoz and María Dolores Ortolá
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025015 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 757
Abstract
The V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link: Feeding Biodiversity and Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change: the Role of Ancestral Crops in Creating Healthy Food is organized by the International la ValSe-Food (Iberoamerican Valuable Seeds or Valiosas Semillas Iberoamericanas) [...] Read more.
The V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link: Feeding Biodiversity and Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change: the Role of Ancestral Crops in Creating Healthy Food is organized by the International la ValSe-Food (Iberoamerican Valuable Seeds or Valiosas Semillas Iberoamericanas) Network—CYTED [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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3 pages, 219 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluation of a Low-Glucose Gluten-Free Bread Made from Hydrolyzed Cassava Starch and Lupine Flour
by Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado and Vanessa Abad-Quevedo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025001 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 488
Abstract
Currently, there is an increase in diabetes cases and people sensitive to gluten. However, there are few foods in commerce with good quality and that serve to appease, in synergy, these diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate a low-glucose gluten-free [...] Read more.
Currently, there is an increase in diabetes cases and people sensitive to gluten. However, there are few foods in commerce with good quality and that serve to appease, in synergy, these diseases. The aim of this work was to evaluate a low-glucose gluten-free bread made from hydrolyzed cassava starch and lupine flour. The starch of the cassava variety INIAP 651 (CM1335–4 genotype), cultivated in Ecuador, as well as the debittered flour of lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) from Ecuador were used. A cassava starch/water dilution was gelatinized, lyophilized, ground, and sieved. Then, it was hydrolyzed with pancreatic α-amylase prepared at 100 U/g, for 0, 1, 2, and 3 h. In addition, breads were made from gels without the addition of yeast. The gels showed significant differences for the hydrolysis times 0 and 1 h, in hydrolysis level, consistency, cohesiveness, firmness and viscosity level. No significant differences were found in those parameters for 1, 2 and 3 h. In the bread, significant differences were found for 0 and 1 h in specific volume, firmness, springiness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, and resilience. There were no significant differences between 0 to 3 h of hydrolysis for those parameters. Up to 10% partial substitution of hydrolyzed cassava starch by lupine flour, there were no significant differences in rheological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
6 pages, 271 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Powdered Beverage with Cushuro (Nostoc commune) Concentrated Protein and Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)
by Nancy Chasquibol, Axel Sotelo and Rafael Alarcón
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025002 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The trend in protein consumption is towards plant-based foods, for this reason a powdered beverage with a balanced profile of essential amino acids was developed, combining two different sources of protein, cushuro (Nostoc commune) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). The [...] Read more.
The trend in protein consumption is towards plant-based foods, for this reason a powdered beverage with a balanced profile of essential amino acids was developed, combining two different sources of protein, cushuro (Nostoc commune) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). The cushuro is an ancient Andean cyanobacteria that grows over 3000 and 4000 m above sea level, and quinoa is an important Andean seed, and they are part of the basic diet of the Andean Peruvian population. The cushuro obtained from the region of Ancash-Peru was dried (60 °C, 18 h) and the flour was dissolved in 0.1 N HCl at 90 °C for 20 min to obtain a protein concentrate with 6.79% moisture, 0.16% fat, 71.03% protein, and good balance of essential amino acids. Quinoa flour presented 8.52% moisture, 4.84% fat, 12.90% protein, and essential amino acids such as phenylalanine, and lysine. Quinoa flour (65.45%), cushuro concentrated protein (4.76%), cocoa (17.85%), panela (11.90%), and stevia (0.05%), were mixed to obtain the powdered beverage. The results showed that powdered beverage presented an adequate balance of amino acids according to FAO/WHO, with 14.36% proteins, 72.53% carbohydrate, 5.19% fat, 716.6 mg/kg potassium, 319.8 mg/kg phosphorus, 139.2 mg/kg magnesium, 82.69 mg/100 g vitamin C, 1.49 µg/100 g vitamin B12, heavy metals below the detection evel (<0.050 mg/kg). The powdered beverage complied with the Peruvian legislation of the Healthy Law No. 30021 and with the microbiological requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
5 pages, 1308 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Obtaining Quinoa Germ via Wet Milling and Extracting Its Oil via Cold Pressing
by Ana Ribera-Castelló and Claudia Monika Haros
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025003 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 909
Abstract
Wet milling is a fractionation process widely used in the corn industry, which allows the separation of its main chemical components (starch, proteins, fiber and lipids) with high efficiency and purity compared to dry milling. The first stage of this process consists of [...] Read more.
Wet milling is a fractionation process widely used in the corn industry, which allows the separation of its main chemical components (starch, proteins, fiber and lipids) with high efficiency and purity compared to dry milling. The first stage of this process consists of maceration; after softening the grain, the actual milling is carried out, and the germ is separated by flotation because of its high lipid content. The chemical composition of pseudocereals is similar to that of cereals, hence their name, so they could be processed in the same way. In this way, the traditional corn wet milling process was adapted to quinoa. The objective of this work is to isolate the germ of red Bolivian Royal quinoa using wet milling, and evaluate its efficiency and physicochemical characteristics due to its large size and nutrient concentration. By cold pressing the red quinoa germ, crude oil was obtained and characterized in terms of: Acid Index, Iodine Index, Saponification Index, K Index, Refractive Index (20 °C) and fatty acid composition, determined by gas chromatography coupled to a mass detector (GC-MS). This profile was compared with the fatty acid profile of the solvent-extracted quinoa oil, and it was observed that there were no significant differences between the two oil samples. In addition, the sample obtained via cold pressing showed similar characteristics to corn oil, except for a higher Saponification Index and proportion of linolenic acid (omega-3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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6 pages, 272 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Extruded Snacks with Protein Hydrolysed from Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) by-Product and Cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen)
by Mateo Tapia, Sebastián J. Marimón and Nicolás Salazar
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025004 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The jumbo squid fishery in Peru is the second most important after the anchovy fishery. During its manufacturing process, only 50% to 60% of the total jumbo squid is used, thereby, the residues could be used to develop functional foods. Cañihua (Chenopodium [...] Read more.
The jumbo squid fishery in Peru is the second most important after the anchovy fishery. During its manufacturing process, only 50% to 60% of the total jumbo squid is used, thereby, the residues could be used to develop functional foods. Cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) is an Andean pseudocereal from the highlands of Peru characterized by its high nutritional value. This work aimed to develop extruded snacks with protein hydrolyzed (PH) from jumbo squid by-product (JSBP) due to its high protein content, low price, and high availability. Four extruded snacks with corn flour (55%), rice flour (20% to 30%) and cañihua flour (15%) were enriched with PH from JSBP (4% to 10%) and developed using a twin-screw extruder. The extruded snacks were characterized by their physical properties (density, expansion ratio, water absorption index) and shelf life. The addition of PH from JSBP increased the protein content from 11.20% to 15.39%; ash content from 1.40% to 1.66% and fat content ranged from 1.10% to 1.18% compared to the control sample, the moisture content was from 4.46% to 5.81%. Also, the extruded snacks showed high phenolic concentration, 5633 µg GAE/g snack to 7315 µg GAE/g snack, high antioxidant activity, 698 mg trolox/g snack to 1274 mg trolox/g snack, high in vitro protein digestibility, 72.58% to 74.40%, and low acid index (0.095 mg KOH/g snack to 0.105 mg KOH/g snack) and peroxide index (0.00 meq O2/kg snack to 0.063 meq O2/kg snack), respectively. The snacks were accepted by the panel evaluators, complied with the Peruvian standard NTP-209.226 and microbiological requirements. Therefore, these snacks can be a healthier alternative product and satisfy market trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
6 pages, 1466 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Hydration on the Technological Properties of Andean Maize Native Whole-Grain Flour Dough and Bread
by Rita M. Miranda, Manuel O. Lobo and Norma C. Sammán
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025005 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Andean maize is produced in the Argentine Northwest and can be used in gluten-free bread formulations. Water has an important role in the technological properties of flour and consequently in gluten-free bread quality. Processing whole-grain flour is difficult but improves the final product’s [...] Read more.
Andean maize is produced in the Argentine Northwest and can be used in gluten-free bread formulations. Water has an important role in the technological properties of flour and consequently in gluten-free bread quality. Processing whole-grain flour is difficult but improves the final product’s nutritional profile. The work aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of water (100, 110, and 120% based on flour weight) on the flow properties of dough, textural properties and cooking of bread. For the formulation of the mold bread, Andean maize (Capia and Bolita) whole-grain flour was used. The flow properties of dough, weight losses and textural properties in breads were determined. The flow tests showed a drop in the consistency index with increasing dough hydration. In contrast, the flow index increased with respect to its initial value in both varieties of maize. The weight loss after baking tended to increase significantly from 4.60 to 5.8% with hydration increasing in Capia maize bread. However, this trend was not observed in Bolita. The hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness determined varied significantly only in Bolita maize bread due to the effects of hydration. More consistent dough resulted in harder, more elastic, rubbery and chewier bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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5 pages, 747 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Comparison and Modeling of the Drying Kinetics of Moringa Leaves Using a Closed Facility in the Field and Using a Convective Tray Dryer
by María Dolores Ortolá, José Francisco García-Mares, Borja Mocholí, María Desamparados Soriano and María Luisa Castelló
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025006 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 666
Abstract
Climate change requires a transition to crops that need less water and are more tolerant of high temperatures. In this regard, the adaptation of Moringa oleifera to the Spanish Mediterranean Basin offers the sustainable alternative production of a plant with a high nutritional [...] Read more.
Climate change requires a transition to crops that need less water and are more tolerant of high temperatures. In this regard, the adaptation of Moringa oleifera to the Spanish Mediterranean Basin offers the sustainable alternative production of a plant with a high nutritional value. It might also serve as a substitute crop with significant economic potential in less developed tropical regions in the world. Moreover, to provide the market with a homogeneous product, the stabilization of the leaves is necessary. The lack of control in the traditional form of moringa leaf drying (which only makes use of shade and air) does not guarantee a final homogeneous water content that can extend the crop’s shelf life. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to develop a modular, affordable, and expandable dryer that enables the dehydration of leaves in the same field, lowering production costs in the process. The drying kinetics of leaves from crops of different ages (1 and 4 years) have been fitted to several mathematical models, using the “field dryer” and a semi-industrial tray dryer. In addition, their physicochemical properties were also compared. The outcomes demonstrate the viability of the field dryer’s design. The drying kinetics of both dryers were more effectively adapted to the logarithmic model. Due to the variable air conditions in the field, the equilibrium moisture level attained was somewhat greater using the field dryer than using the tray dryer, but the product color and antioxidant and protein contents were similar. Finally, younger plants produced leaves with greater antioxidant capacities and a lower final water content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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7 pages, 926 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Influence of Substitution of Wheat and Broad Bean Flour for Hydrolyzed Quinoa Flour on Cookie Properties
by Ileana de los A. Gremasqui, María A. Giménez, Manuel O. Lobo, Loreto Muñoz, María C. Zuñiga and Norma C. Sammán
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025007 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important pseudocereal for its high nutritional value, versatility in cooking, gluten-free nature, and potential contribution to food security and sustainable agriculture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution [...] Read more.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an important pseudocereal for its high nutritional value, versatility in cooking, gluten-free nature, and potential contribution to food security and sustainable agriculture. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different levels of substitution (10, 20, and 30%) of hydrolyzed quinoa flour (HQF) on the nutritional, physical, and antioxidant characteristics and protein digestibility of cookies elaborated with wheat and broad bean flours. Cookies without HQF were the control (C0). The addition of HQF increased the protein content by between 12 and 68% compared to C0. The increase in HQF improved the cookies’ quality according to the spread ratio. Adding HQF resulted in more compact cookies, decreasing their specific volume (1.30 to 1.15 cm3/g) and increasing their hardness (2791 to 6515 g). The total polyphenols increased by 2 to 3 times, and the antioxidant activity increased by more than three times with a 30% addition of HQF with respect to C0. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity with fluoresceine (ORAC-FL) index (stoichiometry or amount of antioxidants) revealed that up to a 20% and 30% addition of HQF increased the antioxidant compounds by up to ~1.5 times. On the other hand, the antioxidant reactivity, according to the oxygen radical absorbance capacity with pyrogallol red (ORAC-PGR) index, increased by 2.4 times with a 30% addition of HQF. Finally, the cookies’ digestibility improved with a 10% addition of HQF. Therefore, HQF represents a viable option in the development of cookies with highly reactive antioxidant compounds that are nutritionally improved. This application could be extended to other baked products. However, a 30% addition of HQF affects its textural properties and decreases its digestibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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6 pages, 3120 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Effect of Pre-Treatment of Quinoa Seeds on Alcalase Hydrolysis and Antiradical Activity of Peptides Fractions
by Julio Rueda, Manuel O. Lobo and Norma C. Samman
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025008 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The pre-treatment of seeds prior to processing is gaining attention as alternative ways of modifying properties of foods. In this work, the extrusion and germination of quinoa seeds were evaluated for their effect on protein profile, alcalase hydrolysis and the antioxidant capacity (AOC) [...] Read more.
The pre-treatment of seeds prior to processing is gaining attention as alternative ways of modifying properties of foods. In this work, the extrusion and germination of quinoa seeds were evaluated for their effect on protein profile, alcalase hydrolysis and the antioxidant capacity (AOC) of peptide fractions (>10, 3–10 and <3 kDa). The proteins in extruded (EQ), germinated (GQ) and unprocessed (UQ) seeds were extracted, hydrolysed and fractionated by ultrafiltration. An SDS-PAGE protein profile showed that the pre-treatments partially hydrolysed high-molecular-weight proteins (75–100 kDa) into low-molecular-weight polypeptides, and chenopodin was unaltered. The hydrolysis degree in hydrolysates reached 38.38% for UQ seeds, 31.85% for EQ seeds and 30.09% for GQ seeds. Compared to the UQ hydrolysate, the extrusion and germination significantly improved (p < 0.05) the AOC of the <3 kDa fraction by 61.49% (EQ) and 38.11% (GQ) and the 3–103–10 kDa fraction by 130.98% (EQ) and 57.71% (GQ). The pre-treatment of seeds before protein extraction and hydrolysis modified the peptide profile with improved antiradical activity after alcalase hydrolysis. This study highlights the use of mild pre-treatments applied to quinoa seeds as a way to modify proteins and obtain hydrolysates with enhanced bioactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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4 pages, 251 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mistol-Based Vegan Beverages for a Healthy Diet
by R. Villalba, J. Belotto, E. Coronel, A. Suárez, S. Caballero and L. Mereles
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025009 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 595
Abstract
The fruit of Sarcomphalus mistol (Griseb.) is from the Great American Chaco, an important wild food resource. However, its composition and potential uses are unknown to a large part of the population. In this work, two mistol and peanuts-based products were prepared (a [...] Read more.
The fruit of Sarcomphalus mistol (Griseb.) is from the Great American Chaco, an important wild food resource. However, its composition and potential uses are unknown to a large part of the population. In this work, two mistol and peanuts-based products were prepared (a toasted mistol product “mistol coffee” and a mistol-peanuts-based vegan beverage), and its nutritional value and antioxidant potential was investigated. The chemical composition, total phenolics compounds (TPCs), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the two products were analyzed on a dry basis with AOAC, Folin–Ciocalteu, and ABTS+ radical inhibition methods, respectively. The toasted mistol product was high in dietary fiber (51.89 ± 0.65 g/100 g) and TPC (2729 ± 362 mgGAE/100 g), which was consistent with the observed high TAC (307 ± 14 mM TEAC/g). Minerals found in the toasted mistol product were mainly calcium and magnesium. The mistol-peanut-based vegan beverage presented 12.67 g/100 g of dry extract, and its main nutritional contributions are carbohydrates (8.16 ± 1.05 g/100 g db), lipids (2.33 ± 0.29 g/100 g db), magnesium (10.34 ± 1.40 mg/100 g db), and polyphenols (345 ± 4.58 mg GAE/100 g db) in agreement with their TAC in the lyophilized product (17.6 ± 5.25 mM/TEAC/g db). These products can be used according to their observed nutritional value and antioxidant potential as foods with healthy properties, especially for vegan populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
7 pages, 2041 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Use of By-Products of Selection Process of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Extraction of Protein and Starch
by Matias M. Alancay, Sonia R. Calliope, Rita M. Miranda and Norma C. Samman
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025010 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 742
Abstract
The industrial selection process of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) produced in Northwest Argentina (NOA) region produces 7000 tons/year of by-products integrated from broken, bruised, and reduced-sized seeds. This investigation aimed to study the possibilities of using these by-products as a source of [...] Read more.
The industrial selection process of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) produced in Northwest Argentina (NOA) region produces 7000 tons/year of by-products integrated from broken, bruised, and reduced-sized seeds. This investigation aimed to study the possibilities of using these by-products as a source of protein and starch. Samples were crushed to obtain flour (BF) with particle size of 250 µm. Starch and protein were extracted in a 6:1 and 10:1 water/flour ratio at pH 9 and 10, respectively. After centrifugation, the protein was precipitated from the supernatant at pH 4.5, and a bean protein concentrate (BPC) was obtained. The chemical composition of BF, S, and BPC was determined. Starch swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), and syneresis in cooling (SC) and freezing (SF) conditions were determined. The proportion of molecular structure of BPC was determined using deconvolution of infrared spectrum (Amide I zone), and their solubility using Bradford reactive. The yield of obtaining processes of BPC and bean starch (BS) of high purities was 13.0 and 50.3 g/100 g of BF, respectively. The BS showed SP, WSI, and WAI values of 3.5 ± 0.5 (sediment weight g/100 g BS), 1.7 ± 1.6 (weight of the soluble BS g/100 g of BS), and 3.6 ± 0.5 (sediment weight g/weight of BS (dry solid) g), respectively. The SC was higher than SF and was double with respect to starches of other origins. The BPC solubility was 15.5 g protein/100 g BPC (pH 4.5), higher than concentrates of conventional vegetable proteins. The infrared profile showed higher proportions of deployed structures, i.e., β-sheets (22%) and random coils (18.8%), suitable for emulsifying and gelling properties. Results showed bean by-products as an alternative source of ingredients for the food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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6 pages, 1928 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Oxidative Stability Study of Amylose-Hydrolyzed Chia Oil Inclusion Complexes Using the Rancimat Method
by Andrea E. Di Marco, Vanesa Y. Ixtaina and Mabel C. Tomás
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025011 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 603
Abstract
Chia oil is a source of α-linolenic (omega-3) fatty acid, which is known to promote human health but is highly prone to oxidation. Amylose (a polymer of α-1,4 D-glucose units) can molecularly encapsulate hydrophobic molecules, forming inclusion complexes that could potentially allow the [...] Read more.
Chia oil is a source of α-linolenic (omega-3) fatty acid, which is known to promote human health but is highly prone to oxidation. Amylose (a polymer of α-1,4 D-glucose units) can molecularly encapsulate hydrophobic molecules, forming inclusion complexes that could potentially allow the incorporation of sensitive bioactive substances into functional foods. The evaluation of their oxidative stability is relevant to understand their behavior as delivery systems, but monitoring this parameter under real storage conditions requires long periods. In the present work, the oxidative stability of amylose-hydrolyzed chia oil inclusion complexes at 25 °C was estimated from the extrapolation of the exponential dependence of the Rancimat induction times determined at different temperatures (70–98 °C). The complexes were formed with high amylose corn starch and enzymatically hydrolyzed chia oil (10% or 20% hydrolysate/starch), with and without crystallization, using the KOH/HCl method followed by freeze-drying. The spectra of attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed typical bands that confirmed the effective retention of chia oil fatty acids by the starch structure. The scanning electron micrographs showed that these samples were formed by irregular and porous solid particles. The induction time at 25 °C of crystallized complexes decreased with an increasing hydrolysate content, while the opposite was observed in non-crystallized complexes, as those formed with 20% hydrolysate were the ones that showed the highest stability. Although these findings should be confirmed under real storage conditions, the Rancimat results could be considered as a preliminary quick prediction of the behavior of inclusion complexes as carriers of omega-3 fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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7 pages, 1962 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Characterization of Quinoa Fibre-Rich Fractions Isolated via Wet-Milling and Their Application in Food
by Andrea Alonso-Álvarez and Claudia Monika Haros
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025012 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 976
Abstract
Dietary fibre intake has beneficial effects on immunonutritional health and prevents the development of chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Currently, dietary fibre consumption worldwide is below the WHO recommended daily intake of 25 g. An excellent [...] Read more.
Dietary fibre intake has beneficial effects on immunonutritional health and prevents the development of chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Currently, dietary fibre consumption worldwide is below the WHO recommended daily intake of 25 g. An excellent source of dietary fibre is the fibre-rich fractions of quinoa, which have a high technological potential, nutritional value, and biological activity. This fraction can be isolated via wet-milling, which offers a higher yield and recovery of the main chemical components of cereals/pseudocereals with a higher purity than those obtained via dry-milling. The objective of this work was the isolation of fibre-rich fractions of Royal Bolivian quinoa (white, red, and black) obtained via wet-milling and their characterization as technofunctional ingredients in the formulation of cereal-based food products. The extraction yield of the fibre fraction and its proximal chemical composition were determined, in addition to phytic acid content; minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc; and technofunctional properties (particle size distribution, water and oil holding capacity, and swelling capacity). All fibre fractions isolated via wet-milling could be used as food ingredients. In particular, the fibre-rich fraction of black quinoa contains the highest amount of insoluble fibre. However, from a technological point of view, red quinoa fibre could be the most suitable for inclusion in the formulation of food matrices due to its high water and oil retention capacity, as well as its swelling capacity. The incorporation of a low proportion of quinoa dietary fibre (5–10%) allows increasing the nutritional profile of cereal-based food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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5 pages, 243 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Global Trends in the Worldwide Expansion of Quinoa Cultivation
by Didier Bazile
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025013 - 28 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1486
Abstract
For centuries, quinoa cultivation was centered only in the Andean countries, and recently it has spread to all regions of the world. Although the number of exporting countries has increased, Bolivia and Peru remain the world’s leading producers and exporters. Today, more than [...] Read more.
For centuries, quinoa cultivation was centered only in the Andean countries, and recently it has spread to all regions of the world. Although the number of exporting countries has increased, Bolivia and Peru remain the world’s leading producers and exporters. Today, more than 125 countries are experimenting with or cultivating quinoa. The expansion of the crop has only been possible due to the genetic diversity of seeds maintained by generations of farmers in the Andes. As access to quinoa genetic resources in Andean countries remains limited, this implies that the development of new varieties relies on a narrow genetic base relative to the theoretical potential of the species. The use of improved varieties has increased, especially with the emergence of new countries sourcing seed from commercial varieties to start cultivation. To cope with the increasing effects of climate change, it is essential to increase the resilience of crop by taking advantage of their genetic diversity. The current global crisis can only be overcome in the North or in the South by establishing new partnerships for access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits of their use. In the last 30 years, quinoa from the Andean countries gained a position in global markets and improved the quality of life of producers. However, at the end of 2015, producer prices collapsed. Quinoa development is dynamic, and now Andean producers face different scenarios with new competitors and new concerns. Being aware of the new reality is essential to face the new challenges responsibly. Analysis at different scales is fundamental, as is promoting local diversity and cooperating towards innovative production systems and inclusive processes that benefit everyone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
6 pages, 397 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Grain-and-Legume-Based Snack with Amaranth, Quinoa and Chia Seeds
by Silvia Farah, Jannika Bailey, Pablo Mezzatesta and Emilia Raimondo
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025016 - 8 Oct 2023
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Globally, 1 in 2 people want to consume more plant-based foods, so developing nutritionally balanced foods for this area is a response to a growing need of the population. The objective was to develop snack alternatives with amaranth, quinoa and chia seeds, supplemented [...] Read more.
Globally, 1 in 2 people want to consume more plant-based foods, so developing nutritionally balanced foods for this area is a response to a growing need of the population. The objective was to develop snack alternatives with amaranth, quinoa and chia seeds, supplemented with protein. For this purpose, three mixtures were prepared, the first of rice flour with lentil flour (M1), another of rice flour with pea flour (M2) and another of wheat flour with chickpea flour (M3). The same amount of amaranth, quinoa and chia seeds were added to all three. The same proportion of the rest of the ingredients was used, varying only the seasonings. The cooking time was 10 min at 180 °C in all cases. The preparations were carried out in triplicate and analyses in duplicate. Once prepared, protein, total fat, ash, moisture and fiber were determined using official analytical techniques, carbohydrates using difference, energy value using calculations and fatty acid profile using gas chromatography. For statistical analysis, the Tukey test was applied. The highest protein value was 15.84 ± 0.34 g% (M1). The highest lipid value was 21.44 ± 0.13 g% (M3), providing omega 9, 3 and 6 fatty acids and, to a much lesser extent, saturated fatty acid. All options have a good contribution of dietary fiber: 7.39 ± 0.14 g% (M1); 7.71 ± 0.09 g% (M2) and 7.55 ± 0.23 g% (M3). The acceptability was above 94% in all cases. It was possible to formulate healthy snacks suitable for vegetarians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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7 pages, 278 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Use of Phenolic Extract from Peanut Skin as a Natural Antioxidant in Chia Oil-Based Mayonnaise
by Romina Mariana Bodoira, Andrea Carolina Rodríguez-Ruiz, Damián Modesto Maestri, Pablo Daniel Ribotta, Alexis Rafael Velez and Marcela Lilian Martinez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025017 - 11 Oct 2023
Viewed by 605
Abstract
Currently, the antioxidants (AOs) used in foods are mainly synthetic, often questioned on health grounds. So, the need for innocuous natural AOs has increased in last years. The peanut skin (PS) is an industrial by-product of low added value, but rich in bioactive [...] Read more.
Currently, the antioxidants (AOs) used in foods are mainly synthetic, often questioned on health grounds. So, the need for innocuous natural AOs has increased in last years. The peanut skin (PS) is an industrial by-product of low added value, but rich in bioactive phenolic compounds. In this study, the antioxidant capacity of a PS extract (PSE) was examined in a chia oil-based mayonnaise stored during six months (25 °C). The mayonnaise was made using chia oil (68% w/w) added with PSE (2 mg/g fat) and without any AO (control). For the storage test, 30 g were placed in 100 mL amber bottles and at 2, 4 and 6 months the oily phase was extracted (chloroform: methanol). Peroxide index (PI), acidity index (AI), K232, K270, p-Anisidine (pAnV) and TOTOX values were measured. Moreover, the presence of 2,4 heptadienal and 3,5-octadiene-2-one was analyzed by static headspace GC-MS. At the end of the assay, PI, AI, K232, K270, and pAnV for control and PSE mayonnaises were 74.7 and 13.4 meq O2/kg oil; 2.4 and 2.0 mg KOH/kg oil, 10 and 3.55, 1.34 and 0.64, 3.7 and 0.98, respectively. The TOTOX value of the control was approximately six times higher than PSE mayonnaise. 2,4 Heptadienal and 3,5-octadiene-2-one were not detected at initial time but in the control treatment at the end reached 3.75 and 2.15 µg/g, respectively. Differently, in PSE mayonnaise, 3,5-octadiene-2-one was undetected and 2,4 Heptadienal was 0.83 µg/g. In conclusion, PSE represents a potential natural AO to preserve the oxidative stability of chia oil-based mayonnaise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
4 pages, 246 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Physicochemical and Nutritional Characterization of Paraguayan Organic Moringa oleifera Leaves as a Food Ingredient
by L. Mereles, M. L. Castelló, P. Piris, R. Villalba, E. Coronel, S. Caballero, J. López, A. Suárez, M. D. Ortolá, C. Figueras and E. A. Gómez
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025018 - 13 Oct 2023
Viewed by 669
Abstract
Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics of organic moringa leaves, such as the color, the moisture control and water activity (aw) for biological control, as its basic composition, provides valuable starting data for its improvement and quality control through the selection of key parameters [...] Read more.
Knowledge of the physicochemical characteristics of organic moringa leaves, such as the color, the moisture control and water activity (aw) for biological control, as its basic composition, provides valuable starting data for its improvement and quality control through the selection of key parameters for the conservation of its multiple nutritional and antioxidant qualities in organic production systems adapted to local conditions. Objective: Describe the physicochemical characteristics and composition of macro- and micronutrients of Moringa oleifera leaves from a vivarium under controlled conditions and evaluate the antioxidant potential of dried moringa leaves from organic production in Paraguay under experimental conditions. A systematic sampling of moringa leaves from a vivarium was carried out. For color analysis, the CIEL*a*b* coordinates were determined. For physicochemical characteristics’ analysis and macro- and micronutrient composition, official methods were used, while Total Phenolics Compounds (TPC) were determined by the Folin Ciocalteau method, and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) was determined by the antioxidant inhibition test (Radical ABTS+). Under experimental conditions, the dried moringa leaves under experimental conditions presented a light green color and low levels of humidity (8.1 ± 0.4%) and aw (0.59), with high protein levels (27%), micronutrients such as minerals (Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Zn), vitamins B1, B2, Vit. C, TPC (5051 ± 168 g GAE/100 g) and antioxidants (468 ± 109 mMTEAC/g). Moringa leaves from Paraguay represent a source of micronutrients in the diet, and can be applied as ingredients in different culinary preparations within the framework of a healthy and sustainable diet, in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
4 pages, 252 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Nutritional Drink Based on Kurugua Wholemeal Flour as a Source of Minerals and Amino Acids
by Eva Coronel, Marcela L. Martínez, Edgardo Calandri, Rocío Villalba, Alexis Ortiz, Silvia Caballero and Laura Mereles
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025019 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 835
Abstract
Adequate intake of mineral nutrients and amino acids is essential for nutrition in the Western diet, where deficiencies of minerals such as Zn, Fe, and good quality proteins are highly prevalent in vulnerable populations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The aim [...] Read more.
Adequate intake of mineral nutrients and amino acids is essential for nutrition in the Western diet, where deficiencies of minerals such as Zn, Fe, and good quality proteins are highly prevalent in vulnerable populations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mineral and amino acid content of Kurugua (KWF) wholemeal flour and a derived product (9% K w/v, 0.8% chia oil (w/v), and 1% sweetener v/v). Proteins were analyzed by Microkjeldhal, minerals Na, K, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe by AOAC, and amino acid profile by HPLC-DAD methods. KWF presented a high content of Mg and Zn (207.63 ± 5.27 and 15.76 ± 0.04 mg/100 g, respectively). A KWF-based drink provides 5.05 mg Zn/100 g, equivalent to 46% of the recommended daily intake (RDI) in a 200 mL serving of the beverage. Amino acids (glutamic acid + glutamine) and (aspartic acid + asparagine) were the most abundant in KWF (112.2 and 245 mg of aa/g protein, respectively), with 18.0% of total protein. A serving of KWF-based drink contains about 3.02 g of protein and the essential amino acids Hys, Val, Met, Phe, Ile, Leu, and Lys (31.6, 213, 198, 89.3, 186, 3.7, and 194.3 mg AA/200 mL, respectively). The ready-to-drink Kurugua drink takes full advantage of the wholemeal flour of an indigenous fruit such as Kurugua, providing a source of zinc and an adequate amount of essential amino acids and expanding the supply of healthy products within the framework of food safety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
8 pages, 3333 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Formulation of Sustainable Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles Obtained via Media Milling for Chia Oil Vehiculization in Pickering Emulsions
by María G. Bordón, Lucía López-Vidal, Nahuel Camacho, Marcela L. Martínez, María C. Penci, Cecilio Carrera-Sánchez, Víctor Pizones Ruiz Henestrosa, Santiago D. Palma and Pablo D. Ribotta
Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2023, 25(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/blsf2023025020 - 5 Dec 2023
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Sustainable corn starch nanoparticles were prepared using media milling to stabilize omega-3-rich Pickering emulsions based on chia oil. The milling conditions were as follows: 24 h (milling time), 0.4–0.6 mm (bead diameter), 1600 rpm (impeller speed), 30% (volume occupied by the grinding media), [...] Read more.
Sustainable corn starch nanoparticles were prepared using media milling to stabilize omega-3-rich Pickering emulsions based on chia oil. The milling conditions were as follows: 24 h (milling time), 0.4–0.6 mm (bead diameter), 1600 rpm (impeller speed), 30% (volume occupied by the grinding media), 7% w/v (starch concentration), and 0, 0.07 and 1% w/v of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Nanosuspensions containing 7% w/v of starch and the three concentrations of SDS were filtered, centrifuged, homogenized, and spray-dried to obtain redispersible powders. The particle size ranges were 2288 ± 211, 385 ± 21, and 278 ± 11 nm with 0, 0.07 and 1% w/v of SDS, respectively. The most stable backscattering profiles obtained during a period of one week were observed with 0.07 and 1% w/v of SDS. Therefore, the surface dilatational rheology of these particles adsorbed at chia oil/water interfaces was studied. A rapid decrease in the interfacial tension within 1 h was obtained with 1% w/v of SDS (down to 3 mN/m). Moreover, the most stable particle size after redispersion was obtained with the highest concentration of SDS. Finally, Pickering emulsions were prepared, and significant coalescence was observed with 0 and 0.07% w/v of SDS (within a few minutes). Nonetheless, in the presence of 1% w/v of SDS, oil droplets showed mean diameters and polydispersity indexes of 280.13 ± 4.60 nm and 0.35 ± 0.02, respectively, with no significant variations during storage for around 1 month. The results show that wet-stirred media milling can be applied to produce sustainable, new food-grade starch nanoparticles able to deliver bioactive compounds from chia oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of V International Conference la ValSe-Food and VIII Symposium Chia-Link)
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