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Oxygen, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 6 articles

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18 pages, 541 KiB  
Article
Study of the Total Phenolic Content, Total Antioxidant Activity and In Vitro Digestibility of Novel Wheat Crackers Enriched with Cereal, Legume and Agricultural By-Product Flours
by Despina Chatziharalambous, Chrysoula Kaloteraki, Panagiota Potsaki, Olga Papagianni, Konstantinos Giannoutsos, Danai I. Koukoumaki, Dimitris Sarris, Konstantinos Gkatzionis and Antonios E. Koutelidakis
Oxygen 2023, 3(2), 256-273; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen3020017 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1808
Abstract
Wheat-flour crackers represent a staple snack option, although they lack nutritional value. Agricultural by-products such as olive and grape seeds, cereals such as barley and legumes such as lupine and chickpea are rich in bioactive compounds; therefore, flours obtained from those could represent [...] Read more.
Wheat-flour crackers represent a staple snack option, although they lack nutritional value. Agricultural by-products such as olive and grape seeds, cereals such as barley and legumes such as lupine and chickpea are rich in bioactive compounds; therefore, flours obtained from those could represent a better option for bakery products fortification. The purpose of the present study was the investigation of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity before and after the baking of wheat crackers enriched with 10–30% olive seed, 10–30% grape seed, 10–40% lupine, 10–30% barley and 20–60% and 80% chickpea flours and the evaluation of the predicted bioavailability after in vitro digestion of crackers demonstrating the highest values. Crackers and doughs were processed and analyzed using Folin–Ciocâlteu and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. Crackers with the highest properties were subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Baking resulted in an increase in total phenolics and antioxidant activity in the majority of crackers. Olive and grape seed flour crackers demonstrated the highest antioxidant properties. Following in vitro digestion, 30% olive seed flour crackers retained the majority of polyphenols and antioxidant activity. Crackers enriched with 30% olive seed flour could represent a healthy functional bakery snack regarding their increased antioxidant properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen Volume Ⅱ)
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34 pages, 3279 KiB  
Review
Flow Cytometry of Oxygen and Oxygen-Related Cellular Stress
by Beatriz Jávega, Guadalupe Herrera, Alicia Martínez-Romero and José-Enrique O’Connor
Oxygen 2023, 3(2), 222-255; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen3020016 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3679
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unstable and highly reactive molecular forms that play physiological roles in cell signaling and immune defense. However, when ROS generation is not properly balanced by antioxidant defenses, a pathological condition known as oxidative stress arises, in association with [...] Read more.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are unstable and highly reactive molecular forms that play physiological roles in cell signaling and immune defense. However, when ROS generation is not properly balanced by antioxidant defenses, a pathological condition known as oxidative stress arises, in association with the onset and progression of many diseases and conditions, including degeneration and aging. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in biomedicine are actively investigated using different approaches, among which flow cytometry (FCM) and other single-cell, fluorescence-based techniques are most frequent. FCM is an analytical method that measures light scattering and emission of multiple fluorescences by single cells or microscopic particles at a very fast rate. To assess the specific role of ROS in oxidative stress, it is essential to detect and characterize these species accurately. However, the detection and quantitation of individual intracellular ROS and parameters of oxidative stress using fluorogenic substrates and fluorescent probes are still a challenge, because of biological and methodological issues. In this review, we present and discuss a series of complementary strategies to detect ROS or to focus on other endpoints of oxidative stress. Based on our results, we propose some recommendations for proper design of cytometric studies of oxidative stress in order to prevent or minimize the limitations and experimental errors of such approaches. Full article
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19 pages, 6399 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Assessment of the Antioxidant and Anticancer Potential of Selected Ethnobotanical Plants
by Monoj Kumar Das, Neelu Singh and Paulraj Rajamani
Oxygen 2023, 3(2), 203-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen3020015 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Globally, among different types of cancers, breast cancer is identified as the chief cause of mortality among females, and it is a challenge to find new effective treatment strategies with minimal side effects and increased efficacy. Plants are an integral part of the [...] Read more.
Globally, among different types of cancers, breast cancer is identified as the chief cause of mortality among females, and it is a challenge to find new effective treatment strategies with minimal side effects and increased efficacy. Plants are an integral part of the traditional indigenous healthcare system and are becoming the concrete source of new drug discovery. Thus, there is a need to obtain a scientific basis for applying traditionally used plants in cancer treatments that may harbour novel phytochemicals. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer potential of selected plants of ethnobotanical importance. Five plants of ethnobotanical importance were selected and screened to determine their antioxidant potential through various in vitro free radical scavenging assays (such as DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical scavenging), ferric chelation, and total antioxidant potential, and the total phenolic and flavonoid content was estimated for the selected plants. In contrast, the anticancer potential of crude plant extracts was assessed using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) against different breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-435S) and hepatic cancer cell lines (HepG2), and human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) were used for toxicity studies. The MTT results showed that among all of the crude plant extracts (CAN = Etlingera linguiformis, SES = Sesbania grandiflora, LEX = Smilax ovalifolia, DES = Desmodium triflorum, and CA = Chenopodium album), it was CAN and LEX that showed the best cytotoxic potential on exposed breast cancer cell lines in contrast to SES, DES, and CA. In addition, at the selected dosages that were exposed to breast cancer cells, none of the extracts from any of the five plants showed any cytotoxicity against human PBMCs. Thus, the crude extracts can be explored further for chemopreventive and anticancer activity on murine models to understand their underlying mechanism for effective cancer management. Full article
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13 pages, 2527 KiB  
Article
Impacts of Varying Blood Flow Restriction Cuff Size and Material on Arterial, Venous and Calf Muscle Pump-Mediated Blood Flow
by Steven B. Machek, Dillon R. Harris, Jeffery L. Heileson, Dylan T. Wilburn, Jeffrey S. Forsse and Darryn S. Willoughby
Oxygen 2023, 3(2), 190-202; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen3020014 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1830
Abstract
Blood flow restriction (BFR) may become ineffective or potentially dangerous without sufficient standardization. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to (1) assess the viability of multiple sizes of a novel BFR cuff to determine arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) and (2) compare resting [...] Read more.
Blood flow restriction (BFR) may become ineffective or potentially dangerous without sufficient standardization. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to (1) assess the viability of multiple sizes of a novel BFR cuff to determine arterial occlusion pressure (AOP) and (2) compare resting arterial, venous and calf muscle pump (cMP)-mediated blood flow between the aforementioned conditions and a commonly employed wide-rigid, tourniquet-style cuff. In randomized, counter-balanced, and crossover fashion, 20 apparently healthy males (18–40 years) donned a widely employed wide-rigid (WR) cuff, along with the largest (NE) and manufacturer-recommended sizes (NER) of a novel narrow-elastic cuff. Participants subsequently assessed AOP, as well as (at 80%AOP) arterial, venous, and venous cMP flow relative to baseline values via ultrasound. All analyses were performed at a significance level of p < 0.05. Analyses revealed a significant condition effect for AOP (p < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.907) whereby WR was significantly lower than both NE and NER; in addition, the latter two did not differ. Compared with baseline, there were no statistically significant differences between cuffs for either arterial or cMP-mediated blood flow. Unsurprisingly, no participants demonstrated venous blood flow at 80% AOP. These findings support the viability of a novel narrow-elastic BFR product, evidenced by consistent AOP acquisition and equivocal blood flow parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen Volume Ⅱ)
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11 pages, 2489 KiB  
Article
Mitochondria-Stimulating and Antioxidant Effects of Slovak Propolis Varieties on Bovine Spermatozoa
by Eva Tvrdá, Július Árvay, Michal Ďuračka and Miroslava Kačániová
Oxygen 2023, 3(2), 179-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen3020013 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Propolis is a natural honeybee product, which is known for its beneficial pharmacological effects and use in traditional medicine. This study aspired to investigate the chemical and antioxidant properties of five propolis specimens, followed by the analysis of their in vitro impact on [...] Read more.
Propolis is a natural honeybee product, which is known for its beneficial pharmacological effects and use in traditional medicine. This study aspired to investigate the chemical and antioxidant properties of five propolis specimens, followed by the analysis of their in vitro impact on bovine spermatozoa vitality and oxidative profile. Semen samples from 10 breeding bulls were incubated in the absence or presence of 50 µg/mL propolis extracts, and selected sperm quality parameters including motility, mitochondrial activity, cAMP concentration, NAD+/NADH ratio, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide production were assessed at 2 h and 24 h. Sperm motion behavior and mitochondrial function were stabilized particularly in the presence of propolis collected from Hrabské and Litpovský Hrádok, Slovakia. At the same time, all propolis specimens acted as significant ROS quenchers and stabilized the oxidative milieu of the sperm cultures. Our data suggest that propolis may stabilize the mitochondrial function of spermatozoa while preventing excessive oxidative insults, thereby showing the potential to sustain the sperm motility of extended semen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Oxygen Volume Ⅱ)
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16 pages, 1225 KiB  
Review
Mechanisms of Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Brain Injury: From Pathophysiology to Therapeutics
by Andrew Nguyen, Anjali B. Patel, Ivelina P. Kioutchoukova, Michael J. Diaz and Brandon Lucke-Wold
Oxygen 2023, 3(2), 163-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/oxygen3020012 - 7 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
Mitochondrial oxidative stress has been implicated in various forms of brain injury, both traumatic and non-traumatic. Due to its oxidative demand, the brain is intimately dependent on its mitochondrial functioning. However, there remains appreciable heterogeneity in the development of these injuries regarding ROS [...] Read more.
Mitochondrial oxidative stress has been implicated in various forms of brain injury, both traumatic and non-traumatic. Due to its oxidative demand, the brain is intimately dependent on its mitochondrial functioning. However, there remains appreciable heterogeneity in the development of these injuries regarding ROS and their effect on the sequelae. These include traumatic insults such as TBIs and intracranial hemorrhaging secondary to this. In a different vein, such injuries may be attributed to other etiologies such as infection, neoplasm, or spontaneous hemorrhage (strokes, aneurysms). Clinically, the manner of treatment may also be adjusted in relation to each injury and its unique progression in the context of ROS. In the current review, then, the authors highlight the role of mitochondrial ROS in various forms of brain injury, emphasizing both the collective and unique elements of each form. Lastly, these narratives are met with the current therapeutic landscape and the role of emerging therapies in treating reactive oxygen species in brain injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease)
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