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Textiles, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2024) – 3 articles

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16 pages, 5695 KiB  
Article
Wearable Solutions: Design, Durability, and Electrical Performance of Snap Connectors and Integrating Them into Textiles Using Interconnects
by Prateeti Ugale, Shourya Lingampally, James Dieffenderfer and Minyoung Suh
Textiles 2024, 4(3), 328-343; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4030019 - 17 Jul 2024
Viewed by 149
Abstract
Electronic textiles (e-textiles) merge textiles and electronics to monitor physiological and environmental changes. Innovations in textile functionalities and diverse applications have propelled e-textiles’ popularity. However, challenges like connection with external devices for signal processing and reliable interconnections between flexible textiles and rigid electronic [...] Read more.
Electronic textiles (e-textiles) merge textiles and electronics to monitor physiological and environmental changes. Innovations in textile functionalities and diverse applications have propelled e-textiles’ popularity. However, challenges like connection with external devices for signal processing and reliable interconnections between flexible textiles and rigid electronic circuits persist. Wearable connectors enable the effective communication of e-textiles with external devices. Factors such as electrical functionality and mechanical durability along with textile compatibility are crucial for their performance. Merging the rigid connectors on the flexible textiles requires conductive and flexible interconnects that can bridge this gap between soft and hard components. This work focuses on designing two-part detachable mechanical snap connectors for e-textiles. The textile side connectors are attached to the data transmission cables within the textiles using three interconnection techniques—conductive epoxy, conductive stitches, and soldering. Three types of connectors were developed that require three detaching or unmating forces (low, medium, and high). All connectors were subjected to 5000 mating–unmating cycles to evaluate their mechanical durability and electrical performance. Connectors with low and medium unmating forces exhibited a stable performance, while those with high unmating forces failed due to wear and tear. Conductive stitches maintained better conductance as compared to conductive epoxy and soldering methods. Full article
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19 pages, 24785 KiB  
Article
Added-Value of Cotton Textile Waste for Nonwoven Applications
by Lúcia Rodrigues, Rita Marques, Juliana C. Dias, Beatriz Magalhães, Anabela Santos, Cláudia Amorim, Ana Margarida Carta, Paula Pinto and Carla J. Silva
Textiles 2024, 4(3), 309-327; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4030018 - 1 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Due to the continuous optimization of cutting plans, the cotton scrap size resulting from the cutting of components for clothing production (post-industrial residues) is often considered insufficient to obtain fibres with the proper length to produce a new yarn through mechanical recycling processes; [...] Read more.
Due to the continuous optimization of cutting plans, the cotton scrap size resulting from the cutting of components for clothing production (post-industrial residues) is often considered insufficient to obtain fibres with the proper length to produce a new yarn through mechanical recycling processes; so it is important to search for other applications for these wastes. In this context, small pieces of cotton were submitted to a shredding process to obtain recycled fibres. Cotton small pieces and recycled fibres were then submitted to a refining process to achieve refined fibres. Using these materials alone and in blends with refined and unrefined bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP), wet-laid nonwovens were developed and characterized. An analysis of the results revealed that the replacement of unrefined BEKP by 70% cotton waste fibres in wet-laid nonwovens, reducing the use of virgin raw material, enhances the structures’ mechanical properties by 80% and 14%, for small pieces or recycled fibres, respectively. Additionally, refining small pieces of cotton seems to be more promising than refining recycled fibres, because less steps are required to obtain wet-laid nonwovens with better mechanical properties. These results highlight the potential of this approach to be explored further for different products and end applications. Full article
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25 pages, 3715 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Electrical Conductivity Test Methods for Conductive Fabrics
by Zeyue Xie, Heura Ventura and Monica Ardanuy
Textiles 2024, 4(3), 284-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles4030017 - 22 Jun 2024
Viewed by 487
Abstract
With the substantial growth of the smart textiles market, electrical properties are becoming a basic requirement for most of the advanced textiles used in the development of wearable solutions and other textile-based smart applications. Depending on the textile substrate, the test method to [...] Read more.
With the substantial growth of the smart textiles market, electrical properties are becoming a basic requirement for most of the advanced textiles used in the development of wearable solutions and other textile-based smart applications. Depending on the textile substrate, the test method to determine the electrical properties can be different. Unlike smart fibers and yarns, the characterization of the electrical properties of fabrics cannot be tested between two connection points because the result would not represent the behavior of the entire fabric, so the electrical properties must be related to an area. The parameters used to characterize the electrical properties of the fabrics include resistance, resistivity, and conductivity. Although all of them can be used to indicate electrical performance, there are significant differences between them and different methods available for their determination, whose suitability will depend on the function and the textile substrate. This paper revises the main parameters used to characterize the electrical properties of conductive fabrics and summarizes the most common methods used to test them. It also discusses the suitability of each method according to several intervening factors, such as the type of conductive fabric (intrinsically or extrinsically conductive), its conductivity range, other fabric parameters, or the final intended application. For intrinsically conductive woven fabrics, all the methods are suitable, but depending on the requirements of conductivity accuracy, the contact resistance from the measuring system should be determined. For intrinsically conductive knitted fabrics, two-point probe, Van der Pauw, and eddy current methods are the most suitable. And for intrinsically conductive nonwoven fabrics, two-point probe and four-point probe methods are the most appropriate. In the case of extrinsically conductive fabrics, the applied method should depend on the substrate and the properties of the conductive layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Smart Textiles)
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