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Textiles, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 11 articles

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21 pages, 2404 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review on Reusable Face Coverings: Mechanism, Development, Factors, and Challenges
by Md Al-Amin, Md Tanjim Hossain, Muneeb Tahir, Diana Wyman and S M Fijul Kabir
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 142-162; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010011 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2755
Abstract
Textile supply chain challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine war give unique insights into how health crises and geopolitical instability could dry up supplies of vital materials for the smooth functioning of human societies in calamitous times. Coinciding adverse global [...] Read more.
Textile supply chain challenges due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine war give unique insights into how health crises and geopolitical instability could dry up supplies of vital materials for the smooth functioning of human societies in calamitous times. Coinciding adverse global events or future pandemics could create shortages of traditional face coverings among other vital materials. Reusable face coverings could be a viable relief option in such situations. This review identifies the lack of studies in the existing literature on reusable fabric face coverings available in the market. It focuses on the development, filtration mechanisms, and factors associated with the filtration efficiency of reusable knitted and woven fabric face coverings. The authors identified relevant papers through the Summon database. Keeping the focus on readily available fabrics, this paper encompasses the key aspects of reusable face coverings made of knitted and woven fabrics outlining filtration mechanisms and requirements, development, factors affecting filtration performance, challenges, and outcomes of clinical trials. Filtration mechanisms for reusable face coverings include interception and impaction, diffusion, and electrostatic attraction. Face covering development includes the identification of appropriate constituent fibers, yarn characteristics, and base fabric construction. Factors significantly affecting the filtration performance were electrostatic charge, particle size, porosity, layers, and finishes. Reusable face coverings offer several challenges including moisture management, breathing resistance factors, and balancing filtration with breathability. Efficacy of reusable face coverings in comparison to specialized non reusable masks in clinical trials has also been reviewed and discussed. Finally, the authors identified the use of certain finishes on fabrics as a major challenge to making reusable face coverings more effective and accessible to the public. This paper is expected to provide communities and research stakeholders with access to critical knowledge on the reusability of face coverings and their management during periods of global crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Textile Materials: Structure–Property Relationship)
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13 pages, 4347 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Bending Behavior for High-Performance Fiber Yarns Considering Probability Distribution of Fiber Strength
by Yu Wang, Xuejiao Li, Junbo Xie, Ning Wu, Yanan Jiao and Peng Wang
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 129-141; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010010 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2360
Abstract
The performance of fiber-reinforced composite materials is significantly influenced by the mechanical properties of the yarns. Predictive simulations of the mechanical response of yarns are, thus, necessary for fiber-reinforced composite materials. This paper developed a novel experiment equipment and approach to characterize the [...] Read more.
The performance of fiber-reinforced composite materials is significantly influenced by the mechanical properties of the yarns. Predictive simulations of the mechanical response of yarns are, thus, necessary for fiber-reinforced composite materials. This paper developed a novel experiment equipment and approach to characterize the bending behavior of yarns, which was also analyzed by characterization parameters, bending load, bending stiffness, and realistic contact area. Inspired by the digital element approach, an improved modeling methodology with the probability distribution was employed to establish the geometry model of yarns and simulated bending behavior of yarns by defining the crimp strain of fibers in the yarn and the effective elastic modulus of yarns as random variables. The accuracy of the developed model was confirmed by the experimental approach. More bending behavior of yarns, including the twisted and plied yarns, was predicted by numerical simulation. Additionally, models revealed that twist level and number of plies affect yarn bending properties, which need to be adopted as sufficient conditions for the mechanical analysis of fiber-reinforced composite materials. This efficient experiment and modeling method is meaningful to be developed in further virtual weaving research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles, a Bright Future)
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14 pages, 1834 KiB  
Article
Tactile Perception of Woven Fabrics by a Sliding Index Finger with Emphasis on Individual Differences
by Raphael Romao Santos, Masumi Nakanishi and Sachiko Sukigara
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 115-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010009 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Haptic sensing by sliding fingers over a fabric is a common behavior in consumers when wearing garments. Prior studies have found important characteristics that shape the evaluation criteria and influence the preference of consumers regarding fabrics. This study analyzed the tactile perception of [...] Read more.
Haptic sensing by sliding fingers over a fabric is a common behavior in consumers when wearing garments. Prior studies have found important characteristics that shape the evaluation criteria and influence the preference of consumers regarding fabrics. This study analyzed the tactile perception of selected woven fabrics, with an emphasis on the participants’ individual differences. Individual differences generally are discarded in sensory experiments by averaging them. Small differences among consumers can be important for understanding the factors driving consumer preferences. For this study, 28 participants assessed fabrics with very distinct surface, compression, and heat transferring properties by sliding their index fingers along the surface of the fabric. The participants also engaged in a descriptive sensory analysis. The physical properties of the fabric were measured using the Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-F) system. Moreover, parameters at the finger–fabric interface, such as the contact force, finger speed, and skin vibration, were measured during the assessment. This study used analysis of variance to eliminate nonsignificant attributes. Consonance analysis was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) on the unfolded sensory and interface data matrices. Finally, the physical and interface data were regressed onto sensory data. The results showed that the contact force and finger speed were nonsignificant, while skin vibration was a possible replacement for surface physical properties measured by the Kawabata Evaluation System for Fabrics (KES-F) system with an equal or slightly improved explainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles, a Bright Future)
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17 pages, 12201 KiB  
Article
PCM-Impregnated Textile-Reinforced Cementitious Composite for Thermal Energy Storage
by Túlio Caetano Guimarães, Otavio da Fonseca Martins Gomes, Olga Maria Oliveira de Araújo, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, M´hamed Yassin Rajiv da-Gloria, Romildo Dias Toledo Filho, Eddie Koenders, Antonio Caggiano, Christoph Mankel, Mona Nazari Sam, Rodolfo Giacomim Mendes de Andrade and Saulo Rocha Ferreira
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 98-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010008 - 9 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2469
Abstract
The growing global energy demand requires solutions that improve energy efficiency in all sectors. The civil construction sector is responsible for a large part of global energy consumption. In this context, phase change materials (PCMs) can be incorporated into construction materials to improve [...] Read more.
The growing global energy demand requires solutions that improve energy efficiency in all sectors. The civil construction sector is responsible for a large part of global energy consumption. In this context, phase change materials (PCMs) can be incorporated into construction materials to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. The purpose of this study was to incorporate a PCM to jute fabric, applying it in civil construction as a reinforcement for cement matrices. In order to do that, a method of immersing jute fabric in liquid phase change material, and then coating it with a polymer, was proposed. Treated jute fabric was then used to produce a laminated composite with a cementitious matrix. Morphological, mechanical and chemical characterization of jute textiles was performed, as well as an analysis of the composites’ mechanical and thermal behavior. The results verified that jute textiles absorbed 102% PCM in weight, which was successfully contained in the capillary porosity of jute. The PCM was able to delay the composite’s temperature increase by up to 24 °C. It was concluded that this method can be used to incorporate PCM to natural textiles, producing composites with thermal energy storage properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fibrous Materials (Textiles) for Functional Applications II)
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10 pages, 1444 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Shrinkage Behavior of Stretch Fabrics Using Machine-Learning Based Artificial Neural Network
by Meenakshi Ahirwar and B. K. Behera
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 88-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010007 - 2 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2769
Abstract
Stretch fabric provides good formability and does not restrict the movement of the body for increased tension levels. The major expectations of a wearer in an apparel fabric are a high level of mechanical comfort and good aesthetics. The prediction of shrinkage in [...] Read more.
Stretch fabric provides good formability and does not restrict the movement of the body for increased tension levels. The major expectations of a wearer in an apparel fabric are a high level of mechanical comfort and good aesthetics. The prediction of shrinkage in stretch fabric is a very complex and unexplored topic. There are no existing formulas that can effectively predict the shrinkage of stretch fabrics. The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel model based on an artificial neural network to predict the shrinkage of stretch fabrics. Different stretch fabrics (core-spun lycra yarn) with stretch in the weft direction were manufactured in the industry using a miniature weaving machine. A model was built using an artificial neural network method, including training of the data set, followed by testing of the model on the test data set. The correlation of factors, such as warp count, weft count, greige PPI, greige EPI, and greige width, was established with respect to boil-off width. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles, a Bright Future)
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22 pages, 32969 KiB  
Article
Use of Rotary Ultrasonic Plastic Welding as a Continuous Interconnection Technology for Large-Area e-Textiles
by Christian Dils, Sebastian Hohner and Martin Schneider-Ramelow
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 66-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010006 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2645
Abstract
For textile-based electronic systems with multiple contacts distributed over a large area, it is very complex to create reliable electrical and mechanical interconnections. In this work, we report for the first time on the use of rotating ultrasonic polymer welding for the continuous [...] Read more.
For textile-based electronic systems with multiple contacts distributed over a large area, it is very complex to create reliable electrical and mechanical interconnections. In this work, we report for the first time on the use of rotating ultrasonic polymer welding for the continuous integration and interconnection of highly conductive ribbons with textile-integrated conductive tracks. For this purpose, the conductive ribbons are prelaminated on the bottom side with a thermoplastic film, which serves as an adhesion agent to the textile carrier, and another thermoplastic film is laminated on the top side, which serves as an electrical insulation layer. Experimental tests are used to investigate the optimum welding process parameters for each material combination. The interconnects are initially electrically measured and then tested by thermal cycling, moisture aging, buckling and washing tests, followed by electrical and optical analyses. The interconnects obtained are very low ohmic across the materials tested, with resulting contact resistances between 1 and 5 mOhm. Material-dependent results were observed in the reliability tests, with climatic and mechanical tests performing better than the wash tests for all materials. In addition, the development of a heated functional prototype demonstrates a first industrial application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles, a Bright Future)
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14 pages, 2645 KiB  
Article
Eco-Friendly Anionic Surfactant for the Removal of Methyl Red from Aqueous Matrices
by Yago N. Teixeira, Jorge M. C. Menezes, Raimundo N. P. Teixeira, Francisco J. Paula Filho and Thiago M. B. F. Oliveira
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 52-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010005 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the methyl red (MR) removal efficiency from aqueous matrices using an eco-friendly anionic surfactant (a calcium surfactant, or CaSF), obtained from frying oil residue. Data obtained by infrared spectroscopy revealed several functional groups that favor the capture of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the methyl red (MR) removal efficiency from aqueous matrices using an eco-friendly anionic surfactant (a calcium surfactant, or CaSF), obtained from frying oil residue. Data obtained by infrared spectroscopy revealed several functional groups that favor the capture of the dye by chemisorption by forming hydrogen bonds and covalent interactions. The kinetic testing results fit the pseudo-second order model, reaching equilibrium in 30 min. Adsorption was greatly influenced by temperature. The Langmuir isotherm was the one best fitting the process at 20 °C, while the Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm fitted it better at higher temperatures. Under optimized conditions, the maximal MR adsorption capacity of CaSF reached 53.59 mg·g−1 (a removal rate of 95.15%), proving that the adsorbent at hand can be an excellent alternative for the removal of undesirable levels of MR present in aqueous matrices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sustainable Textiles)
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2 pages, 143 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Textiles in 2022
by Textiles Editorial Office
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 50-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010004 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 953
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
24 pages, 1838 KiB  
Article
Eco-Friendly Natural Thickener (Pectin) Extracted from Fruit Peels for Valuable Utilization in Textile Printing as a Thickening Agent
by Sara A. Ebrahim, Hanan A. Othman, Mohamed M. Mosaad and Ahmed G. Hassabo
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 26-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010003 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6901
Abstract
Fruit peels are a rich source of many substances, such as pectin. Extraction of natural thickening agent (pectin) from fruit waste such as (orange and pomegranate peels) is an environmentally friendly alternative to commercial thickeners and is cheap for use in the printing [...] Read more.
Fruit peels are a rich source of many substances, such as pectin. Extraction of natural thickening agent (pectin) from fruit waste such as (orange and pomegranate peels) is an environmentally friendly alternative to commercial thickeners and is cheap for use in the printing of natural and synthetic fabrics, especially polyester and polyacrylic fabrics. Hexamine was used to treat the extracted pectin to make it appropriate for use in an alkali medium for printing cotton fabric. The results showed that the extracted and modified pectin have good rheological properties as well as bacterial resistance. Pectin is suitable for use in an acidic medium. All the printed samples with pectin and its modified synthetic dyes (reactive, acid, and disperse) exhibited good fastness towards washing and wet and dry rubbing. The light fastness of printed textiles was excellent (7), which is more than using alginate as a thickener (5). In both acidic and alkaline perspiration, the perspiration fastness characteristic revealed 3–4 to 4–5 color differences. Colorfastness to rubbing was tested in both dry and wet conditions, and it was revealed that dry rubbing had the same effect as wet rubbing. Printed textiles using pectin or modified pectin as thickeners exhibit antibacterial activity. Physical and mechanical properties of all printed fabrics such as (tensile strength, elongation, and surface roughness) were enhanced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles, a Bright Future)
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15 pages, 1539 KiB  
Article
Design Elements That Increase the Willingness to Pay for Denim Fabric Products
by Ryoga Miyauchi, Xiaoxiao Zhou and Yuki Inoue
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 11-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010002 - 5 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
This study analyzed what design elements are attractive to consumers of denim fabric products. A questionnaire survey was used to investigate the brands and design elements that consumers prefer. Subsequently, the degree to which participating consumers liked the five design elements (traditional, transformative, [...] Read more.
This study analyzed what design elements are attractive to consumers of denim fabric products. A questionnaire survey was used to investigate the brands and design elements that consumers prefer. Subsequently, the degree to which participating consumers liked the five design elements (traditional, transformative, pattern, multi-material, and decorative designs), fast fashion brands, and luxury brands were used as explanatory variables to determine the consumers’ willingness to pay. A multiple regression analysis was performed on these variables. The results indicated that consumers who preferred traditional and transformative designs showed a positive effect on their willingness to pay for denim fabric products. Therefore, these elements could be attractive design elements that may command a high price point in new product planning proposals. Moreover, depending on the type of brand preferred by consumers, the impact of design elements on their purchase intention of denim fabric products has different consequences. This study analyzes the design elements preferred by consumers and contributes to the creation of design proposals by designers and apparel firms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research Trends for Textiles, a Bright Future)
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10 pages, 4786 KiB  
Article
Rapid Fabrication of Pineapple Leaf Fibers from Discarded Leaves by Using Electrolysis of Brine
by Huy N. Q. Phan, Jyh Hoang Leu, Khanh Thien Tran, Vi N. D. Nguyen and Trung Tan Nguyen
Textiles 2023, 3(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/textiles3010001 - 23 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3466
Abstract
Instead of contributing to global warming by the traditional method—burning crop wastes—in this study, discarded pineapple leaves were rapidly turned into multifunctional fibers: pineapple leaf fibers (PALF). In addition, the presence of pure hydrogen during treatment can be a competitive advantage. PALF were [...] Read more.
Instead of contributing to global warming by the traditional method—burning crop wastes—in this study, discarded pineapple leaves were rapidly turned into multifunctional fibers: pineapple leaf fibers (PALF). In addition, the presence of pure hydrogen during treatment can be a competitive advantage. PALF were extracted by a conventional technique, then immersed into sodium hydroxide 6% before it was treated with an electrolysis system of sodium chloride 3%. The crystallinity index increased 57.4% of treated PALF, and was collected from XRD. Meanwhile, the removal of hemicellulose and lignin in the fiber formation was presented at the absorbance peak of around 1730 cm−1 by FTIR spectrums. Simultaneously, the purity of hydrogen reached 99% and was confirmed by GC analysis. The obtained PALF and hydrogen can be used for further consideration, aiming for a circular economy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Sustainable Textiles)
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