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Solids, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 9 articles

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Article
Dynamics and Elastic Properties of Glassy Metastable States
Solids 2021, 2(2), 249-264; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020016 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2545
Abstract
By a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method which ensures the system will be under hydrostatic pressure, dynamic and elastic properties of glassy metatstable states are investigated. In the MD method, the simulation cell fluctuates not only in volume but also in shape under [...] Read more.
By a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method which ensures the system will be under hydrostatic pressure, dynamic and elastic properties of glassy metatstable states are investigated. In the MD method, the simulation cell fluctuates not only in volume but also in shape under constant hydrostatic pressure and temperature. As observed in experiments for many glass forming materials, metastable states in our simulation show a sharp increase in mean-square-displacement at certain temperatures TD. Dynamic heterogeneity is also observed at TD. Elastic properties are calculated from stress and strain relations obtained from the spontaneous fluctuation of internal stress tensor and simulation cell parameters. Each investigated state shows distinctive dynamics while maintaining solid-like elastic properties. The elastic properties stay intact even above TD. It has been shown that the rigidity and mobility of glassy metastable states are compatible under dynamic heterogeneity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Review
Manganese Oxide Carbon-Based Nanocomposite in Energy Storage Applications
Solids 2021, 2(2), 232-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020015 - 01 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 4576
Abstract
Global increasing demand in the need of energy leads to the development of non-conventional, high power energy sources. Supercapacitors (SCs) are one of the typical non-conventional energy storage devices which are based on the principle of electrochemical energy conversion. SCs are promising energy [...] Read more.
Global increasing demand in the need of energy leads to the development of non-conventional, high power energy sources. Supercapacitors (SCs) are one of the typical non-conventional energy storage devices which are based on the principle of electrochemical energy conversion. SCs are promising energy storage devices for better future energy technology. Increasing progress has been made in the development of applied and fundamental aspects of SCs. Manganese oxide electrode materials have been well studied; however, their capacitive performance is still inadequate for practical applications. Recent research is mainly focused on enhancing manganese oxide capacitive performance through the incorporation of electrically conductive materials and by controlling its morphology to reveal a more active surface area for redox reactions. In this review, progress in the applications of manganese oxide carbon-based materials towards the development of highly effective SCs is briefly discussed. In this regard, manganese oxide carbon-based nanocomposites synthesis methods and techniques used to approximate the capacitance of electrode materials are discussed. Full article
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Review
Recent Advances in the Use of Transition-Metal Porphyrin and Phthalocyanine Complexes as Electro-Catalyst Materials on Modified Electrodes for Electroanalytical Sensing Applications
Solids 2021, 2(2), 212-231; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020014 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3084
Abstract
Metalloporphyrins (MP) and metallophtalocyanines (MPc) are innovative materials with catalytic properties that have attracted attention for their application for diverse electrochemical purposes. The presence of metallic centers in their structure offers a redox-active behavior that is being applied in the design of solid [...] Read more.
Metalloporphyrins (MP) and metallophtalocyanines (MPc) are innovative materials with catalytic properties that have attracted attention for their application for diverse electrochemical purposes. The presence of metallic centers in their structure offers a redox-active behavior that is being applied in the design of solid electrodes for the quantification of biomolecules, water contaminants, and pharmaceuticals, among others. Herein, we collect the recent information about porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes as modifiers of electrodes, and the important aspects of the design, characterization, and application of these electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Article
Characterisation and Traceability of Calcium Carbonate from the Seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum
Solids 2021, 2(2), 192-211; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020013 - 06 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4038
Abstract
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum is a suitable dietary supplement for the prevention of osteoporosis, due to its chemical composition. This study compared CaCO3 from L. calcareum to CaCO3 from oyster shell and inorganic minerals that [...] Read more.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) from the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum is a suitable dietary supplement for the prevention of osteoporosis, due to its chemical composition. This study compared CaCO3 from L. calcareum to CaCO3 from oyster shell and inorganic minerals that are already used in the pharmaceutical industry. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD showed that the mineral fraction of L. calcareum is composed of aragonite (50.3 wt%), magnesian calcite (45.3 wt%), calcite (4.4 wt%), comin contrast to oyster shell and inorganic minerals, which contain only calcite. The morphology of L. calcareum carbonate particles is granular xenomorphic, which is distinct from the scalenohedral form of inorganic calcite and the fibrous and scale-like fragments of oyster shell. The crystal structures of aragonite and magnesian calcite, present in L. calcareum, have higher contents of oligoelements than the pure calcite in other materials. The isotopic composition (stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen) is heavy in the CaCO3 from L. calcareum13C = 1.1‰; δ18O = −0.1‰) and oyster shell (δ13C = −4‰; δ18O = −2.8‰) in marked contrast to the much lighter isotopic composition of inorganic mineral CaCO313C = −19.2‰; δ18O = −26.3‰). The differences indicated above were determined through principal component analysis, where the first and second principal components are sufficient for the clear distinction and traceability of CaCO3 sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Article
Evaluation of ((La0.60Sr0.40)0.95Co0.20Fe0.80O3-x)-Ag Composite Anode for Direct Ammonia Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Effect of Pd Impregnation on the Electrochemical Performance
Solids 2021, 2(2), 177-191; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020012 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Ammonia produced using renewable hydrogen is being viewed as a promising media for the export of energy from locations rich in renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are efficient devices for converting such exported ammonia back into electricity at the point [...] Read more.
Ammonia produced using renewable hydrogen is being viewed as a promising media for the export of energy from locations rich in renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are efficient devices for converting such exported ammonia back into electricity at the point of use; however, investigations on materials and operating regimes for direct ammonia fuelled SOFCs are limited. In this work, we evaluated the direct ammonia SOFC performance with a Silver-Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (Ag-LSCF) composite anode and a novel Palladium (Pd) nanoparticle decorated Silver-Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (Pd-Ag-LSCF) composite anode in the temperature range of 500 °C to 800 °C. It is hypothesised that palladium nanoparticles in the anode provide hydrogen dissolution and shift the ammonia decomposition reaction towards the right. The cell performance was evaluated with both hydrogen and ammonia as fuels and a clear-cut improvement in the performance was observed with the addition of Pd for both the fuels. The results showed performance enhancements of 20% and 43% with hydrogen and ammonia fuels, respectively, from the addition of Pd to the Ag-LSCF anode. Open-circuit voltage (OCV) values of the cells with hydrogen and ammonia fuels recorded over the temperature range of 500 °C to 800 °C indicated the possibility of direct electro-oxidation of ammonia in SOFCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Article
Thermal Decomposition of [AH][M(HCOO)3] Perovskite-Like Formates
Solids 2021, 2(2), 165-176; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020011 - 02 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2759
Abstract
A systematic study of the thermal decomposition of hybrid perovskites of formula [AH][M(HCOO)3] under inert atmosphere was performed by means of thermogravimetry and simultaneous infrared spectroscopy of the evolved gases. The influence of: (i) the metal ion of the [M(HCOO)3 [...] Read more.
A systematic study of the thermal decomposition of hybrid perovskites of formula [AH][M(HCOO)3] under inert atmosphere was performed by means of thermogravimetry and simultaneous infrared spectroscopy of the evolved gases. The influence of: (i) the metal ion of the [M(HCOO)3]- framework and (ii) the guest [AH]+ cation, in the composition of the final residue was evaluated. In this work, it has been demonstrated that these materials can be used as precursors of metal or metal-oxide compounds—obtained free of carbon—, and that the composition of the final residue is determined by the standard reduction potential of the metal cation of the framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Article
An Evaluation of Optical Absorbance Kinetics for the Detection of Micro-Porosity in Molecularly Doped Polymer Thin-Films
Solids 2021, 2(2), 155-164; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020010 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2171
Abstract
The use of optical absorbance kinetics to identify micro-porous regions in doped polymer films is evaluated. Data are presented for a series of hydrazone doped polymer films which are found to optically bleach upon exposure to an ultra violet (UV) radiation source. The [...] Read more.
The use of optical absorbance kinetics to identify micro-porous regions in doped polymer films is evaluated. Data are presented for a series of hydrazone doped polymer films which are found to optically bleach upon exposure to an ultra violet (UV) radiation source. The UV absorbance kinetics are found to exhibit distinctive characteristics for the various polymers studied, with changes in film absorbance occurring either in a fast (<103 s) or slow (>104 s) timescale. An interpretation of these distinctive timescales based upon a cellular-automata model of the absorbance kinetics suggests that the underlying photo-oxidation of the hydrazone is highly sensitive to underlying micro-porosity in the films which controls the necessary supply of absorbed oxygen for photo-cyclic reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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Review
Solid State NMR for Nonexperts: An Overview of Simple but General Practical Methods
Solids 2021, 2(2), 139-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020009 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4160
Abstract
There are varieties of methods available for the exploration of solids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Some of these methods are quite sophisticated, others require specialized equipment. This review is addressed to those for whom NMR is not the main research method. [...] Read more.
There are varieties of methods available for the exploration of solids using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Some of these methods are quite sophisticated, others require specialized equipment. This review is addressed to those for whom NMR is not the main research method. It discusses simple methods that can be applied to solids with little or no adaptation to a specific system. Despite their technical simplicity and ease of use, these methods are powerful analytical tools that provide unique insights into the structure, dynamics, and noncovalent interactions in homo- and heterogeneous systems. Particular attention is paid to the characterization of porous materials and solids containing phosphorus. 31P NMR of organometallic compounds has been used as an example of how theoretical calculations can help in deeper analysis of experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exclusive Papers of the Editorial Board Members (EBMs) of Solids)
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Article
Contactless Determination of Electric Field in Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Interfaces by Using Constant DC-Reflectivity Photoreflectance
Solids 2021, 2(2), 129-138; https://doi.org/10.3390/solids2020008 - 29 Mar 2021
Viewed by 2609
Abstract
We applied photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy for contactless determination of the electric field strength at buried interfaces in metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures. The PR is an all-optical version of an electromodulated reflectance spectroscopy. The tradeoff of this adoption is that this requires an additional feedback [...] Read more.
We applied photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy for contactless determination of the electric field strength at buried interfaces in metal–insulator–semiconductor (MIS) structures. The PR is an all-optical version of an electromodulated reflectance spectroscopy. The tradeoff of this adoption is that this requires an additional feedback system to eliminate background problems induced by scattered pump light and/or photoluminescence. A microcomputer-based feedback system has been developed for this elimination. Despite the very tiny signal intensity, we successfully attained a sufficiently good signal–noise ratio to determine the electric field strength in oxide-based MIS interfaces that exhibits a large, unwanted photoluminescence signal. The field strength was evaluated to be ca. 0.25 kV/cm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Solids 2021)
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