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Mater. Proc., 2022, IRRET 2022

The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Research in Renewable Energy Technologies (IRRET 2022)

Malda, India | 20–21 March 2022

Volume Editors:
Sudipta Das, IMPS College of Engineering and Technology, India
K. Vasu Babu, Vasireddy Venkatadri Institute of Technology (VVIT), India
Samrat Paul, North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU), India
Kunal Chakraborty, IMPS College of Engineering and Technology, India

Number of Papers: 13
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Cover Story (view full-size image): The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Research in Renewable Energy Technologies (IRRET-2022) was held on 20–21 March 2022 in IMPS College of Engineering and Technology, Malda, West [...] Read more.
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1 pages, 162 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Sudipta Das and Kunal Chakraborty
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010013 - 21 Oct 2022
Viewed by 885
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Materials Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article

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9 pages, 1425 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Innovative Roadmap for Smart Water Cities: A Global Perspective
by Neha Keriwala and Anant Patel
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010001 - 13 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
Globally, cities are feeling the effects of climate change: rising temperatures, droughts, heatwaves, and more extreme storms are impacting water quantity and water quality. Roughly half of the world’s population are now living in cities. By the year 2050, that figure is anticipated [...] Read more.
Globally, cities are feeling the effects of climate change: rising temperatures, droughts, heatwaves, and more extreme storms are impacting water quantity and water quality. Roughly half of the world’s population are now living in cities. By the year 2050, that figure is anticipated to rise to as much as 80 per cent. If we want our cities to be sustainable both locally and globally, we need to make sure that we use fewer natural resources and generate less trash. The built environment of a smart city incorporates digital, human, and physical components. It is critical to discover appropriate assessment procedures given the rapid urbanization and wide-ranging innovations. Due to impending scarcity, we must move now to increase water treatment and distribution efficiency while decreasing consumption. Risk assessment, mitigation, warning, and forecasting are all critical components of flood risk management going forward. Institutional and governance measures are also important. By providing fresh insights, this research contributes to the corpus of knowledge on smart city mobility. A smart water city improves the quality of life of citizens by solving existing urban water problems based on various technologies and ICT technologies throughout the urban water cycle. It not only provides individual solutions for conventional water management, such as drainage, water treatment, and wastewater treatment, but also improves comprehensive water management through the restoration of the urban water cycle, waterfront usage, and intelligent water management. Furthermore, in a smart water city, ICT-based intelligent technologies complement and improve existing infrastructure and technologies for water management within the whole urban system. They are a supportive tool for the different functions of water in urban settings. This understanding highlights that smart water cities concern not only the provision of drinking water and sanitation services for urban water users, but also other urban water functions such as urban water restoration, waterfront usage, and integrated water management. This paper examined the use of integrated, real-time information and ICT solutions, such as sensors, monitors, geographic information system (GIS), satellite mapping, and other contactless, intelligent tools in both urban and agriculture water management. The paper presents evidence of how SWM has provided solutions at different scales and across various urban and rural contexts, and how they have impacted the social, economic, environmental, governance, and technological spheres. Full article
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8 pages, 1052 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bioelectrical Impedance Phase Angle as a Predicting Indicator in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury
by Mahmood Aldobali, Kirti Pal and Harvinder Singh Chhabra
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010002 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1096
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive value of phase angle (PhA) in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). This study includes 104 participants (52 for each group) of SCI patients and healthy subjects (HS) treated at the Indian Spinal Injury [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive value of phase angle (PhA) in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). This study includes 104 participants (52 for each group) of SCI patients and healthy subjects (HS) treated at the Indian Spinal Injury Centre (ISIC, New Delhi, India) between October 2020 and March 2021 A cross-sectional study was operated Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) at 50 kHz and measured the prognostic effect of PhA on participants. An independent-sample t-test was used to estimate PhA between groups. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves predicted the PhA cutoff and Youden’s index. There was a significant difference in PhA of gender, with p < 0.0001, a difference (2.40), 95% confidence interval (CI) (2.10 to 2.80), median (4.70) for the SCI group, and (7.1) for HS, respectively. In contrast, PhA was significantly different in males with p < 0.0001, a difference (2.60), 95% CI (3.00 to 2.10), median (5.0) for SCI, and (7.30) for HS, respectively. Similarly, PhA was significantly different in females, with p < 0.0001, a difference (1.9881), 95 % CI of difference (1.3565 to 2.6197), median (6.60) for SCI, and (4.40) for HS, respectively, as well as PhA cutoff values for SCI (female ≤ 4.4°; male ≤ 4.7°). The outcomes indicate a difference between groups of people with SCI and HS across the groups of gender, with a lower PhA in people with SCI. Full article
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9 pages, 775 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Historical Evaluation in People with Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review
by Mahmood Aldobali, Kirti Pal, Harvinder Singh Chhabra and Rajesh Sharawat
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010003 - 15 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1853
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the empirical evidence to support the use of bioimpedance analysis in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The Methods: A systematic review of “PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PSYCHINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and the library [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the empirical evidence to support the use of bioimpedance analysis in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The Methods: A systematic review of “PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PSYCHINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and the library Cochrane for systematic review databases” were conducted to determine all possible trials that address “Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis” (BIA) in SCI before September 2020 in English. This systematic review was introduced as stated in the PRISMA Chosen Reporting Article strategies. The study was combined Using Boolean operators “OR” and “AND.” “Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis”, OR “body composition”, OR “fat-free mass”, OR “fat mass”, “Total body water obesity”, OR “weight gain”, OR “body mass index”, AND “Spinal Cord Injury.” The Results: In total, 3354 articles were identified, but 3303 were excluded. Among the 51 eligible studies, 21 were excluded since they did not fulfill the inclusion criteria. Finally, thirty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The bioimpedance analysis method is used to estimate the body composition of SCI society during follow-up, rehabilitation therapy, monitoring obesity management, and nutrition; the study observed that BIA is beneficial and predictable for evaluating the patient’s status of body composition. The Conclusion: BIA is a non-invasive, portable, fast, and inexpensive technique. This systematic review recommends further study on BIA to improve medicinal benefits in prediction. Full article
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7 pages, 3181 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Robust Optimal Utilization in a Grid-Interfaced PV System Using an Efficient Controller with a GWO Control Strategy
by Kamaraju Vechalapu and Chintapalli V. V. S. Bhaskara Reddy
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010004 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Robust optimal utilization was achieved in the integrated module of the grid-interfaced PV system. The module was created by combining a modified series capacitor high conversion ratio (MSC-HCR) converter, a maximum PowerPoint tracker (MPPT), and an efficient controller with a Grey Wolf Optimizer [...] Read more.
Robust optimal utilization was achieved in the integrated module of the grid-interfaced PV system. The module was created by combining a modified series capacitor high conversion ratio (MSC-HCR) converter, a maximum PowerPoint tracker (MPPT), and an efficient controller with a Grey Wolf Optimizer algorithm (GWO). The GWO created a database of control signals for optimal performance and provided the correct control signals for the system. The goal was to achieve stable, optimal power utilization at load, as represented by the system’s data signal in terms of current, voltage, and power. Power banks, such as batteries, can supply consistent and uninterrupted power to the load. The novel control strategy was employed to enhance power at load under optimal conditions. The suggested model was tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment under a variety of scenarios, and the system’s efficiency was evaluated using existing technologies. Full article
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9 pages, 3211 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A New Symmetric and Asymmetric Multilevel Inverter Circuit with Reduced Number of Components
by Venkatraman Thiyagarajan
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010005 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Multilevel inverters (MLIs) have emerged as a feasible option for medium-voltage energy conversion applications with excellent power quality. These inverters have exhibited different advantages over the two-level inverters due to the development of various modulation schemes. In recent years, they have received a [...] Read more.
Multilevel inverters (MLIs) have emerged as a feasible option for medium-voltage energy conversion applications with excellent power quality. These inverters have exhibited different advantages over the two-level inverters due to the development of various modulation schemes. In recent years, they have received a lot of attention for a variety of industrial applications, including adjustable speed drives, renewable energy systems, electric vehicles and uninterruptible power supply. The main aim of this paper is to propose a new symmetric- and asymmetric-type multilevel inverter circuit with a reduced number of circuit components. The proposed circuit consists of three DC voltage sources and nine power electronic switches. The proposed topology creates a staircase-type 7-level output voltage waveform under a symmetric condition and a 15-level output voltage waveform under an asymmetric condition, with fewer components and low total harmonic distortion, without using an active filter circuit. A comprehensive comparative analysis is presented to illustrate the advantage of the proposed inverter circuit. The performance of the proposed MLI is verified through many simulation studies in MATLAB/Simulink. Furthermore, to highlight the merits and superiorities of the suggested MLI, a full comparison is performed with the best performance of the existing MLI topologies. Full article
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9 pages, 3241 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Web-ChatLine: An Innovative Chatting Platform
by Amit Kumar Goel, Shivang Gupta, Chandan Kumar Singh and Krishna Kant Agrawal
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010006 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
With the turn of events and improvement in the web, an ever-increasing number of individuals have been choosing online chat platforms for correspondence. Their applications include being used for correspondence over significant distances. Along these lines, the application must both be continuous and [...] Read more.
With the turn of events and improvement in the web, an ever-increasing number of individuals have been choosing online chat platforms for correspondence. Their applications include being used for correspondence over significant distances. Along these lines, the application must both be continuous and multi-stage, and utilized by numerous clients. The online ongoing talking application need not bother with any extra outsider customer program, and visual correspondence could be set up advantageously. The programming instrument utilized to build this application is React.js, Node.js, which has an express structure and an in-memory data set. The text correspondence is moved to and from servers. Furthermore, the information transmission is achieved through highlight point association between servers. Because of the use of the response structure, a virtual space idea is carried out, which improves the presentation over existing applications created utilizing PHP by many times. Full article
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9 pages, 2321 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Production Enhancement Using Prosper Software with Reference to Well Test Matching and Modeling for Good Financial Management
by Vamsi Krishna Kudapa, Mohammed Ismail Iqbal, Sohel Memon, Syed Azharuddin and Ibrahim Al Rajawy
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010007 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2785
Abstract
Everyone who works in the oil and gas industry wants to keep capital and operating costs down while also increasing cumulative oil production in the most cost-effective way for the whole field. There must be a logical consideration of all of the field’s [...] Read more.
Everyone who works in the oil and gas industry wants to keep capital and operating costs down while also increasing cumulative oil production in the most cost-effective way for the whole field. There must be a logical consideration of all of the field’s production systems, from the subsurface to its surface facilities, in order for true production optimization to take place. As a result, when an oil well does not flow on its own, an assisted lifting system must be used. Gas lift is one of the few artificial lift systems that can start up a well and keep it going for a long time. Gas lift works by lowering the hydrostatic pressure inside the production tubing by injecting lighter fluid into the annulus, which is the space between the production tubing and the well. Integrated production modeling is very important for well performance analysis and for optimizing the production system. It offers a way of assessing the effects of changes by looking at each individual aspect and how they work together in the field. This paper considers a best practice workflow that was used in an integrated production-modeling project. When creating a surface network model, steps can be taken to make it faster. They also show how to ensure the model is accurate. The main goals of this work were to speed up the development of a model that could be used for investigating the well flow in advanced stacked watercourse sand systems and to look for ways to increase production. The model is built and compared to real-world data, and then, the best fluid and well production correlations are chosen for the model and for the data. The use of this model will help improve production and clarify how the whole production system works. Full article
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8 pages, 1511 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Web 3.0 and Decentralized Applications
by Amit Kumar Goel, Rahul Bakshi and Krishna Kant Agrawal
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010008 - 27 Jul 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7757
Abstract
The web we use today has seen many iterations over the years since the original concept of the World Wide Web was introduced in early 1990s.The first emergence of the web was called the static web or Web 1.0, which was read-only. A [...] Read more.
The web we use today has seen many iterations over the years since the original concept of the World Wide Web was introduced in early 1990s.The first emergence of the web was called the static web or Web 1.0, which was read-only. A further iteration of the web then came along and was called the Social Web or Web 2.0, which was interactive in nature and the users could do more than read static pages. This was readable and writable, and saw the emergence of numerous social platforms. Web 3.0 offers an unmediated read–write web, or, to put it another way, a decentralized Internet. This paper provides a brief idea of how the journey of the web has so far transitioned from Web 1.0 through Web 2.0 and now onto Web 3.0, and what all lies ahead in future with emerging technologies and Web 3.0. Full article
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5 pages, 512 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
FQRS: Farmer Query Redressal System Using Open-Source Framework
by Praveen Gujjar Jagannath, Guru Prasad Marigundanahalli Siddabasappa, Prasanna Kumar Huthinagadde RamakrishnaBhat, Amith Keerthi Jain and Prabhdeep Singh
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010009 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1322
Abstract
The Farmer query redressal system (FQRS) is an application designed as a chatbot. The FQRS is developed with the help of machine learning and deep learning techniques. The FQRS interacts with the farmers and this system can understand and respond totext or speech. [...] Read more.
The Farmer query redressal system (FQRS) is an application designed as a chatbot. The FQRS is developed with the help of machine learning and deep learning techniques. The FQRS interacts with the farmers and this system can understand and respond totext or speech. The FQRS is developed using the nlu-based open-source framework called Rasa. The Rasa framework uses building blocks such as the nlu and nlu core. The Rasa nlu and Rasa core are the building blocks for the development of a conversational chatbot. The FQRSwill use natural language processing and mimic conversations with the customers or users in a manner identical to a human being. The FQRS is implemented in Rasa 3.0. In this paper, to address farmer-related query, a chatbot has been created and the results show that the Rasa framework is more versatile than other chatbot developments platforms for creating chatbots. The results show that farmers’queries can be effectively addressed with the proper training of the model. Full article
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9 pages, 3989 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of Energy Harvesting Device to Utilize the Vibrational Energy of the Vehicle Suspension Systems
by Pranjal Ghormare
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010010 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1378
Abstract
Conventional energy resources are depleting at a rapid rate and there exists a possibility that the future generations will suffer from the lack of these resources. In a similar vein, this study makes an effort to harness the energy from vehicle vibrations, which [...] Read more.
Conventional energy resources are depleting at a rapid rate and there exists a possibility that the future generations will suffer from the lack of these resources. In a similar vein, this study makes an effort to harness the energy from vehicle vibrations, which is currently being wasted. When the vehicles move on the road, a lot of vibration occurs, if this energy can be scavenged and stored, then it could be used in any practical application. To this end, this study focuses on the development of an energy harvesting device that captures energy from the vehicle vibrations by using a smart material like a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) sensor and converts this energy into electrical energy. Besides, this device can be installed on the suspension system of any vehicle. Full article
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8 pages, 1118 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Electrical Characteristics of a Turmeric Dye-Based Organic Thin Film Device and the Effect of Light on Barrier Height
by Aloke Kumar Das, Ratan Mandal, Kushal Chakraborty and Dulal Krishna Mandal
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010011 - 9 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Herbal (turmeric) dye-based organic thin film is fabricated and characterized to prepare thin film electronic devices (i.e., Al/turmeric/Cu diodes) for optoelectronic applications. The temperature-dependent current–voltage (I-V) characteristics were evaluated considering different conditions. The values of the ideality factor (n), series resistance (RS [...] Read more.
Herbal (turmeric) dye-based organic thin film is fabricated and characterized to prepare thin film electronic devices (i.e., Al/turmeric/Cu diodes) for optoelectronic applications. The temperature-dependent current–voltage (I-V) characteristics were evaluated considering different conditions. The values of the ideality factor (n), series resistance (RS) and shunt resistance (Rsh) of the Al/turmeric/Cu diode were calculated using thermionic emission theory. The rectification ratio was found to be very high, and the current increased with the temperature. At 65 °C, RS was 56 KΩ, and at 28 °C, RS was 1.06 MΩ. The values of n, RS and Rsh were found to be 6.56, 8 KΩ and 100 KΩ, respectively. An interesting result obtained from the present work was that the series resistance decreased with the temperature, indicating the semiconducting behavior of the present dye material. Full article
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7 pages, 1312 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Smart Blind Walking Stick with Integrated Sensor
by Premarajan Akhil, Ramdas Akshara, Raju Athira, Srinivasan Padmanaban Kamalesh Kumar, Mathialagan Thamotharan and SobanasinghDevapaul Shobha Christila
Mater. Proc. 2022, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/materproc2022010012 - 6 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 18574
Abstract
Our society has a large population of visually impaired people. If you notice them, you will know they cannot walk without help; they need guidance to reach their destination. They face many struggles in their daily lives. Even though technology is advancing rapidly [...] Read more.
Our society has a large population of visually impaired people. If you notice them, you will know they cannot walk without help; they need guidance to reach their destination. They face many struggles in their daily lives. Even though technology is advancing rapidly today, there is no affordable device available for people with visual impairments. Blind people have difficulty performing their daily activities, so a Smart Blind Stick was designed to help them move and perform their tasks more easily. However, when visually impaired people are walking on the road, they find it difficult to see obstacles along the way, which makes it very dangerous. A smart stick is one of the best ways to point around. This stick is equipped with infrared sensors to detect stair cases, and a pair of ultrasonic sensors to detect any other obstacles in front of the user, within a range of four meters. A water sensor is also used in the system, which detects water on the user’s path. All found obstacles are alerted to the user through a buzzer. Full article
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