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Prosthesis, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 8 articles

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23 pages, 8607 KiB  
Review
Functionalization of Polymers and Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications: Antimicrobial Platforms and Drug Carriers
by Masoud Delfi, Matineh Ghomi, Ali Zarrabi, Reza Mohammadinejad, Zahra Baghban Taraghdari, Milad Ashrafizadeh, Ehsan Nazarzadeh Zare, Tarun Agarwal, Vinod V. T. Padil, Babak Mokhtari, Filippo Rossi, Giuseppe Perale, Mika Sillanpaa, Assunta Borzacchiello, Tapas Kumar Maiti and Pooyan Makvandi
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 117-139; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020012 - 23 Jun 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6495
Abstract
The use of polymers and nanomaterials has vastly grown for industrial and biomedical sectors during last years. Before any designation or selection of polymers and their nanocomposites, it is vital to recognize the targeted applications which require these platforms to be modified. Surface [...] Read more.
The use of polymers and nanomaterials has vastly grown for industrial and biomedical sectors during last years. Before any designation or selection of polymers and their nanocomposites, it is vital to recognize the targeted applications which require these platforms to be modified. Surface functionalization to introduce the desired type and quantity of reactive functional groups to target a cell or tissue in human body is a pivotal approach to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of these materials. Herein, advances in the functionalized polymer and nanomaterials surfaces are highlighted along with their applications in biomedical fields, e.g., antimicrobial therapy and drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral and Antimicrobial Surface Design Strategies)
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17 pages, 284 KiB  
Review
Titanium Alloys for Dental Implants: A Review
by John W. Nicholson
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 100-116; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020011 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 222 | Viewed by 23950
Abstract
The topic of titanium alloys for dental implants has been reviewed. The basis of the review was a search using PubMed, with the large number of references identified being reduced to a manageable number by concentrating on more recent articles and reports of [...] Read more.
The topic of titanium alloys for dental implants has been reviewed. The basis of the review was a search using PubMed, with the large number of references identified being reduced to a manageable number by concentrating on more recent articles and reports of biocompatibility and of implant durability. Implants made mainly from titanium have been used for the fabrication of dental implants since around 1981. The main alloys are so-called commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and Ti-6Al-4V, both of which give clinical success rates of up to 99% at 10 years. Both alloys are biocompatible in contact with bone and the gingival tissues, and are capable of undergoing osseointegration. Investigations of novel titanium alloys developed for orthopaedics show that they offer few advantages as dental implants. The main findings of this review are that the alloys cpTi and Ti-6Al-4V are highly satisfactory materials, and that there is little scope for improvement as far as dentistry is concerned. The conclusion is that these materials will continue to be used for dental implants well into the foreseeable future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prosthesis and Prosthetic Materials)
9 pages, 937 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Its Effect on Quality of Life and Ocular Discomfort in Patients with Prosthetic Eyes
by Alessandro Meduri, Rino Frisina, Miguel Rechichi and Giovanni William Oliverio
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 91-99; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020010 - 9 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3515
Abstract
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of ocular discomfort and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) on quality of life in patients with an ocular prosthesis. Methods: a prospective analysis was conducted on 18 patients with a unilateral ocular prosthesis. Evaluation of ocular discomfort symptoms, lid [...] Read more.
Purpose: To evaluate the influence of ocular discomfort and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) on quality of life in patients with an ocular prosthesis. Methods: a prospective analysis was conducted on 18 patients with a unilateral ocular prosthesis. Evaluation of ocular discomfort symptoms, lid margin abnormalities (LMA), meibomian gland expression, meibography and a psychometric evaluation using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ), Facial Appearance subscale of the Negative Physical Self Scale (NPSS-F), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the DAS24 to evaluate anxiety and depression. Results: the statistically significant differences observed between normal and prosthetic eyes related to ocular symptoms and the meibography score (p = 0.0003). A negative correlation was reported between NEI VFQ score and meibography score (r = −0.509; p-value = 0.022). A positive correlation was detected with NPSS (r = 0.75; p-value < 0.0001), anxiety HADS score (r = 0.912; p-value = 0.001) and depression HADS score (r = 0.870; p-value > 0.0001). Conclusion: MGD represents the most common cause of evaporative dry eye disease, due to the reduction of the thickness of the lipid layer of the tear film. The occurrence of MGD in patients with prosthetic eyes is very common. Anxiety and depression were correlated to ocular discomfort and MGD, and this could affect the quality of life in patients with an ocular prosthesis. Full article
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4 pages, 205 KiB  
Editorial
Worldwide 3D Printers against the New Coronavirus
by Luca Fiorillo and Teresa Leanza
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 87-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020009 - 5 Jun 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus has placed national health systems of different countries in difficulty, and has demonstrated the need for many types of personal protective equipment (PPE). Thanks to the advent of new three-dimensional printing technologies, it was possible to [...] Read more.
The pandemic caused by the new coronavirus has placed national health systems of different countries in difficulty, and has demonstrated the need for many types of personal protective equipment (PPE). Thanks to the advent of new three-dimensional printing technologies, it was possible to share print files (using stereolithography (stl)) quickly and easily, improve them cooperatively, and allow anyone who possessed the materials, a suitable 3D printer and these files, to print. The possibility of being able to print three-dimensional supports, or complete personal protective equipment has been of incredible help in the management of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019). The times and the relatively low costs have allowed a wide diffusion of these devices, especially for the structures that needed them, mainly healthcare facilities. 3D printing, now includes different fields of application, and represents, thanks to the evolution of methods and printers, an important step towards the “digital world”. Full article
11 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Osseodensification Drilling vs. Standard Protocol of Implant Site Preparation: An In Vitro Study on Polyurethane Foam Sheets
by Luca Comuzzi, Margherita Tumedei, Adriano Piattelli and Giovanna Iezzi
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 76-86; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020008 - 29 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3020
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to evaluate, on polyurethane sheets, two different drilling techniques for dental implant positioning using osteocondensing burs compared to a standard type protocol. (2) Methods: Three different implant designs (Implacil De Bortoli UN [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of the present in vitro investigation was to evaluate, on polyurethane sheets, two different drilling techniques for dental implant positioning using osteocondensing burs compared to a standard type protocol. (2) Methods: Three different implant designs (Implacil De Bortoli UN III 4 × 10 mm, Restore RBM 4 (HEX) × 10 mm; Implacil De Bortoli UN II 4 × 10 mm) were evaluated (test implant (osteocondensing drills) and control implant (standard drills)). The insertion torque (IT), the removal torque (RT) and the resonance frequency analysis (RFA) values of test and control implants inserted in different size and different density polyurethane foam models were compared for 120 experimental sites. Accordingly, 120 experimental holes were produced in different PCF polyurethane foams: 60 sites were produced in 10 PCF sheets and 60 sites in 10 PCF sheets with an additional 1 mm layer of 30 PCF. (3) Results: The IT, removal torque and RFA values were significantly higher for both of the evaluated implants, in the sites prepared with the osteocondenser drills when compared to sites prepared with standard drills (p < 0.05). The UNII and UN III showed significantly higher stability compared to the HEX implant; these differences increased drastically in the 10 PCF Polyurethane Block with the additional 1 mm cortical layer (p < 0.05). (4) Conclusions: The outcome of this investigation suggested a possible clinical application of osteocondensing burs in case of reduced bone quality and quantity in the posterior maxilla. Full article
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11 pages, 16860 KiB  
Article
Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Subject-Specific Mitral Valve Regurgitation Treatment with an Intra-Valvular Spacer
by Milan Toma, Daniel R. Einstein, Charles H. Bloodworth IV, Keshav Kohli, Richard P. Cochran, Karyn S. Kunzelman and Ajit P. Yoganathan
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 65-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020007 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3802
Abstract
Mitral regurgitation imposes a significant symptomatic burden on patients who are not candidates for conventional surgery. For these patients, transcatheter repair and replacement devices are emerging as alternative options. One such device is an intravalvular balloon or spacer that is inserted between the [...] Read more.
Mitral regurgitation imposes a significant symptomatic burden on patients who are not candidates for conventional surgery. For these patients, transcatheter repair and replacement devices are emerging as alternative options. One such device is an intravalvular balloon or spacer that is inserted between the mitral valve leaflets to fill the gap that gives rise to mitral regurgitation. In this study, we apply a large-deformation fluid-structure interaction analysis to a fully 3D subject-specific mitral valve model to assess the efficacy of the intra-valvular spacer for reducing mitral regurgitation severity. The model includes a topologically 3D subvalvular apparatus with unprecedented detail. Results show that device fixation and anchoring at the location of the subject’s regurgitant orifice is imperative for optimal reduction of mitral regurgitation. Full article
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12 pages, 12992 KiB  
Article
Minimally Invasive Treatment of Edentulous Maxillae with Overdenture Fully Supported by a Cad/Cam Titanium Bar with a Low-Profile Attachment Screwed on Four or Six Implants: A Case Series
by Marco Tallarico, Gabriele Cervino, Roberto Scrascia, Umberto Uccioli, Aurea Lumbau and Silvio Mario Meloni
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 53-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020006 - 7 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3148
Abstract
Rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla still remains a challenge. Fixed implant-supported restorations have become more predictable in the last years; nevertheless, technical and biological complications still occur. Removable overdenture fully supported by a CAD/CAM titanium bar seems to be a viable treatment option for [...] Read more.
Rehabilitation of atrophic maxilla still remains a challenge. Fixed implant-supported restorations have become more predictable in the last years; nevertheless, technical and biological complications still occur. Removable overdenture fully supported by a CAD/CAM titanium bar seems to be a viable treatment option for the rehabilitation of completely edentulous patients with a high degree of bone resorption. In these clinical cases, the soft tissues of the lower third of the face need to be respected, and a fixed-removable solution is the only option to have good hygiene control. Nevertheless, there is no consensus about the optimal number and position of the implants. A total of six adult patients were recruited and treated with an overdenture fully supported by a CAD/CAM titanium bar and low-profile attachment, screwed on four or six implants. A detailed step-by-step description of the procedures was presented. Overall, all the patients were successful treated with no relevant complications. With the limitations of this case series, maxillary implant overdenture fully supported by four or six implants seems to be a safer treatment option for the minimally invasive rehabilitation of atrophic maxillae, regardless of the number of implants. Full article
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7 pages, 2839 KiB  
Article
3D Printing beyond Dentistry during COVID 19 Epidemic: A Technical Note for Producing Connectors to Breathing Devices
by Leonardo Cavallo, Antonia Marcianò, Marco Cicciù and Giacomo Oteri
Prosthesis 2020, 2(2), 46-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/prosthesis2020005 - 7 Apr 2020
Cited by 78 | Viewed by 7851
Abstract
(1) Background: To mitigate the shortage of respiratory devices during the Covid-19 epidemic, dental professional volunteers can contribute to create printed plastic valves, adapting the dental digital workflow and converting snorkeling masks in emergency CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure) devices. The objective of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: To mitigate the shortage of respiratory devices during the Covid-19 epidemic, dental professional volunteers can contribute to create printed plastic valves, adapting the dental digital workflow and converting snorkeling masks in emergency CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure) devices. The objective of this report was to provide the specific settings to optimize printing with the 3D printers of the dental industry. (2) Methods: In order to provide comprehensive technical notes to volunteer dental professionals interested in printing Charlotte and Dave connectors to breathing devices, the entire digital workflow is reported. (3) Results: The present paper introduces an alternative use of the dental Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) machinery, and reports on the fabrication of a 3D printed connection prototypes suitable for connection to face masks, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of this application. (4) Conclusions: This call for action was addressed to dentists and dental laboratories who are willing to making available their experience, facilities and machinery for the benefit of patients, even way beyond dentistry. Full article
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