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Psych, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 9 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Gender Difference in Social Capital, Common Mental Disorders and Depression: ELSA-Brasil Study
Psych 2020, 2(1), 85-96; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010009 - 13 Mar 2020
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Association studies between social capital and health point out that a high level of social capital can act as a protector for mental health. The growing interest in social risk factors for mental health coincides with the development of social capital research. Higher [...] Read more.
Association studies between social capital and health point out that a high level of social capital can act as a protector for mental health. The growing interest in social risk factors for mental health coincides with the development of social capital research. Higher levels of social capital available through social networks can act as a protector for mental health. This study investigates gender differences in the association between social capital and common mental disorders (CMD) and depression. We analyzed 15,052 participants in the baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). CMD and depression were assessed by Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) and social capital by the Resource Generator scale. We used Logistic regression models stratified by sex. Women with lower social capital in the social support dimension had a greater chance of presenting CMD (OR = 1.36; CI 95%: 1.16–1.60) and depression (OR = 2.07; CI 95%: 1.57–2.72) when compared to women with higher social capital. No association was identified among men, or among women in the “prestige and education” dimension. The differences found between the dimensions of social capital support its multidimensionality, as well as the differences found between sexes, confirm the need to approach gender in its association with mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Relational Model for Stress: A Systematic Review of the Risk and Protective Factors for Stress-Related Diseases in Firefighters
Psych 2020, 2(1), 74-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010008 - 28 Feb 2020
Viewed by 756
Abstract
Firefighters are considered a high-risk group for the development of PTSD and other stress-related diseases. More than the exposure to potentially traumatic events, personal and occupational characteristics have been pointed out as interfering in the perception of stress, which may lead to the [...] Read more.
Firefighters are considered a high-risk group for the development of PTSD and other stress-related diseases. More than the exposure to potentially traumatic events, personal and occupational characteristics have been pointed out as interfering in the perception of stress, which may lead to the emergence of mental and physical symptoms. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the main factors that contribute to stress-related diseases in firefighters. A systematic review was conducted in order to identify original articles focusing on risk and protective factors for stress in this population. Personality traits, training, experience in extreme situations and social and organizational support influence the perception of stress and, consequently, the choice of coping strategies, which may protect against or potentiate the stress reactions. The findings of this study allow us to draw a relational model that represents the dynamics among the factors related to stress in firefighters. The development of PTSD and other stress-related diseases depends on a host of pre-trauma and post-trauma factors and, although training is an important protective factor, being prepared to face extreme situations does not mean being immune to traumatic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Effects of Priming on Affective Responses to Acute Exercise
Psych 2020, 2(1), 54-73; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010007 - 08 Feb 2020
Viewed by 442
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to experimentally investigate the relationship between positive affect elicitation (using a short video clip) prior to exercise and affect during acute aerobic exercise. A counterbalanced, within-subject experimental design was used. We conducted three related experiments. In Experiment [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to experimentally investigate the relationship between positive affect elicitation (using a short video clip) prior to exercise and affect during acute aerobic exercise. A counterbalanced, within-subject experimental design was used. We conducted three related experiments. In Experiment 1, 30 adults aged 18–40 years participated in a positive affect-elicitation condition (“affective priming”) and a control condition. Participation involved watching a five-minute video clip, as well as walking on a treadmill at a (self-selected) brisk pace for ten minutes. We compared affective ratings at baseline and intra-exercise for both conditions using a 2 (condition; priming versus no priming) × 2 (time; pre- versus mid-exercise) repeated measures ANOVA. In the follow-up experiments, we re-examined the relationship between affective priming and intra-exercise affect, addressing some limitations noted with Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, we compared the affect-elicitation properties of self-selected and imposed video clips. In Experiment 3, we re-investigated the potential affective benefits of priming, while including a neutral (neither positive nor negative) video during the control condition to attenuate potential demand characteristics, and a positive video-only condition to investigate possible carryover effects. Self-selected and imposed film clips showed similar affect-elicitation properties. Comparing the priming and control conditions, there were notable differences in the mean intra-exercise affective valence ratings (p = 0.07 Experiment 1, p = 0.01 Experiment 3). The mean affective activation ratings were not significantly different (p = 0.07 Experiment 1, p = 0.86 Experiment 3). Priming the affective state prior to exercise may be beneficial for enhancing intra-exercise affect. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Psych in 2019
Psych 2020, 2(1), 52-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010006 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 356
Open AccessArticle
Differential Item Functioning on Raven’s SPM+ Amongst Two Convenience Samples of Yakuts and Russians
Psych 2020, 2(1), 44-51; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010005 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 445
Abstract
National IQ estimates are based on psychometric measurements carried out in a variety of cultural contexts and are often obtained from Raven’s Progressive Matrices tests. In a series of studies, J. Philippe Rushton et al. have argued that these tests are not biased [...] Read more.
National IQ estimates are based on psychometric measurements carried out in a variety of cultural contexts and are often obtained from Raven’s Progressive Matrices tests. In a series of studies, J. Philippe Rushton et al. have argued that these tests are not biased with respect to ethnicity or race. Critics claimed their methods were inappropriate and suggested differential item functioning (DIF) analysis as a more suitable alternative. In the present study, we conduct a DIF analysis on Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices Plus (SPM+) tests administered to convenience samples of Yakuts and ethnic Russians. The Yakuts scored lower than the Russians by 4.8 IQ points, a difference that can be attributed to the selectiveness of the Russian sample. Data from the Yakut (n = 518) and Russian (n = 956) samples were analyzed for DIF using logistic regression. Although items B9, B10, B11, B12, and C11 were identified as having uniform DIF, all of these DIF effects can be regarded as negligible (R2 <0.13). This is consistent with Rushton et al.’s arguments that the Raven’s Progressive Matrices tests are ethnically unbiased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Self-Reported Food Insecurity and Depression among the Older Population in South Africa
Psych 2020, 2(1), 34-43; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010004 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 466
Abstract
South Africa represents one of the most rapidly aging countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a rising burden of age-related psychological morbidities. Despite having one of the highest human development scores in the region, the country faces serious poverty and food insecurity related challenges. [...] Read more.
South Africa represents one of the most rapidly aging countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a rising burden of age-related psychological morbidities. Despite having one of the highest human development scores in the region, the country faces serious poverty and food insecurity related challenges. Previous studies have shown a positive association between food insecurity and poor mental health among the adult population, however there is no systematic evidence on this association among the elderly population in an African setting. In the present study, we aimed to address this research gap by analyzing cross-sectional data (n = 931) on the over-50 population (>50 years) from the SAGE (Study on global AGEing and adult health) Well-Being of Older People Study (WOPS) of the World Health Organization, conducted between 2010 and 2013. The outcome variable was perceived depression and the explanatory variables included several sociodemographic factors including self-reported food insecurity. The independent associations between the outcome and explanatory variables were measured using multivariable regression analysis. Results showed that close to a quarter of the population (22.6%, 95% CI = 21.4, 24.7) reported having depression in the last 12 months, with the percentage being markedly higher among women (71.4%). In the multivariable regression analysis, self-reported food insecurity was found to be the strongest predictor of depression among both sexes. For instance, severe food insecurity increased the odds of depression by 4.805 [3.325, 7.911] times among men and by 4.115 [2.030, 8.341] times among women. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that national food security programs focus on promoting food security among the elderly population in an effort to improve their mental health status. Nonetheless, the data were cross-sectional and the associations can’t imply causality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
Open AccessArticle
Intelligence and Religiosity among Dating Site Users
Psych 2020, 2(1), 25-33; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010003 - 23 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1497
Abstract
We sought to assess whether previous findings regarding the relationship between cognitive ability and religiosity could be replicated in a large dataset of online daters (maximum n = 67k). We found that self-declared religious people had lower IQs than nonreligious people (atheists and [...] Read more.
We sought to assess whether previous findings regarding the relationship between cognitive ability and religiosity could be replicated in a large dataset of online daters (maximum n = 67k). We found that self-declared religious people had lower IQs than nonreligious people (atheists and agnostics). Furthermore, within most religious groups, a negative relationship between the strength of religious conviction and IQ was observed. This relationship was absent or reversed in nonreligious groups. A factor of religiousness based on five questions correlated at −0.38 with IQ after adjusting for reliability (−0.30 before). The relationship between IQ and religiousness was not strongly confounded by plausible demographic covariates (β = −0.24 in final model versus −0.30 without covariates). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dietary Patterns and Depression: First Results in a Cross-Sectional Study from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)
Psych 2020, 2(1), 11-24; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 722
Abstract
Background: Relations between diet and mental health continue to be a subject for controversy and an increasing numbers of studies. Recent literature is represented by papers that examine overall diet by way of dietary patterns and its association with depression, replacing previous studies [...] Read more.
Background: Relations between diet and mental health continue to be a subject for controversy and an increasing numbers of studies. Recent literature is represented by papers that examine overall diet by way of dietary patterns and its association with depression, replacing previous studies about nutrients. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate the relation between dietary patterns and depressive episode in the baseline (2008–2010) population of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We analyzed 14,798 participants of ELSA-Brasil. Methods: We constructed dietary patterns based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire using multiple correspondence and cluster analysis; to evaluate depressive episodes, we used the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). As an independent variable, we used the patterns: Traditional, Low-Sugar/Low-Fat, Fruit-Vegetables, and Bakery Products. We used multiple logistic regression models to evaluate relations between the dietary patterns and depressive episodes. Results: The Traditional pattern showed the highest percentages of consumption. After adjusting, the Bakery Products (OR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.05–1.70) was associated positively and significantly with depressive episodes only for women. Conclusions: International studies corroborated this finding, suggesting that the Bakery Products pattern could be a marker of a specific population group in which depressive episodes are frequent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
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Open AccessArticle
Intelligence, Income and Their Relation to Nutrition
Psych 2020, 2(1), 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010001 - 20 Dec 2019
Viewed by 547
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intelligence and income on nutrition in Brazil, by means of large-scale secondary data. The cognitive abilities of students were used as a measure of intelligence. In order to evaluate the nutritional quality [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intelligence and income on nutrition in Brazil, by means of large-scale secondary data. The cognitive abilities of students were used as a measure of intelligence. In order to evaluate the nutritional quality of the population, the state hunger and undernutrition index (SHUI) was created. The intelligence explained 34% of the SHUI variation in the country. The development of the population’s intelligence influences the decrease in the rates of hunger and undernutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
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