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Article

A Relational Model for Stress: A Systematic Review of the Risk and Protective Factors for Stress-Related Diseases in Firefighters

1
Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences of the University of Coimbra, 3001-802 Coimbra, Portugal
2
Faculty of Medicine of the University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Psych 2020, 2(1), 74-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010008
Received: 14 January 2020 / Revised: 22 February 2020 / Accepted: 26 February 2020 / Published: 28 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Health, Social Psychology and Psychiatry)
Firefighters are considered a high-risk group for the development of PTSD and other stress-related diseases. More than the exposure to potentially traumatic events, personal and occupational characteristics have been pointed out as interfering in the perception of stress, which may lead to the emergence of mental and physical symptoms. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the main factors that contribute to stress-related diseases in firefighters. A systematic review was conducted in order to identify original articles focusing on risk and protective factors for stress in this population. Personality traits, training, experience in extreme situations and social and organizational support influence the perception of stress and, consequently, the choice of coping strategies, which may protect against or potentiate the stress reactions. The findings of this study allow us to draw a relational model that represents the dynamics among the factors related to stress in firefighters. The development of PTSD and other stress-related diseases depends on a host of pre-trauma and post-trauma factors and, although training is an important protective factor, being prepared to face extreme situations does not mean being immune to traumatic stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: PTSD; stress-related diseases; firefighters; relational model; systematic review PTSD; stress-related diseases; firefighters; relational model; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Becker, J.P.; Paixão, R.; Quartilho, M.J. A Relational Model for Stress: A Systematic Review of the Risk and Protective Factors for Stress-Related Diseases in Firefighters. Psych 2020, 2, 74-84. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010008

AMA Style

Becker JP, Paixão R, Quartilho MJ. A Relational Model for Stress: A Systematic Review of the Risk and Protective Factors for Stress-Related Diseases in Firefighters. Psych. 2020; 2(1):74-84. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Becker, Joana P., Rui Paixão, and Manuel J. Quartilho. 2020. "A Relational Model for Stress: A Systematic Review of the Risk and Protective Factors for Stress-Related Diseases in Firefighters" Psych 2, no. 1: 74-84. https://doi.org/10.3390/psych2010008

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