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Volume 1, September
 
 

Physics, Volume 1, Issue 1 (June 2019) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An illustrative picture of pair production, via quark–antiquark fusion, of two heavy mediators (Qv anti-Qv) connecting the standard model sector and a still undiscovered hidden/dark sector, predicted by several models and generally referred to as the Hidden Valley. Before decaying into a quark and hidden v-quark, as shown in the picture, both Qv and anti-Qv radiate QCD gluons and hidden v-gluons, initiating the corresponding showers, ultimately leading to SM final-state particles. One of the consequences of the production of a hidden/dark step, at an early stage of the Parton shower, is the enhancement of long-distance angular correlations in pp collisions, allowing a reinterpretation of those phenomena already observed at LHC experiments. This is the main conclusion of our paper as a way of detecting new physics using multiparticle production, complementary to other kinds of searches. View this paper.
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16 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
Super-Higgs in Superspace
Physics 2019, 1(1), 167-182; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010016 - 14 Jun 2019
Viewed by 2403
Abstract
We determine the effective gravitational couplings in superspace whose components reproduce the supergravity Higgs effect for the constrained Goldstino multiplet. It reproduces the known Gravitino sector while constraining the off-shell completion. We show that these couplings arise by computing them as quantum corrections. [...] Read more.
We determine the effective gravitational couplings in superspace whose components reproduce the supergravity Higgs effect for the constrained Goldstino multiplet. It reproduces the known Gravitino sector while constraining the off-shell completion. We show that these couplings arise by computing them as quantum corrections. This may be useful for phenomenological studies and model-building. We give an example of its application to multiple Goldstini. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in High Energy Physics)
13 pages, 414 KiB  
Article
Integral Balance Methods for Stokes’ First Equation Described by the Left Generalized Fractional Derivative
Physics 2019, 1(1), 154-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010015 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3026
Abstract
In this paper, the integral balance methods of the Stokes’ first equation have been presented. The approximate solution of the fractional Stokes’ first equation using the heat balance integral method has been proposed. The approximate solution of the fractional Stokes’ first equation using [...] Read more.
In this paper, the integral balance methods of the Stokes’ first equation have been presented. The approximate solution of the fractional Stokes’ first equation using the heat balance integral method has been proposed. The approximate solution of the fractional Stokes’ first equation using the double integral methods has been proposed. The generalized fractional time derivative operator has been used. The graphical representations of the cubic profile and the quadratic profile for the Stokes’ first problem have been provided. The impacts of the orders of the generalized fractional derivative in the Stokes’ first problem have been investigated. The exponent of the assumed profile for the Stokes’ first equation has been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Classical Physics)
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7 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Entropy Production, Entropy Generation, and Fokker-Planck Equations for Cancer Cell Growth
Physics 2019, 1(1), 147-153; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010014 - 12 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4152
Abstract
It is rather difficult to understand biological systems from a physics point of view, and understanding systems such as cancer is even more challenging. There are many factors affecting the dynamics of a cancer cell, and they can be understood approximately. We can [...] Read more.
It is rather difficult to understand biological systems from a physics point of view, and understanding systems such as cancer is even more challenging. There are many factors affecting the dynamics of a cancer cell, and they can be understood approximately. We can apply the principles of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics to have a greater understanding of such systems. Very much like other systems, living systems also transform energy and matter during metabolism, and according to the First Law of Thermodynamics, this could be described as a capacity to transform energy in a controlled way. The properties of cancer cells are different from regular cells. Cancer is a name used for a set of malignant cells that lost control over normal growth. Cancer can be described as an open, complex, dynamic, and self-organizing system. Cancer is considered as a non-linear dynamic system, which can be explained to a good degree using techniques from non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. We will also look at such a system through its entropy due to to the interaction with the environment and within the system itself. Here, we have studied the entropy generation versus the entropy production approach, and have calculated the entropy of growth of cancer cells using Fokker-Planck equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Statistical Physics and Nonlinear Phenomena)
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16 pages, 979 KiB  
Article
Quantum Fisher Information and Entanglement of Moving Two Two-Level Atoms under the Influence of Environmental Effects
Physics 2019, 1(1), 131-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010013 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3505
Abstract
We have investigated numerically the dynamics of quantum Fisher information (QFI) and quantum entanglement (QE) of a two moving two-level atomic systems interacting with a coherent and thermal field in the presence of intrinsic decoherence (ID) and Kerr (non-linear medium) and Stark effects. [...] Read more.
We have investigated numerically the dynamics of quantum Fisher information (QFI) and quantum entanglement (QE) of a two moving two-level atomic systems interacting with a coherent and thermal field in the presence of intrinsic decoherence (ID) and Kerr (non-linear medium) and Stark effects. The state of the entire system interacting with coherent and thermal fields is evaluated numerically under the influence of ID and Kerr (nonlinear) and Stark effects. QFI and von Neumann entropy (VNE) decrease in the presence of ID when the atomic motion is neglected. QFI and QE show an opposite response during its time evolution in the presence of a thermal environment. QFI is found to be more susceptible to ID as compared to QE in the presence of a thermal environment. The decay of QE is further damped at greater time-scales, which confirms the fact that ID heavily influences the system’s dynamics in a thermal environment. However, a periodic behavior of entanglement is observed due to atomic motion, which becomes modest under environmental effects. It is found that a non-linear Kerr medium has a prominent effect on the VNE but not on the QFI. Furthermore, it has been observed that QFI and QE decay soon under the influence of the Stark effect in the absence of atomic motion. The periodic response of QFI and VNE is observed for both the non-linear Kerr medium and the Stark effect in the presence of atomic motion. It is observed that the Stark, Kerr, ID, and thermal environment have significant effects during the time evolution of the quantum system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic Physics)
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20 pages, 5462 KiB  
Article
Dufour Effect with Ramped Wall Temperature and Specie Concentration on Natural Convection Flow through a Channel
Physics 2019, 1(1), 111-130; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010012 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2998
Abstract
In this paper, we have obtained an analytical solution to the problem of unsteady free convection and mass transfer flow of an incompressible fluid through a vertical channel in the presence of Dufour effect (or diffusion thermo). The bounding plates are assumed to [...] Read more.
In this paper, we have obtained an analytical solution to the problem of unsteady free convection and mass transfer flow of an incompressible fluid through a vertical channel in the presence of Dufour effect (or diffusion thermo). The bounding plates are assumed to have ramped wall temperature as well as specie concentration. The mathematical model responsible for the physical situation is presented in dimensionless form and solved analytically using the powerful Laplace Transform Technique (LTT) under relevant initial and boundary conditions. In order to cross check the accuracy of the analytical results, numerical solutions are obtained using PDEPE solver in MATLAB. The expressions for temperature, concentration, and velocity are obtained. The effects of Dufour parameter, Prandtl number ( P r ) , Schmidt number ( S c ) , and dimensionless time are described during the course of these discussions. The temperature, concentration, and velocity profiles are graphically presented for some realistic values of P r = 0.025 ,   0.71 ,   7.0 ,   11.62 ,   100.0 and S c = 0.22 ,   0.60 ,   1.00 ,   2.62 , while the values of all other parameters are arbitrarily taken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Classical Physics)
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8 pages, 227 KiB  
Article
Fractal Structure in Gauge Fields
Physics 2019, 1(1), 103-110; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010011 - 21 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
In this work, we investigate fractal properties in Yang–Mills fields, in particular their Hausdorff fractal dimension. Fractal properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) have been suggested as the origin of power-law distributions in high energy collisions, as well as of non-extensive properties that have [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate fractal properties in Yang–Mills fields, in particular their Hausdorff fractal dimension. Fractal properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) have been suggested as the origin of power-law distributions in high energy collisions, as well as of non-extensive properties that have been observed experimentally. The fractal dimension obtained here can be calculated directly from the properties of the field theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in High Energy Physics)
11 pages, 473 KiB  
Article
Probing Trans-Electroweak First Order Phase Transitions from Gravitational Waves
Physics 2019, 1(1), 92-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010010 - 15 May 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3632
Abstract
We propose direct tests of very high energy first-order phase transitions, which are elusive to collider physics, deploying the gravitational waves’ measurements. We show that first-order phase transitions lying in a large window of critical temperatures, which is considerably larger than the electroweak [...] Read more.
We propose direct tests of very high energy first-order phase transitions, which are elusive to collider physics, deploying the gravitational waves’ measurements. We show that first-order phase transitions lying in a large window of critical temperatures, which is considerably larger than the electroweak energy scale, can be tested from advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and the Einstein Telescope. This provides the possibility to probe several inflationary mechanisms ending with the inflaton in a false minimum and high-energy first order phase transitions that are due to new scalar bosons, beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. As an important example, we consider the axion monodromy inflationary scenario and analyze the potential for its experimental verification, deploying the gravitational wave interferometers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in High Energy Physics)
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8 pages, 270 KiB  
Article
Signatures of New Physics Versus the Ridge Phenomenon in Hadron–Hadron Collisions at the LHC
Physics 2019, 1(1), 84-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010009 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3799
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the possibility that a new stage of matter stemming from hidden/dark sectors beyond the Standard Model, to be formed in p p collisions at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), can significantly modify the correlations among final-state particles. In [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the possibility that a new stage of matter stemming from hidden/dark sectors beyond the Standard Model, to be formed in p p collisions at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), can significantly modify the correlations among final-state particles. In particular, two-particle azimuthal correlations are studied by means of a Fourier series sensitive to the near-side ridge effect while assuming that hidden/dark particles decay on top of the conventional parton shower. Then, new (fractional) harmonic terms should be included in the Fourier analysis of the azimuthal anisotropies, encoding the hypothetical new physics contribution and enabling its detection in a complementary way to other signatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in High Energy Physics)
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8 pages, 1260 KiB  
Article
Natural Convection in Porous Media and the Collapse of the Wave Function
Physics 2019, 1(1), 76-83; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010008 - 09 Apr 2019
Viewed by 2771
Abstract
The problem of nonlinear natural convection in a fluid saturated porous layer heated from below is reviewed focusing on the specific result of a collapse of the wave function. When the conditions for the onset of convection are met, a wave function is [...] Read more.
The problem of nonlinear natural convection in a fluid saturated porous layer heated from below is reviewed focusing on the specific result of a collapse of the wave function. When the conditions for the onset of convection are met, a wave function is obtained as the solution of the linearized equations expressed in terms of a Fourier expansion. Only one mode of this expansion survives at the onset of convection, a result that can be seen as the “collapse of the wave function” in a very similar fashion as in quantum mechanics, although the explanations of the latter are very distinct from the ones in quantum mechanics. The reasons behind the “collapse of the wave function” result in natural convection are discussed and the analysis is extended into the nonlinear domain of convection, by using a weak nonlinear analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic Physics)
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9 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Gravitational Waves from Mirror World
Physics 2019, 1(1), 67-75; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010007 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3111
Abstract
In this paper we consider the properties of the 10 confirmed by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) Collaboration gravitational wave signals from the black hole mergers. We want to explain non-observation of electromagnetic counterpart and higher then expected merging rates of these [...] Read more.
In this paper we consider the properties of the 10 confirmed by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) Collaboration gravitational wave signals from the black hole mergers. We want to explain non-observation of electromagnetic counterpart and higher then expected merging rates of these events, assuming the existence of their sources in the hidden mirror universe. Mirror matter, which interacts with our world only through gravity, is a candidate of dark matter and its density can exceed ordinary matter density five times. Since mirror world is considered to be colder, star formation there started earlier and mirror black holes had more time to pick up the mass and to create more binary systems within the LIGO reachable zone. In total, we estimate factor of 15 amplification of black holes merging rate in mirror world with respect to our world, which is consistent with the LIGO observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimessenger Probes of the Universe)
8 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
The Bose-Einstein Correlations and the Strong Coupling Constant at Low Energies
Physics 2019, 1(1), 59-66; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010006 - 12 Mar 2019
Viewed by 2882
Abstract
It is shown that α s ( E ) , the strong coupling constant, can be determined in the non-perturbative regime from Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC). The obtained α s ( E ) , where E is the energy of the hadron in the [...] Read more.
It is shown that α s ( E ) , the strong coupling constant, can be determined in the non-perturbative regime from Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC). The obtained α s ( E ) , where E is the energy of the hadron in the center of mass reference frame of the di-hadron pair, is in agreement with the prescriptions dealt with in the Analytic Perturbative Theory approach. It also extrapolates smoothly to the standard perturbative α s ( E ) at higher energies. Our results indicate that BEC dimension can be considered as an alternative approach to the short-range correlations between hadrons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in High Energy Physics)
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19 pages, 736 KiB  
Article
Fractional Prabhakar Derivative in Diffusion Equation with Non-Static Stochastic Resetting
Physics 2019, 1(1), 40-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010005 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 55 | Viewed by 4460
Abstract
In this work, we investigate a series of mathematical aspects for the fractional diffusion equation with stochastic resetting. The stochastic resetting process in Evans–Majumdar sense has several applications in science, with a particular emphasis on non-equilibrium physics and biological systems. We propose a [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate a series of mathematical aspects for the fractional diffusion equation with stochastic resetting. The stochastic resetting process in Evans–Majumdar sense has several applications in science, with a particular emphasis on non-equilibrium physics and biological systems. We propose a version of the stochastic resetting theory for systems in which the reset point is in motion, so the walker does not return to the initial position as in the standard model, but returns to a point that moves in space. In addition, we investigate the proposed stochastic resetting model for diffusion with the fractional operator of Prabhakar. The derivative of Prabhakar consists of an integro-differential operator that has a Mittag–Leffler function with three parameters in the integration kernel, so it generalizes a series of fractional operators such as Riemann–Liouville–Caputo. We present how the generalized model of stochastic resetting for fractional diffusion implies a rich class of anomalous diffusive processes, i.e., ( Δ x ) 2 t α , which includes sub-super-hyper-diffusive regimes. In the sequence, we generalize these ideas to the fractional Fokker–Planck equation for quadratic potential U ( x ) = a x 2 + b x + c . This work aims to present the generalized model of Evans–Majumdar’s theory for stochastic resetting under a new perspective of non-static restart points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Classical Physics)
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7 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Cul-De-Sac of the Spatial Image of Proton Interactions
Physics 2019, 1(1), 33-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010004 - 30 Jan 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2962
Abstract
The unitarity condition in the impact parameter space is used to obtain some information about the shape of the interaction region of colliding protons. It is shown that, strictly speaking, a reliable conclusion can be gained only if the behavior of the elastic [...] Read more.
The unitarity condition in the impact parameter space is used to obtain some information about the shape of the interaction region of colliding protons. It is shown that, strictly speaking, a reliable conclusion can be gained only if the behavior of the elastic scattering amplitude (especially, its imaginary part) at all transferred momenta is known. This information is currently impossible to obtain from experimentation. In practice, several assumptions and models are used. They lead to different results as shown below. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in High Energy Physics)
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16 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics with Indefinite Norm
Physics 2019, 1(1), 17-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010003 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5979
Abstract
The Born postulate can be reduced to its deterministic content that only applies to eigenvectors of observables: The standard probabilistic interpretation of generic states then follows from algebraic properties of repeated measurements and states. Extending this reasoning suggests an interpretation of quantum mechanics [...] Read more.
The Born postulate can be reduced to its deterministic content that only applies to eigenvectors of observables: The standard probabilistic interpretation of generic states then follows from algebraic properties of repeated measurements and states. Extending this reasoning suggests an interpretation of quantum mechanics generalized with indefinite quantum norm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic Physics)
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15 pages, 1283 KiB  
Article
Extended SSH Model: Non-Local Couplings and Non-Monotonous Edge States
Physics 2019, 1(1), 2-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010002 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6972
Abstract
We construct a generalized system by introducing an additional long-range hopping to the well-known Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. This system exhibits richer topological properties including non-trivial topological phases and associated localized edge states. We study the zero-energy edge states in detail and derive the [...] Read more.
We construct a generalized system by introducing an additional long-range hopping to the well-known Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. This system exhibits richer topological properties including non-trivial topological phases and associated localized edge states. We study the zero-energy edge states in detail and derive the edge-state wave functions using two different methods. Furthermore, we propose a possible setup using octupole moments optically excited on an array of dielectric particles for the realization of the system, and by adjusting the coupling strengths between neighboring particles we can control the hotspots (near-field enhancement) in such structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Topological Photonics and Axion Electrodynamics)
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1 pages, 131 KiB  
Editorial
Introduction to a New Open Access Journal by MDPI: Physics
Physics 2019, 1(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/physics1010001 - 02 Nov 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2773
Abstract
Herewith, we launch a new MDPI journal, Physics, for which I am honored to serve as Editor-in-Chief. [...] Full article
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