Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010021

Authors: Pietro Paolo Corso Dario Cricchio Emilio Fiordilino

At energy lower than 2 eV, the dispersion law of the electrons in a graphene sheet presents a linear dependence of the energy on the kinetic momentum, which is typical of photons and permits the description of the electrons as massless particles by means of the Dirac equation and the study of massless particles acted upon by forces. We analytically solve the Dirac equation of an electron in a graphene disk with radius of 10,000 atomic units pierced by a magnetic field and find the eigenenergies and eigenstates of the particles for spin up and down. The magnetic field ranges within three orders of magnitude and is found to confine the electron in the disk. States with a relatively large total angular momentum exist and can be considered in a vorticose condition; these states are seen to peak at different distances from the disk centre and can be used to store few bit of information.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010020

Authors: César D. Fosco Fernando C. Lombardo Francisco D. Mazzitelli

We review the derivative expansion (DE) method in Casimir physics, an approach which extends the proximity force approximation (PFA). After introducing and motivating the DE in contexts other than the Casimir effect, we present different examples which correspond to that realm. We focus on different particular geometries, boundary conditions, types of fields, and quantum and thermal fluctuations. Besides providing various examples where the method can be applied, we discuss a concrete example for which the DE cannot be applied; namely, the case of perfect Neumann conditions in 2+1 dimensions. By the same example, we show how a more realistic type of boundary condition circumvents the problem. We also comment on the application of the DE to the Casimir&ndash;Polder interaction which provides a broader perspective on particle&ndash;surface interactions.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010019

Authors: Daria Prokhorova Evgeny Andronov

In this study, we develop the colour string model of particle production, based on the multi-pomeron exchange scenario, to address the controversial origin of the flow signal measured in proton&ndash;proton inelastic interactions. Our approach takes into account the string&ndash;string interactions but does not include a hydrodynamic phase. We consider a comprehensive three-dimensional dynamics of strings that leads to the formation of strongly heterogeneous string density in an event. The latter serves as a source of particle creation. The string fusion mechanism, which is a major feature of the model, modifies the particle production and creates azimuthal anisotropy. Model parameters are fixed by comparing the model distributions with the ATLAS experiment proton&ndash;proton data at the centre-of-mass energy s=13 TeV. The results obtained for the two-particle angular correlation function, C(&Delta;&eta;,&Delta;&#981;), with &Delta;&eta; and &Delta;&#981; differences in, respectively, pseudorapidities and azimuthal angles between two particles, reveal the resonance contributions and the near-side ridge. Model calculations of the two-particle cumulants, c2{2}, and second order flow harmonic, v2{2}, also performed using the two-subevent method, are in qualitative agreement with the data. The observed absence of the away-side ridge in the model results is interpreted as an imperfection in the definition of the time for the transverse evolution of the string system.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010018

Authors: Dmitry Chernyshov Vladimir Dogiel Igor Dremin

We suggest a new alternative model of positron origin in the Galaxy. It is shown in our model that interactions of the electromagnetic fields of colliding ions (ultraperipheral ion collisions) can contribute to the total production of Galactic positrons. The corresponding cross-section is estimated by using the Born approximation and the equivalent photon method. This process of ion collisions dominates in the range of subrelativistic energies and produces positrons with energies of several MeV. Despite its low efficiency, as it requires more than 0.1 erg to produce a single positron, this process may be an effective source of positrons in the Galactic medium.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010017

Authors: Michael Bordag Irina G. Pirozhenko

The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, first calculated by Schwinger, lowers the ground state energy of the electron in a weak magnetic field. It is a function of the field and changes signs for large fields, ensuring the stability of the ground state. This has been shown in the past 50 years in numerous papers. The corresponding corrections to the mass of the electron have also been investigated in strong fields using semiclassical methods. We critically review these developments and point out that the calculation for low-lying excited states raises questions. Also, we calculate the contribution from the tadpole diagram, the relevance of which was observed only quite recently.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010016

Authors: Paola Marziani Alberto Floris Alice Deconto-Machado Swayamtrupta Panda Marzena Sniegowska Karla Garnica Deborah Dultzin Mauro D’Onofrio Ascensión Del Olmo Edi Bon Nataša Bon

The 4D (four-dimensional) eigenvector 1 (E1) sequence has proven to be a highly effective tool for organizing observational and physical properties of type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this paper, we present multiple measurements of metallicity for the broad line region gas, from new and previously-published data. We demonstrate a consistent trend along the optical plane of the E1 (also known as the quasar main sequence), defined by the line width of Balmer hydrogen H&beta; profile and by a parameter measuring the prominence of singly-ionized iron emission. The trend involves an increase from sub-solar metallicity in correspondence with extreme Population B (weak Feii emission, large H&beta; FWHM (full width at half maximum)) to metallicity several tens the solar value in correspondence with extreme Population A (strongest Feii optical emission, narrower H&beta; profiles). The data establish the metallicity as a correlate of the 4DE1/main sequence. If the considerably high metallicity (Z&#8819;10Z&#8857;, solar metallicity) gas is expelled from the sphere of influence of the central black hole, as indicated by the widespread evidence of nuclear outflows and disk wind in the case of sources radiating at a high Eddington ratio, then it is possible that the outflows from quasars played a role in chemically enriching the host galaxy.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010015

Authors: Ben Ohayon Andreas Abeln Silvia Bara Thomas Elias Cocolios Ofir Eizenberg Andreas Fleischmann Loredana Gastaldo César Godinho Michael Heines Daniel Hengstler Guillaume Hupin Paul Indelicato Klaus Kirch Andreas Knecht Daniel Kreuzberger Jorge Machado Petr Navratil Nancy Paul Randolf Pohl Daniel Unger Stergiani Marina Vogiatzi Katharina von Schoeler Frederik Wauters

We, the QUARTET Collaboration, propose an experiment to measure the nuclear charge radii of light elements with up to 20 times higher accuracy. These are essential both for understanding nuclear physics at low energies, and for experimental and theoretical applications in simple atomic systems. Such comparisons advance the understanding of bound-state quantum electrodynamics and are useful for searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. The energy levels of muonic atoms are highly susceptible to nuclear structure, especially to the mean square charge radius. The radii of the lightest nuclei (with the atomic number, Z=1,2) have been determined with high accuracy using laser spectroscopy in muonic atoms, while those of medium mass and above were determined using X-ray spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors. In this communication, we present a new experiment, aiming to obtain precision measurements of the radii of light nuclei 3&le;Z&le;10 using single-photon energy measurements with cryogenic microcalorimeters; a quantum-sensing technology capable of high efficiency with outstanding resolution for low-energy X-rays.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010014

Authors: Giuseppe Bimonte Thorsten Emig

Fluctuation-induced forces are a hallmark of the interplay between fluctuations and geometry. We recently proved the existence of a multi-parametric family of exact representations of Casimir and Casimir&ndash;Polder interactions between bodies of arbitrary shape and material composition, admitting a multiple scattering expansion (MSE) as a sequence of inter-body and intra-body multiple wave scatterings. The approach requires no knowledge of the scattering amplitude (T-matrix) of the bodies. In this paper, we investigate the convergence properties of the MSE for the Casimir&ndash;Polder interaction of a polarizable particle with a macroscopic body. We consider representative materials from different classes, such as insulators, conductors, and semiconductors. Using a sphere and a cylinder as benchmarks, we demonstrate that the MSE can be used to efficiently and accurately compute the Casimir&ndash;Polder interaction for bodies with smooth surfaces.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010013

Authors: Denimara Dias dos Santos Swayamtrupta Panda Alberto Rodríguez-Ardila Murilo Marinello

Constraining the physical conditions of the ionized media in the vicinity of an active supermassive black hole (SMBH) is crucial to understanding how these complex systems operate. Metal emission lines such as iron (Fe) are useful probes to trace the gaseous media&rsquo;s abundance, activity, and evolution in these accreting systems. Among these, the Feii emission has been the focus of many prior studies to investigate the energetics, kinematics, and composition of the broad-emission line region (BELR) from where these emission lines are produced. In this paper, we present the first simultaneous Feii modeling in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) regions. We use cloudy photoionization code to simulate both spectral regions in the wavelength interval 4000&ndash;12,000 &Aring;. We compare our model predictions with the observed line flux ratios for I Zw (Zwicky) 1&mdash;a prototypical strong Feii-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This allows setting constraints on the BLR cloud density and metal content that is optimal for the production of the Feii emission, which can be extended to I Zw 1-like sources by examining a broad parameter space. We demonstrate the salient and distinct features of the Feii pseudo-continuum in the optical and NIR, giving special attention to the effect of micro-turbulence on the intensity of the Feii emission.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010012

Authors: Marwa Selmi

Microwave ablation (MWA) represents one of the most powerful tools in cancer treatment. This therapeutic modality process is governed by the temperature and absorbed dose of radiation of the cell tissue. This study was performed to control the temperature effect using simulation during the MWA thermal damage of lung tumor. For this reason, a two-dimensional (2D) computational modeling generated for adaptive lung tissue was designed and analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Different approaches, such as first-order Arrhenius rate equations, Maxwell equations, and the bioheat equation, have been used to simulate necrosis in cells. To control the heat, a proportional&ndash;integral&ndash;derivative (PID) controller was used to moderate the input microwave power source and to maintain the temperature of the target tip at a lower level of the initial temperature data. Furthermore, full cancer tissue necrosis was also evaluated by processing time and thermal damage fraction. The obtained data proved that the target tip temperature was affected by the temperature distribution and specific absorption rate (SAR). However, a specific treatment period of tumor ablation is required to control and decrease the damage of surrounding healthy tissue to ensure a safe operation without any risk.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010011

Authors: Nail Khusnutdinov Natalia Emelianova

We consider the two planes at zero temperature with isotropic conductivity that are in relative lateral motion with velocity v and interplane distance a. Two models of conductivity are taken into account&mdash;the constant and frequency-dependent Drude models. The normal (perpendicular to planes) Casimir force is analyzed in detail for two systems&mdash;(i) two planes with identical conductivity and (ii) one plane that is a perfect metal. The velocity correction to the Casimir energy, &Delta;vE&prop;v2, for small enough velocities is used for all considered cases. In the case of constant conductivity, &eta;, the energy correction is &Delta;vE&prop;&eta;/a3v/&eta;2 for v&#8810;&eta;&#8810;1.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010010

Authors: Miron Kaufman Sanda Kaufman Hung T. Diep

This study belongs to an emerging area of research seeking ways to depolarize societies in the short run (around events such as elections) as well as in a sustainable fashion. We approach the depolarization process with a model of three homophilic groups (US Democrats, Republicans, and Independents interacting in the context of upcoming federal elections). We expand a previous polarization model, which assumed that each individual interacts with all other individuals in its group with mean-field interactions. We add a depolarization field, which is analogous to the Blume&ndash;Capel model&rsquo;s crystal field. There are currently numerous depolarization efforts around the world, some of which act in ways similar to this depolarization field. We find that for low values of the depolarization field, the system continues to be polarized. When the depolarization field is increased, the polarization decreases.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010009

Authors: Shintaro Mori Shogo Nakamura Kazuaki Nakayama Masato Hisakado

Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of ants. We investigate a simplified computational model of ACO, wherein ants sequentially engage in binary decision-making tasks, leaving pheromone trails contingent upon their choices. The quantity of pheromone left is the number of correct answers. We scrutinize the impact of a salient parameter in the ACO algorithm, specifically, the exponent &alpha;, which governs the pheromone levels in the stochastic choice function. In the absence of pheromone evaporation, the system is accurately modeled as a multivariate nonlinear P&oacute;lya urn, undergoing phase transition as &alpha; varies. The probability of selecting the correct answer for each question asymptotically approaches the stable fixed point of the nonlinear P&oacute;lya urn. The system exhibits dual stable fixed points for &alpha;&ge;&alpha;c and a singular stable fixed point for &alpha;&lt;&alpha;c where &alpha;c is the critical value. When pheromone evaporates over a time scale &tau;, the phase transition does not occur and leads to a bimodal stationary distribution of probabilities for &alpha;&ge;&alpha;c and a monomodal distribution for &alpha;&lt;&alpha;c.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010008

Authors: Michelle Siemens Benjamin Emde Marion Henkel Ralf Methling Steffen Franke Diego Gonzalez Jörg Hermsdorf

This paper deals with double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) underwater, which is a promising analytical method for elemental analysis in the deep sea up to a water depth of 6000 m. A double-pulse laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm is used, which provides a pulse energy of up to 266 mJ for each laser pulse (in single pulse mode), a pulse width of 5&ndash;7 ns and a pulse delay in the range of 0.5 to 20 &micro;s. In the double-pulse LIBS method, the first laser pulse creates a cavity on the material surface, and then the second laser pulse forms the plasma in this cavity. It is expected that the plasma is affected by the cavity&rsquo;s size and lifetime. For this reason, the influence of focus position, pulse energy and pulse delay on the cavity and plasma formation at shallow water depth has been investigated.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010007

Authors: Christophe Hugon Vladimir Kulikovskiy

We give a vacuum description with zero-point density for virtual fluctuations. One of the goals is to explain the origin of the vacuum permittivity and permeability and to calculate their values. In particular, we improve on existing calculations by avoiding assumptions on the volume occupied by virtual fluctuations. We propose testing of the models that assume a finite lifetime of virtual fluctuation. If during its propagation, the photon is stochastically trapped and released by virtual pairs, the propagation velocity may fluctuate. The propagation time fluctuation is estimated for several existing models. The obtained values are measurable with available technologies involving ultra-short laser pulses, and some of the models are already in conflict with the existing astronomical observations. The phase velocity is not affected significantly, which is consistent with the interferometric measurements.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010006

Authors: F. Mendoza-Villa Juan A. Ramos-Guivar R. M. Espinoza-Bernardo

The solution of a quantum periodic potential in solid state physics is relevant because one can understand how electrons behave in a corresponding crystal. In this paper, the analytical solution of the energy formulation for a one-dimensional periodic potential that meets certain boundary conditions is developed in a didactic and detailed way. In turn, the group speed and effective mass are also calculated from the transcendental energy equation of a potential V=V(x). From this, a comparison is made with periodic potentials with known analytical solutions, such as the Dirac delta, as well as rectangular and triangular potentials. Finally, some limits are proposed in which these periodic potentials of the form V=V(x) approach the periodic Dirac delta potential of positive intensity. Therefore, the calculations described in this paper can be used as the basis for more-complex one-dimensional potentials and related simulations.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010005

Authors: Maria Allegrini Ennio Arimondo

Specific properties of quantum field theory are described by considering the combination of the system under investigation and the cloud of virtual or real particles associated with the field. Such a structure is called a &ldquo;dressed system&rdquo;, in contrast with the bare one in the absence of the interaction with the field. The description of the properties of such clouds in various physical situations is, today, an active research area. Here, we present the main features associated with virtual and real dressings, focusing on photon dressing. In analogy to virtual photon clouds dressing electrons in vacuum, virtual phonon clouds appear in solid-state physics. The interaction between real photons and the schematized two-level structure of an atom paves the way to flexible quantum control. Here, a unifying Floquet engineering approach is applied to describe single- and multiple-dressed atom configurations. Connections with the past and present atomic physics experiments are presented.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010004

Authors: Asim Ghosh Bikas K. Chakrabarti

The index of success of the researchers is now mostly measured using the Hirsch index (h). Our recent precise demonstration, that statistically h&sim;Nc&sim;Np, where Np and Nc denote, respectively, the total number of publications and total citations for the researcher, suggests that average number of citations per paper (Nc/Np), and hence h, are statistical numbers (Dunbar numbers) depending on the community or network to which the researcher belongs. We show here, extending our earlier observations, that the indications of success are not reflected by the total citations Nc, rather by the inequalities among citations from publications to publications. Specifically, we show that for highly successful authors, the yearly variations in the Gini index (g, giving the average inequality of citations for the publications) and the Kolkata index (k, giving the fraction of total citations received by the top (1&minus;k) fraction of publications; k=0.80 corresponds to Pareto&rsquo;s 80/20 law) approach each other to g=k&#8771;0.82, signaling a precursor for the arrival of (or departure from) the self-organized critical (SOC) state of his/her publication statistics. Analyzing the citation statistics (from Google Scholar) of thirty successful scientists throughout their recorded publication history, we find that the g and k for the highly successful among them (mostly Nobel laureates, highest rank Stanford cite-scorers, and a few others) reach and hover just above (and then) below that g=k&#8771;0.82 mark, while for others they remain below that mark. We also find that all the lower (than the SOC mark 0.82) values of k and g fit a linear relationship, k=1/2+cg, with c=0.39, as suggested by an approximate Landau-type expansion of the Lorenz function, and this also indicates k=g&#8771;0.82 for the (extrapolated) SOC precursor mark.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010003

Authors: Dragana Ilić Luka Č. Popović Alexander Burenkov Elena Shablovinskaya Eugene Malygin Roman Uklein Alexei V. Moiseev Dmitry Oparin Víctor M. Patiño Álvarez Vahram Chavushyan Paola Marziani Mauro D’Onofrio Alberto Floris Andjelka B. Kovačević Jovana Jovičić Djordje Miković Nemanja Rakić Saša Simić Sladjana Marčeta Mandić Stefano Ciroi Amelia Vietri Luca Crepaldi Ascensión del Olmo

Properties of the broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are commonly used to estimate the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) that powers an AGN. However, the understanding of the physics behind the BLR remains incomplete. The AGNs exhibit strong optical variability, observed in the change of the profiles and fluxes of broad emission lines. Utilizing this variability provides an opportunity to constrain the physics of the BLR, and understand the interplay of the BLR with SMBH and surrounding regions. Here, we present the long-term monitoring campaign of a sample of the known broad-line AGNs (identified as LoTerm AGN). The aim of this study is to show the importance of sustained and dedicated campaigns that continually collect spectroscopic data of the known AGNs over extended timescales, providing unique insight into the origin and structure of the BLR. LoTerm AGN is a collaborative network of seven moderate-size telescopes equipped for spectroscopy. We focus on the recent spectral data of the known changing-look AGN, NGC 3516. Specifically, we examine the broad hydrogen Balmer H&alpha; line observed in the period 2020&ndash;2023, demonstrating that this AGN remains active with the BLR signatures observed in the spectra. No significant change in the broad line profile of H&alpha; line is observed during this recent period.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010002

Authors: George V. Dedkov

The Casimir&ndash;Lifshitz force of friction between neutral bodies in relative motion, along with the drag effect, causes their heating. This paper considers this frictional heating in a system of two metal plates within the framework of fluctuation electromagnetic theory. Analytical expressions for the friction force in the limiting cases of low (zero) temperature and low and high speeds, as well as general expressions describing the kinetics of heating, have been obtained. It is shown that the combination of low temperatures (T &lt; 10 K) and velocities of 10&ndash;103 m/s provides the most favorable conditions when measuring the Casimir&ndash;Lifshitz friction force from heat measurements. In particular, the friction force of two coaxial disks of gold 10 cm in diameter and 500 nm in thickness, one of which rotates at a frequency of 10&ndash;103 rps (revolutions per second), can be measured using the heating effect of 1&ndash;2 K in less than 1 min. A possible experimental layout is discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics6010001

Authors: Joshua Mann James Rosenzweig

Strong laser field emission from metals is a growing area of study, owing to its applications in high-brightness cathodes and potentially as a high harmonic generation source. Nanopatterned plasmonic cathodes localize and enhance incident laser fields, reducing the spot size and increasing the current density. Experiments have demonstrated that the nanoblade structure outperforms nanotips in the peak fields achieved before damage is inflicted. With more intense surface fields come brighter emissions, and thus investigating the thermomechanical properties of these structures is crucial in their characterization. We study, using the finite element method, the electron and lattice temperatures for varying geometries, as well as the opening angles, peak surface fields, and apex radii of curvature. While we underestimate the energy deposited into the lattice here, a comparison of the geometries is still helpful for understanding why one structure performs better than the other. We find that the opening angle&mdash;not the structure dimensionality&mdash;is what primarily determines the thermal performance of these structures.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040075

Authors: Yuri V. Grats Pavel Spirin

The paper provides an extended overview of recent results obtained by the authors in the process of studying the vacuum interaction of topological cosmic strings at short distances, taking into account their transverse size a and the mass m of the quantized field. We consider the case of a massive real-valued scalar field with minimal coupling. It is shown that at the interstring distances significantly larger than the Compton length, lc=1/m, the Casimir effect is damped exponentially. On the other hand, at distances smaller than lc but much larger than the typical string width, the field-mass influence becomes insignificant. In this case, the partial contribution of a massive field to the Casimir energy is of the same order as the contribution of a massless one. At these distances, the string&rsquo;s transverse size is insignificant also. However, at the interstring distances of the same order as a string radius, the energy of the vacuum interaction of thick strings may significantly surpass the one for two infinitely thin strings with the same mass per unit length.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040074

Authors: Aram Saharian

The paper investigates the vacuum expectation value of the surface energy&ndash;momentum tensor (SEMT) for a scalar field with general curvature coupling in the geometry of two branes orthogonal to the boundary of anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. For Robin boundary conditions on the branes, the SEMT is decomposed into the contributions corresponding to the self-energies of the branes and the parts induced by the presence of the second brane. The renormalization is required for the first parts only, and for the corresponding regularization the generalized zeta function method is employed. The induced SEMT is finite and is free from renormalization ambiguities. For an observer living on the brane, the corresponding equation of state is of the cosmological constant type. Depending on the boundary conditions and on the separation between the branes, the surface energy densities can be either positive or negative. The energy density induced on the brane vanishes in special cases of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions on that brane. The effect of gravity on the induced SEMT is essential at separations between the branes of the order or larger than the curvature radius for AdS spacetime. In the considerably large separation limit, the decay of the SEMT, as a function of the proper separation, follows a power law for both massless and massive fields. For parallel plates in Minkowski bulk and for massive fields the fall-off of the corresponding expectation value is exponential.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040073

Authors: Alexey Danilkovich Dmitry Tikhonov

The theory of fluids is used to modify the integral equations of the reference interaction site model (RISM) approximation. Its applicability to the study of biomolecules solvation is evaluated. Unlike traditional RISM applications, the new integral equation contains an intramolecular correlation matrix that only needs to be calculated once. This allows us to bypass the effort of repeatedly solving RISM equations and the time-consuming averaging of values obtained for each time point of a molecular trajectory. The new approach allows for the assessment of the conformational transience of dissolved molecules while taking into account the effects of solvation. The free energy of oxytocin, which is a peptide hormone, as well as self-assembled ionic peptide complexes calculated using both the traditional RISM and the new RISM with average matrix (RISM-AM) approach are estimated. The free energy of oxytocin calculated using RISM-AM shows that the statistical error does not exceed the error obtained by standard averaging of solutions in the RISM equation. Despite the somewhat ambiguous results obtained for ionic peptide self-assembly using RISM-AM with Lennard&ndash;Jones repulsion correction, this method can still be considered applicable for fast molecular dynamics analysis. Since the required computational power can be reduced by at least two orders of magnitude, the medium-matrix RISM is indeed a highly applicable tool for studying macromolecular conformations as well as corresponding solvation effects.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040072

Authors: Koen Thas

In this paper, we discuss quantum formalisms that do not use the axiom of choice. We also consider the fundamental problem that addresses the (in)correctness of having the complex numbers as the base field for Hilbert spaces in the K&oslash;benhavn interpretation of quantum theory, and propose a new approach to this problem (based on the Lefschetz principle). Rather than a theorem&ndash;proof paper, this paper describes two new research programs on the foundational level, and focuses on basic open questions that arise in these programs.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040071

Authors: Sining Li Ahad N. Zehmakan

We study a graph-based generalization of the Galam opinion formation model. Consider a simple connected graph which represents a social network. Each node in the graph is colored either blue or white, which indicates a positive or negative opinion on a new product or a topic. In each discrete-time round, all nodes are assigned randomly to groups of different sizes, where the node(s) in each group form a clique in the underlying graph. All the nodes simultaneously update their color to the majority color in their group. If there is a tie, each node in the group chooses one of the two colors uniformly at random. Investigating the convergence time of the model, our experiments show that the convergence time is a logarithm function of the number of nodes for a complete graph and a quadratic function for a cycle graph. We also study the various strategies for selecting a set of seed nodes to maximize the final cascade of one of the two colors, motivated by viral marketing. We consider the algorithms where the seed nodes are selected based on the graph structure (nodes&rsquo; centrality measures such as degree, betweenness, and closeness) and the individual&rsquo;s characteristics (activeness and stubbornness). We provide a comparison of such strategies by conducting experiments on different real-world and synthetic networks.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040070

Authors: Fatemeh Tajik George Palasantzas

Here, we investigate the actuation dynamics of a micro device with different intervening liquids between the actuating components under the influence of Casimir and dissipative hydrodynamic forces. This is enabled via phase space portraits, which demonstrate that by increasing the dielectric response of the intervening layer the autonomous device may not come into stiction due to the decreasing in magnitude Casmir force. Unlike the micro devices that are placed in vacuum with an intervening liquid, the phase portraits show only a spiral trajectory which eventually stops at a rest position due to the strong energy dissipation by the position dependent hydrodynamic drag forces, even when considering sufficiently strong restoring forces. Moreover, it is feasible to expand the area of motion using intervening liquids with lower dynamic viscosity or increasing the slip length of the intervening fluid. Finally, under the influence of an external driven force, which is the realistic case for possible applications, the system can reach stable oscillation at larger separations with an amplitude higher for the liquid that led to lower Casimir and hydrodynamic forces. Hence, the results presented in this study are essential for studying the dynamical behavior of MEMS and their design in liquid environments.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040069

Authors: Benedetta Dalla Barba Marco Berton Luigi Foschini Giovanni La Mura Amelia Vietri Stefano Ciroi

We present first results of the analysis of optical spectra of two complementary samples of Seyfert galaxies (Seyferts). The first sample was extracted from a selection of the 4th Fermi Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (4FGL) catalog and consists of 11 &gamma;-ray-emitting jetted Seyfert galaxies. The second one was extracted from the Swift-BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) and is composed of 38 hard-X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). These two samples are complementary, with the former being expected to have smaller viewing angles, while the latter may include objects with larger viewing angles. We measured emission-line ratios to investigate whether the behavior of these Seyferts can be explained in terms of obscuration, as suggested by the Unified Model (UM) of AGN, or if there are intrinsic differences due to the presence of jets or outflows, or due to evolution. We found no indications of intrinsic differences. The UM remains the most plausible interpretation for these classes of objects, even if some results can be challenging for this model.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040068

Authors: Boris Z. Kopeliovich Irina K. Potashnikova Iván Schmidt

Absorptive corrections, which are known to suppress proton-neutron transitions with a large fractional momentum z&rarr;1 in pp collisions, become dramatically strong on a nuclear target, and they push the partial cross sections of leading neutron production to the very periphery of the nucleus. The mechanism of the pion &pi; and axial vector meson a1 interference, which successfully explains the observed single-spin asymmetry in a polarized pp&rarr;nX, is extended to the collisions of polarized protons with nuclei. When corrected for nuclear effects, it explains the observed single-spin azimuthal asymmetry of neutrons that is produced in inelastic events, which is where the nucleus violently breaks up. This single-spin asymmetry is found to be negative and nearly atomic mass number A-independent.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040067

Authors: Krzysztof Malarz Tomasz Masłyk

The study of opinion formation and dynamics is one of the core topics in sociophysics. In this paper, the results of computer simulation of opinion dynamics based on social impact theory are presented. The simulations are based on Latan&eacute; theory in its computerised version proposed by Nowak, Szamrej and Latan&eacute;. The active parameters of the model describe the volatility of the actors (social temperature T) and the effective range of interaction (governed by an exponent &alpha; in a scaling function of distance between actors). Initially, every actor i has his/her own opinion. Our results indicate that ultimately at least 90% of the initial opinions available are removed from the society. For a low social temperature and a long range of interaction, only one opinion survives. Also, a rough sketch of the system phase diagram is presented. It indicates a set of (&alpha;,T) leading either to (1) the dominance of the unanimity of the opinions or (2) mixtures of unanimity and polarisation, or (3) taking random opinions by actors, or (4) a mixture of the final fates of the systems. The drastic reduction of finally observed opinions vs. their initial variety may be generic for many sociophysical models of opinions formation but masked by assuming an initially small pool of available opinions (in the worst case, in models with only binary opinions).

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040066

Authors: Galina L. Klimchitskaya Vladimir M. Mostepanenko

We consider the Casimir pressure between two graphene sheets and contributions to it determined by evanescent and propagating waves with different polarizations. For this purpose, the derivation of the 2-dimensional (2D) Fresnel reflection coefficients on a graphene sheet is presented in terms of the transverse and longitudinal dielectric permittivities of graphene with due account of the spatial dispersion. The explicit expressions for both dielectric permittivities as the functions of the 2D wave vector, frequency, and temperature are written along the real frequency axis in the regions of propagating and evanescent waves and at the pure imaginary Matsubara frequencies using the polarization tensor of graphene. It is shown that in the application region of the Dirac model nearly the total value of the Casimir pressure between two graphene sheets is determined by the electromagnetic field with transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. By using the Lifshitz formula written along the real frequency axis, the contributions of the TM-polarized propagating and evanescent waves into the total pressure are determined. By confronting these results with the analogous results found for plates made of real metals, the way for bringing the Lifshitz theory using the realistic response functions in agreement with measurements of the Casimir force between metallic test bodies is pointed out.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040065

Authors: Noah Graham

Using the formulation of the electromagnetic Green&rsquo;s function of a perfectly conducting cone in terms of analytically continued angular momentum, we compute the Casimir&ndash;Polder interaction energy of a cone with a polarizable particle. We introduce this formalism by first reviewing the analogous approach for a perfectly conducting wedge, and then demonstrate the calculation through numerical evaluation of the resulting integrals.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040064

Authors: Fady Tarek Farouk Abdel Nasser Tawfik Fawzy Salah Tarabia Muhammad Maher

The minimal length conjecture is merged with a generalized quantum uncertainty formula, where we identify the minimal uncertainty in a particle&rsquo;s position as the minimal measurable length scale. Thus, we obtain a quantum-induced deformation parameter that directly depends on the chosen minimal length scale. This quantum-induced deformation is conjectured to require the generalization of Riemannian spacetime geometry underlying the classical theory of general relativity to an eight-dimensional spacetime fiber bundle, which dictates the deformation of the line element, metric tensor, Levi-Civita connection, Riemann curvature tensor, etc. We calculate the deformation thus produced in the Levi-Civita connection and find it to explicitly and exclusively depend on the product of the minimum measurable length and the particle&rsquo;s spacelike four-acceleration vector, L2x&uml;2. We find that the deformed Levi-Civita connection preserves all properties of its undeformed counterpart, such as torsion freedom and metric compatibility. Accordingly, we have constructed a deformed version of the Riemann curvature tensor whose expression can be factorized in all its terms with different functions of L2x&uml;2. We also show that the classical four-manifold status of being Riemannian is preserved when the quantum-induced deformation is negligible. We study the dependence of a parallel-transported tangent vector on the spacelike four-acceleration. We illustrate the impact of the minimal-length-induced quantum deformation on the classical geometrical objects of the general theory of relativity using the unit radius two-sphere example. We conclude that the minimal length deformation implies a correction to the spacetime curvature and its contractions, which is manifest in the additional curvature terms of the corrected Riemann tensor. Accordingly, quantum-induced effects endow an additional spacetime curvature and geometrical structure.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040063

Authors: Roberto Balbinot Alessandro Fabbri

We analyze the correlations functions across the horizon in Hawking black hole radiation to reveal the correlations between Hawking particles and their partners. The effects of the underlying space&ndash;time on this are shown in various examples ranging from acoustic black holes to regular black holes.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5040062

Authors: Galina L. Klimchitskaya Vladimir M. Mostepanenko

We consider the Casimir pressure between two metallic plates and calculate the four contributions to it determined by the propagating and evanescent waves and by the transverse magnetic and transverse electric polarizations of the electromagnetic field. The range of interplate separations is considered where nearly the whole pressure has its origin in the electromagnetic response of conduction electrons. In the Casimir physics, this response is described either by the dissipative Drude model resulting in contradictions with the measurement data or by the experimentally consistent but dissipationless plasma model. It is shown that the total transverse magnetic contribution to the Casimir pressure due to both the propagating and evanescent waves and the transverse electric contribution due to only the propagating waves, computed by means of the Drude model, correlate well with the corresponding results obtained using the plasma model. We conclude that the disagreement between the theoretical predictions obtained using the Drude model and precision measurements of the Casimir force is not caused by the account of dissipation in itself, but arises from an incorrect description of the response of metals to the low-frequency transverse electric evanescent waves by this model. It is demonstrated that the Drude model has no supporting experimental evidence in the range of transverse electric evanescent waves, so that the above conclusion is consistent with all available information. The alternative test of the Drude model for the transverse electric evanescent waves suggested in the framework of classical electrodynamics is discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030061

Authors: Andrea Ellero Giovanni Fasano Daniela Favaretto

The focus of this paper is on analyzing the role and the choice of parameters in sociophysics diffusion models by leveraging the potentialities of sociophysics from a mathematical programming perspective. We first present a generalised version of Galam&rsquo;s opinion diffusion model. For a given selection of the coefficients in our model, this proposal yields the original Galam&rsquo;s model. The generalised model suggests guidelines for possible alternative selection of its parameters that allow it to foster diffusion. Examples of the parameters selection process as steered by numerical optimisation, taking into account various objectives, are provided.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030060

Authors: Norio Inui

Graphene exhibits diamagnetism, enabling it to be lifted by the repulsive force produced in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. However, the stable levitation of a graphene flake perpendicular to the magnetic field is impeded by its strong anisotropic of magnetic susceptibility that induces rotation. A method to suppress this rotation by applying the Casimir force to the graphene flake is presented in this paper. As a result, the graphene flake can archive stable levitation on a silicon plate when the gravitational force is small.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030059

Authors: André L. Oestereich Marcelo A. Pires Silvio M. Duarte Queirós Nuno Crokidakis

We study the Galam&rsquo;s majority-rule model in the presence of an independent behavior that can be driven intrinsically or can be mediated by information regarding the collective opinion of the whole population. We first apply the mean-field approach where we obtained an explicit time-dependent solution for the order parameter of the model. We complement our results with Monte Carlo simulations where our findings indicate that independent opinion leads to order&ndash;disorder continuous nonequilibrium phase transitions. Finite-size scaling analysis show that the model belongs to the mean-field Ising model universality class. Moreover, results from an approach with the Kramers&ndash;Moyal coefficients provide insights about the social volatility.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030058

Authors: Alexander Podgorny Igor Podgorny Alexei Borisenko

Solar cosmic rays (SCRs) are generated during the primordial energy release in solar flares. This explosive process takes place in the solar corona above the active region. It represents the fast release of the magnetic field energy of the current sheet, which is formed near a singular magnetic field line. Solar cosmic rays appear as a result of the acceleration of charged particles, mainly protons, by an inductive electric field in the current sheet equal to the field E = V &times; B/c (with V the speed of plasma and B the magnetic field near the current sheet, and c the speed of light). To study the mechanism of solar flares and obtain conditions for studying SCR acceleration, it is necessary to carry out magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of flare situations in the solar corona above a real active region. Methods of stabilization were developed which made it possible to partially solve the problem of numerical instabilities. MHD simulations shows complicated configurations near the singular line. Comparison of the results of the MHD simulations with observations showed the general agreement of the positions of the current sheets with regions of intense flare radiation. However, there are some problems with the details of such coincidences. The results obtained in this paper show the possibility of improving the methods of MHD simulation in order to solve the problems that arise during solving of MHD equations.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030057

Authors: G. Jordan Maclay

The Lamb shift, one of the most fundamental interactions in atomic physics, arises from the interaction of H atoms with the electromagnetic fluctuations of the quantum vacuum. The energy shift has been computed in a variety of ways. The energy shift, as Feynman, Power, and Milonni demonstrated, equals the change in the vacuum energy in the volume containing the H atoms due to the change in the index of refraction arising from the presence of the H atoms. Using this result and a group theoretical calculation of the contribution to the Lamb shift from each frequency of the vacuum fluctuations, in this paper we obtain an expression for the region of the vacuum energy for each frequency &omega; around the H atom due to the Lamb shift. This same field plays an essential role in the van der Waals force. We show the ground state atom is surrounded by a region of positive vacuum energy that extends well beyond the atom for low frequencies. This region can be described as a steady state cloud of vacuum fluctuations. For energies E=&#8463;&omega; less than 1 eV, where &#8463; is the reduced Planck constant and &omega; is frequency, the radius of the positive energy region is shown to be approximately 14.4/E &Aring;. For a vacuum fluctuation of wavelength, &lambda;, the radius is (&alpha;/2&pi;)&lambda;, where &alpha; is the fine-structure constant. Thus, for long wavelengths, the region has macroscopic dimensions. The energy&ndash;time uncertainty relation predicts a maximum possible radius that is larger than the radius based on the radiative shift calculations by a factor of 1/4&alpha;.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030056

Authors: Edmundo Alves Filho Francisco Welington Lima Tayroni Francisco Alencar Alves Gladstone de Alencar Alves Joao Antonio Plascak

The critical properties of a discrete version of opinion dynamics systems, based on the Biswas&ndash;Chatterjee&ndash;Sen model defined on Solomon networks with both nearest and random neighbors, are investigated through extensive computer simulations. By employing Monte Carlo algorithms on SNs of different sizes, the magnetic-like variables of the model are computed as a function of the noise parameter. Using the finite-size scaling hypothesis, it is observed that the model undergoes a second-order phase transition. The critical transition noise and the respective ratios of the usual critical exponents are computed in the limit of infinite-size networks. The results strongly indicate that the discrete Biswas&ndash;Chatterjee&ndash;Sen model is in a different universality class from the other lattices and networks, but in the same universality class as the Ising and majority-vote models on the same Solomon networks.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030055

Authors: Iwo Bialynicki-Birula Zofia Bialynicka-Birula

In this paper we extend the Zeldovich formula, which was originally derived for the free electromagnetic field and was interpreted as the number of photons. We show that our extended formula gives a universal dimensionless measure of the overall strength of electromagnetic fields: free fields and fields produced by various sources, in both the classical and the quantum theory. In particular, we find that this number&mdash;called here the Zeldovich number&mdash;for macroscopic systems is very large, of the order of 1020. For the hydrogen atom in the ground state, the Zeldovich number is equal to 0.025 and for the xenon atom it is around 50.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030054

Authors: Sunjing Zheng Nan Jiang Xiaomeng Li Mingzhong Xiao Qinghua Chen

Social physics (or sociophysics) offers new research perspectives for addressing social issues in various domains. In this study, we explore the decision-making process of doctoral graduates during their transition from graduation to employment, drawing on the ideas of sociophysics. We divide the process into two decision steps and propose a generative model based on appropriate assumptions. This model effectively reproduces empirical data, allowing us to derive essential parameters that influence the decision-making process from empirical observations. Through a comparison of the best-fit parameters, we discover that doctoral graduates in business disciplines tend to exhibit more concentrated employment choices, while those in computer science and history disciplines demonstrate a greater diversity of options. Furthermore, we observe that universities consider factors beyond rankings when selecting doctoral graduates.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030053

Authors: Andres Mauricio Kowalski Angelo Plastino Gaspar Gonzalez

We analyze the (dynamical) classic limit of a special semiclassical system. We describe the interaction of a quantum system with a classical one. This limit has been well studied before as a function of a constant of motion linked to the Heisenberg principle. In this paper, we investigate the existence of the mentioned limit, but with reference to the total energy of the system. Additionally, we find an attractive result regarding the border of the transition.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030052

Authors: Aida Galoyan Alberto Ribon Vladimir Uzhinsky

A new method for studying two-particle transverse momentum (PT) correlations in soft hadronic interactions is proposed. It is shown that Monte Carlo models: PYTHIA 6 and Geant4 FTF (FRITIOF), give different predictions for the correlations in proton&ndash;proton interactions. The correlations are connected with Schwinger&rsquo;s mechanism of particle creation. These correlations can be studied in current and future experiments in high energy physics, in particular, at the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA).

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030051

Authors: Vitaly B. Svetovoy

The Casimir forces between metals or good conductors have been checked experimentally. Semiconductors and especially dielectrics have not been investigated because of the surface charges, which generate strong electrostatic forces. Here, it is proposed to study the Casimir interaction of a dielectric and metal using a thin dielectric layer deposited on an optically thick metallic substrate. If the thickness of the layer is a few tens of nanometers, the electrostatic force due to charging can be compensated for by applying an extra voltage between the metallic plates. On the other hand, the contribution of the dielectric layer to the Casimir force is sufficiently large to extract information about the interaction between the bulk dielectric and metal.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030050

Authors: Evgenii Ievlev Michael R. R. Good

Classical radiation from a single relativistically accelerating electron is investigated where the temperature characterizing the system highlights the dependence on acceleration. In the context of the dynamic Casimir effect with Planck-distributed photons and thermal black hole evaporation, we demonstrate analytic consistency between the ideas of constant acceleration and equilibrium thermal radiation. For ultra-relativistic speeds, we demonstrate a long-lasting constant peel acceleration and constant power emission, which is consistent with the idea of balanced equilibrium of Planck-distributed particle radiation.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030049

Authors: Marta Reina Chams Gharib Ali Barura Philippe Ben-Abdallah Riccardo Messina

In the classical approach to dealing with near-field radiative heat exchange between two closely spaced bodies, no coupling between the different heat carriers inside the materials and thermal photons is usually considered. Here, we provide an overview of the current state of research on this coupling between solids of different sizes while paying specific attention to the impact of the conduction regime inside the solids on the conduction&ndash;radiation coupling. We describe how the shape of the solids affects this coupling, and show that it can be located at the origin of a drastic change in the temperature profiles inside each body and the heat flux exchanged between them. These results could have important implications in the fields of nanoscale thermal management, near-field solid-state cooling, and nanoscale energy conversion.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030048

Authors: Yutao Chen Chih-Hsun Lin Minghui Liu Alexander S. Sakharov Jürgen Ulbricht Jiawei Zhao

The experimental data from VENUS, TOPAS, OPAL, DELPHI, ALEPH and L3 Collaborations collected from 1989 to 2003 are applied to study the quantum electrodynamics (QED) framework through the direct contact interaction term approach, using the annihilation reaction e+e&minus;&rarr;&gamma;&gamma;(&gamma;). The analysis involves performing a &chi;2-test to detect the presence of an excited electron e*, and and evidence of non-point like behavior in the e+e&minus; annihilation zone. The analysis yields compelling results, showing a significant signal at a confidence level of approximately 5 standard deviations. These findings suggest the existence of an excited electron with a mass of 308 &plusmn; 14 GeV and indicate the presence of a contact interaction characterized by a cutoff scale of 1253.53 &plusmn; 226 GeV. Furthermore, the interpretation of the cutoff scale result in terms of a radius of (1.57 &plusmn; 0.07) &times; 10&minus;17 cm raises an intriguing possibility regarding the electron&rsquo;s non-pointness.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030047

Authors: Vyacheslav I. Yukalov

This paper is devoted to nonequilibrium systems in the physics approach to social systems. Equilibrium systems have been considered in the recenly published first part of the review. The style of the paper combines the features of a tutorial and a review, which, from one side, makes it simpler to read for nonspecialists aiming at grasping the basics of social physics, and from the other side, describes several rather recent original models containing new ideas that could be of interest to experienced researchers in the field.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030046

Authors: Anna Dergacheva Denis Chernov Angelina Chvirova Gleb Erofeev Daria Fedorova Sergei Fedotov Marat Khabibullin Alexei Khotjantsev Yury Kudenko Alexander Mefodiev Oleg Mineev Nikolai Yershov

This paper is devoted to the current status of the novel fully active 3D (three-dimensional) fine-grained scintillator detector SuperFGD as a main part of the near off-axis detector upgrade program for the T2K experiment. The following important components related to the SuperFGD such as SuperFGD electronics and mechanics, wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers, and light emitting diode (LED) calibration system are also discussed here as well as the detector&rsquo;s near future.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030045

Authors: Shi-Dong Liang Tiberiu Harko Matthew J. Lake

Presently, we are in a period of rapid and intensive changes in our understanding of the gravitational interaction, triggered by the important observational findings of the late 1990s [...]

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030044

Authors: Alexey Guskov Amaresh Datta Anton Karpishkov Igor Denisenko Vladimir Saleev

In this paper, we review the physics studies to be performed with the Spin Physics Detector (SPD) at the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) which is a multi-purpose experiment designed to study nucleon spin structure in the three dimensions. With capabilities to collide polarized protons and deuterons with center-of-mass energy up to 27 GeV and luminosity up to 1032cm&minus;2s&minus;1 for protons (an order of magnitude less for deuterons), the experiment is considered to allow measurements of cross-sections and spin asymmetries of hadronic processes sensitive to the unpolarized and various polarized (helicity, Sivers, Boer-Mulders) gluon distributions inside the nucleons. Results from the SPD will be complimentary to the present high-energy spin experiments at the RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) facility or future experiments such as the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) and the AFTER experiment at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) in understanding the spin structure of the basic building blocks of visible matter. Monte Carlo simulation-based results presented here demonstrate the impact of the SPD asymmetry measurements on gluon helicity parton distribution function (PDF) and gluon Sivers functions. With polarized deuteron collisions, the SPD is expected to be the unique laboratory for probing tensor-polarized gluon distributions. Additionally, there are possibilities of colliding other light nuclei, such as carbon, at reduced collision energy and luminosity during the first stage of the experiment.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5030043

Authors: Abhishek K. Srivastava Balveer Singh

In the present paper, we describe a 2.5D (two-and-a-half-dimensional) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation that provides a detailed picture of the evolution of cool jets triggered by initial vertical velocity perturbations in the solar chromosphere. We implement random multiple velocity, Vy, pulses of amplitude 20&ndash;50 km s&minus;1 between 1 Mm and 1.5 Mm in the Sun&rsquo;s atmosphere below its transition region (TR). These pulses also consist of different switch-off periods between 50 s and 300 s. The applied vertical velocity pulses create a series of magnetoacoustic shocks steepening above the TR. These shocks interact with each other in the inner corona, leading to complex localized velocity fields. The upward propagation of such perturbations creates low-pressure regions behind them, which propel a variety of cool jets and plasma flows in the localized corona. The localized complex velocity fields generate transverse oscillations in some of these jets during their evolution. We study the transverse oscillations of a representative cool jet J1, which moves up to the height of 6.2 Mm above the TR from its origin point. During its evolution, the plasma flows make the spine of jet J1 radially inhomogeneous, which is visible in the density and Alfv&eacute;n speed smoothly varying across the jet. The highly dense J1, which is triggered along the significantly curved magnetic field lines, supports the propagating transverse wave of period of approximately 195 s with a phase speed of about 125 km s&minus;1. In the distance&ndash;time map of density, it is manifested as a transverse kink wave. However, the careful investigation of the distance&ndash;time maps of the x- and z-components of velocity reveals that these transverse waves are actually of mixed Alfv&eacute;nic modes. The transverse wave shows evidence of damping in the jet. We conclude that the cross-field structuring of the density and characteristic Alfv&eacute;n speed within J1 causes the onset of the resonant conversion and leakage of the wave energy outward to dissipate these transverse oscillations via resonant absorption. The wave energy flux is estimated as approximately of 1.0 &times; 106 ergs cm&minus;2 s&minus;1. This energy, if it dissipates through the resonant absorption into the corona where the jet is propagated, is sufficient energy for the localized coronal heating.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020042

Authors: Daria Prokhorova Evgeny Andronov Grigory Feofilov

In this paper, using the concept of multi-pomeron exchange, we develope a Monte Carlo model of interacting quark&ndash;gluon strings acting as particle-emitting sources aimed at describing inelastic proton&ndash;proton interactions at high energies. The implemented 3D (three-dimensional) dynamics of colour string formation resulted in their finite length in the rapidity space and in the fluctuating event-by-event spatial density. Thus, this results in string cluster formation because of the fusion mechanism and the appearance of long-range multiplicity and mean transverse momentum (mean-pT) correlations in rapidity. We study, via the pseudorapidity dependence, the sensitivity to the details of the 3D dynamical formation of strings for several observables such as the forward&ndash;backward correlation coefficient value, strongly intensive quantity, &Sigma;, and the &ldquo;almost&rdquo; strongly intensive observable, the variance, &sigma;C2, of the distribution of the asymmetry coefficient, C. The strongly intensive quantity &Sigma; is used in this study to suppress trivial statistical fluctuations in the number of particles emitting similar types of sources and to reveal the intrinsic fluctuations of a single source. We demonstrate the connection between &Sigma; and such often used observables as cumulants, factorial cumulants, and &sigma;C2. We stress the importance of the contribution of &ldquo;short&rdquo; strings and the event asymmetry of the initial conditions on the long-range correlation measures. We argue that string cluster formation because of the fusion mechanism explains the collective effects seen in multiplicity and transverse momentum&ndash;multiplicity, &#10216;pT&#10217;&ndash;N, long-range correlation functions.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020041

Authors: Vyacheslav I. Yukalov

The paper gives an introduction to the physics approach to social systems providing the main definitions and notions used in the modeling of these systems. The behavior of social systems is illustrated by several quite simple, typical models. The present part considers equilibrium systems. Nonequilibrium systems will be presented in the second part of the review. The style of the paper combines the features of a tutorial and a survey, which, from one side, makes it simpler to read for nonspecialists aiming to grasp the basics of social physics, and from the other side, describes several rather recent original models containing new ideas that could be of interest to experienced researchers in the field. The selection of the material is limited and motivated by the author&rsquo;s research interests.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020040

Authors: Matthew Bravo Jen-Tsung Hsiang Bei-Lok Hu

In this third of a series on quantum radiation, we further explore the feasibility of using the memories (non-Markovianity) kept in a quantum field to decipher certain information about the early universe. As a model study, we let a massless quantum field be subjected to a parametric process for a finite time interval such that the mode frequency of the field transits from one constant value to another. This configuration thus mimics a statically-bounded universe, where there is an &lsquo;in&rsquo; and an &lsquo;out&rsquo; state with the scale factor approaching constants, not a continuously evolving one. The field subjected to squeezing by this process should contain some information of the process itself. If an atom is coupled to the field after the parametric process, its response will depend on the squeezing, and any quantum radiation emitted by the atom will carry this information away so that an observer at a much later time may still identify it. Our analyses show that (1) a remote observer cannot measure the generated squeezing via the radiation energy flux from the atom because the net radiation energy flux is canceled due to the correlation between the radiation field from the atom and the free field at the observer&rsquo;s location. However, (2) there is a chance to identify squeezing by measuring the constant radiation energy density at late times. The only restriction is that this energy density is of the near-field nature and only an observer close to the atom can use it to unravel the information of squeezing. The second part of this paper focuses on (3) the dependence of squeezing on the functional form of the parametric process. By explicitly working out several examples, we demonstrate that the behavior of squeezing does reflect essential properties of the parametric process. Actually, striking features may show up in more complicated processes involving various scales. These analyses allow us to establish the connection between properties of a squeezed quantum field and details of the parametric process which performs the squeezing. Therefore, (4) one can construct templates to reconstitute the unknown parametric processes from the data of measurable quantities subjected to squeezing. In a sequel paper these results will be applied to a study of quantum radiations in cosmology.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020039

Authors: Sergei Nedelko Aleksei Nikolskii

The photon production by conversion of gluons gg&rarr;&gamma; via quark loop in the framework of the mean-field approach to the QCD (quantunm chromodynamics) vacuum is studied here. According to the domain model of QCD vacuum, the confinement phase is dominated by Abelian (anti-)self-dual gluon fields, while the deconfinement phase is characterized by a strong chromomagnetic field. In the confinement phase, photon production is impossible due to the random spacial orientation of the statistical ensemble of vacuum fields. However, the conditions of Furry theorem are not satisfied in the deconfinement phase, the conversion of gluons is nonzero and, in addition, photon distribution has a strong angular anisotropy. Thus, the photon production in the discussed process acts as one of the important features of transition in quark-gluon plasma to the deconfinement phase.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020038

Authors: Mikhail Tokarev Imrich Zborovský

In this paper, we review our findings concerning fractal entropy of microscopic configurations corresponding to the production of KS0 mesons in AuAu collisions in the z-scaling approach. The entropy is expressed via structural and fragmentation fractal dimensions, and model parameter cAuAu is interpreted as a specific heat of produced medium. These parameters are related to the respective momentum fractions of the colliding nuclei, the momentum fractions of the scattered constituents that fragment into the produced hadrons, and the multiplicity density of negative particles in the central interaction region. The dependence of the entropy on the collision energy over the range of 7.7&ndash;200 GeV for most central and most peripheral events is studied as a function of the transverse momentum of the produced KS0 mesons. A non-trivial dependence of the entropy on the collision energy with decreasing transverse momentum is found. This reflects the irregularity of the behavior of the specific heat, cAuAu, and can point to a manifestation of phase transition in nuclear matter.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020037

Authors: Mauro Mobilia

We study the effect of time-fluctuating social influences on the formation of polarization and consensus in a three-party community consisting of two types of voters (&ldquo;leftists&rdquo; and &ldquo;rightists&rdquo;) holding extreme opinions, and moderate agents acting as &ldquo;centrists&rdquo;. The former are incompatible and do not interact, while centrists hold an intermediate opinion and can interact with extreme voters. When a centrist and a leftist/rightist interact, they can become either both centrists or both leftists/rightists. The population eventually either reaches consensus with one of the three opinions, or a polarization state consisting of a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists. As a main novelty, here agents interact subject to time-fluctuating external influences favouring in turn the spread of leftist and rightist opinions, or the rise of centrism. The fate of the population is determined under various scenarios, and it is shown how the rate of change of external influences can drastically affect the polarization and consensus probabilities, as well as the mean time to reach the final state.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020036

Authors: Valentin Kuzmin

A method of determining the position of the readout sectors of a time projection chamber using experimental data is proposed. Considering the results of modeling the response of sensitive elements of the time projection chamber of the multipurpose detector, three types of tracks were reconstructed: cosmic muons, beams of the laser detector system, and muons from the interaction of nuclei. Employing data from the experiment simulation and the proposed method of finding the position and orientation of sectors of the time projection chamber, the accuracy of the chamber alignment is investigated. For cosmic and laser rays, the accuracy is approximately the same. It is about 750 microns for the shift of the origin of the sector and 7 arc minutes for Euler angles. The accuracy in the case of muons born in collisions of nuclei is several times worse.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020035

Authors: Natalia Polukhina Nina Konovalova Tatiana Shchedrina

SND@LHC (Scattering Neutrino Detector at the Large Hadron Collider) is a compact and stand-alone experiment to perform measurements with neutrinos produced in the LHC in a hitherto unexplored pseudorapidity region of 7.2 &lt; &eta; &lt; 8.6. The experiment is located in the Tl18 (Target line 18) LHC tunnel, 480 m downstream of the ATLAS detector interaction point. The SND@LHC detector is composed of a hybrid system based on an 800 kg target mass of tungsten plates, interleaved with emulsion and electronic trackers, followed downstream by a muon system. This configuration allows us to distinguish all three neutrino flavors, opening a unique opportunity to probe the physics of heavy flavor production in the LHC in a region that is not accessible to the ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and FASER experiments. The detector concept is also well suited to searching for feebly interacting particles via signatures of scattering in the detector target. The first phase of the experiment has been carried out during the ongoing LHC Run 3, and the first data of the LHC Run3 commissioning period are being processed and analyzed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020034

Authors: RED-100 Collaboration

The two-phase emission detector RED-100 with 130 kg of liquid xenon as a working medium has been exhibited at a distance of 19 m from the core of the VVER-1000/320 nuclear power reactor at the fourth power unit of the Kalinin Nuclear Plant Power in 2021&ndash;2022. Due to the high sensitivity of the detector for weak ionization signals (down to single electrons), the detector has been used to search for the elastic coherent scattering of reactor electron antineutrinos off xenon nuclei. However, the observation of ~30 kHz single-electron noise did not quite allow for an effective selection of the useful events. The next experiment with the RED-100 detector is considered to be arranged with 62 kg of liquid argon as a working medium. The advantages of this approach are discussed in this paper.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020033

Authors: DEAP Collaboration

In addition to classical analytical data processing methods, machine learning methods are widely used for data analysis in elementary particle physics. Most often, such techniques are used to identify a particular class of events (the classification problem) or to predict a certain event parameter (the regression problem). Here, we present the result of using a machine learning model to solve the regression problem of event position reconstruction in the DEAP-3600 dark matter search detector. A neural network was used as a machine learning model. Improving the position resolution will improve the reduction in background events, while increasing the signal acceptance for weakly interacting massive particles.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020032

Authors: Michael Griffiths Norbert Gyenge Ruisheng Zheng Marianna Korsós Robertus Erdélyi

The aim of the study reported in this paper is to gain understanding of solar global oscillations and the propagation characteristics of p-mode oscillations in the highly gravitationally stratified magnetic solar atmosphere. The paper presents the results of 3D (3-dimensional) numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of a model solar atmosphere with a uniform, vertical and cylindrically symmetric magnetic field. We use simulation drivers which result in oscillations mimicking the behaviour of p-mode oscillations. The paper reports the variation of the energy flux and oscillation frequency of the magnetosonic modes and examines their dependence on the magnetic field strength. We report results for the temporal analysis of observational data for the quiet Sun and for a region containing a small sunspot (solar pore). We compare the temporal analysis of results from observations of these ubiquitous intensity oscillations with numerical simulations of potential signatures of global oscillations of the solar atmosphere. We conclude that magnetic regions of the solar atmosphere are favourable regions for the propagation of a small leakage of energy by slow magnetosonic modes. The results also exhibit a variation in the frequency of the oscillations at different heights in the low-to-mid solar atmosphere and for different values of the magnetic field. The numerically obtained periodic behaviour and variation in frequency, even in this simplified model atmosphere, is consistent with the observational data. We find frequencies and frequency variations that are similar to measurements obtained from the intensity time series of images taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020031

Authors: Shi-Dong Liang Matthew J. Lake

Noncommutativity in physics has a long history, tracing back to classical mechanics. In recent years, many new developments in theoretical physics, and in practical applications rely on different techniques of noncommutative algebras. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts and techniques of noncommutative physics in a range of areas, including classical physics, condensed matter systems, statistical mechanics, and quantum mechanics, and we present some important examples of noncommutative algebras, including the classical Poisson brackets, the Heisenberg algebra, Lie and Clifford algebras, the Dirac algebra, and the Snyder and Nambu algebras. Potential applications of noncommutative structures in high-energy physics and gravitational theory are also discussed. In particular, we review the formalism of noncommutative quantum mechanics based on the Seiberg&ndash;Witten map and propose a parameterization scheme to associate the noncommutative parameters with the Planck length and the cosmological constant. We show that noncommutativity gives rise to an effective gauge field, in the Schr&ouml;dinger and Pauli equations. This term breaks translation and rotational symmetries in the noncommutative phase space, generating intrinsic quantum fluctuations of the velocity and acceleration, even for free particles. This review is intended as an introduction to noncommutative phenomenology for physicists, as well as a basic introduction to the mathematical formalisms underlying these effects.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020030

Authors: Semyon Yurchenko Mikhail Zhabitsky

Particle identification is an important feature of the future SPD (Spin Physics Detector) experiment at the NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) collider. In particular, the identification of particles with momenta up to a few GeV/c (with c the speed of light) by their time-of-flight facilitates the reconstruction of events of interest. The high time resolution of modern TOF (Time-Of-Flight) detectors demands the need to obtain the event collision time, t0, with comparable accuracy. While the determination of the collision time is feasible through the use of TOF signals supplemented by track reconstruction, it proves to be computationally expensive. In the presented study, a dedicated Genetic Algorithm is developed as a fast and accurate method to determine the proton&ndash;proton collision time by the measurements of the TOF detector at the SPD experiment. By using this reliable method for the t0 determination we compare different approaches for the particle identification procedure based on TOF signals.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020029

Authors: Matthew J. Gorban William D. Julius Gerald B. Cleaver

A mirror with time-dependent boundary conditions will interact with the quantum vacuum to produce real particles via a phenomenon called the dynamical Casimir effect (DCE). When asymmetric boundary conditions are imposed on the fluctuating mirror, the DCE produces an asymmetric spectrum of particles. We call this the asymmetric dynamical Casimir effect (ADCE). Here, we investigate the necessary conditions and general structure of the ADCE through both a waves-based and a particles-based perspective. We review the current state of the ADCE literature and expand upon previous studies to generate new asymmetric solutions. The physical consequences of the ADCE are examined, as the imbalance of particles produced must be balanced with the subsequent motion of the mirror. The transfer of momentum from the vacuum to macroscopic objects is discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020028

Authors: Vadim Kolesnikov Viktar Kireyeu Alexander Mudrokh Veronika Vasendina Alexander Zinchenko

The NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) project at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna, Russia) is aimed at the construction of a new accelerator complex for heavy ions and polarized particles. Heavy-ion collisions at NICA are planned to be studied in the region of the highest net-baryon density, which favors the formation of bound nuclear systems with strangeness hypernuclei. The multipurpose detector (MPD) at NICA is designed to reconstruct interactions of relativistic nuclei in a high-multiplicity environment. In this paper, we report the feasibility study results for the reconstruction of &Lambda;3H, &Lambda;4H and &Lambda;4He in Bi+Bi collisions at the nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy, sNN= 9.2 GeV.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020027

Authors: Aleksandr Svetlichnyi Savva Savenkov Roman Nepeivoda Igor Pshenichnov

A new version of the Abrasion&ndash;Ablation Monte Carlo for Colliders model with the Minimum Spanning Tree clusterization algorithm (AAMCC-MST) is used to simulate 16O&ndash;16O collisions at the LHC, accounting for the presence of alpha-clustered states in 16O. The yields of He, Li, Be, B, C and N spectator nuclei are calculated taking into account the pre-equilibrium clusterization of spectator matter and short-range correlations (SRC) between nucleons in 16O. The impact of &alpha;-clustering and SRC on the production of spectator neutrons and deuterons is investigated. The results on the production of spectator nucleons and fragments can help in evaluating the performance of Zero Degree Calorimeters in future studies of 16O&ndash;16O collisions at the LHC.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020026

Authors: Nadezda A. Smirnova

The paper reviews the recent progress in the description of isospin-symmetry breaking within the nuclear shell model and applications to actual problems related to the structure and decay of exotic neutron-deficient nuclei and nuclei along the N=Z line, where N is the neutron number and Z the atomic number. The review recalls the fundamentals of the isospin formalism for two-nucleon and many-nucleon systems, including quantum numbers, the spectrum&rsquo;s structure and selection rules for weak and electromagnetic transitions; and at the end, summarizes experimental signatures of isospin-symmetry breaking effects, which motivated efforts towards the creation of a relevant theoretical framework to describe those phenomena. The main approaches to construct accurate isospin-nonconserving Hamiltonians within the shell model are briefly described and recent advances in the description of the structure and (isospin-forbidden) decay modes of neutron-deficient nuclei are highlighted. The paper reviews major implications of the developed theoretical tools to (i) the fundamental interaction studies on nuclear decays and (ii) the estimation of the rates of nuclear reactions that are important for nuclear astrophysics. The shell model is shown to be one of the most suitable approaches to describing isospin-symmetry breaking in nuclear states at low energies. Further efforts in extending and refining the description to larger model spaces, and in developing first-principle theories to deal with isospin-symmetry breaking in many-nucleon systems, seem to be indispensable steps towards our better understanding of nuclear properties in the precision era.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5020025

Authors: José Luis Ballester

Solar chromosphere and photosphere, as well as solar atmospheric structures, such as prominences and spicules, are made of partially ionized plasmas. Observations have reported the presence of damped or amplified oscillations in these solar plasmas, which have been interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. Slow magnetoacoustic waves could be responsible for these oscillations. The present study investigates the temporal behavior of the field-aligned motions that represent slow magnetoacoustic waves excited in a partially ionized prominence plasma by the ponderomotive force. Starting from single-fluid MHD equations, including radiative losses, a heating mechanism and ambipolar diffusion, and using a regular perturbation method, first- and second-order partial differential equations have been derived. By numerically solving second-order equations describing field-aligned motions, the temporal behavior of the longitudinal velocity perturbations is obtained. The damping or amplification of these perturbations can be explained in terms of heating&ndash;cooling misbalance, the damping effect due to ambipolar diffusion and the variation of the first adiabatic exponent with temperature and ionization degree.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010024

Authors: Raul Esquivel-Sirvent

Casimir&ndash;van der Waals forces are important in the self-assembly processes of nanoparticles. In this paper, using a hybrid approach based on Lifshitz theory of Casimir&ndash;van der Waals interactions and corrections due to the shape of the nanoparticles, it is shown that for non-spherical nanoparticles, the usual Hamaker approach overestimates the magnitude of the interaction. In particular, the study considers nanoplates of different thicknesses, nanocubes assembled with their faces parallel to each other, and tilted nanocubes, where the main interaction is between edges.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010023

Authors: Andrew Wright Thomas Elsden

The resonant excitation of Alfv&eacute;n waves using the fast magnetosonic mode is important in space plasmas. In this paper, we consider a simple model of a three-dimensional (3D) coronal arcade. A numerical approach is used to produce a driven normal mode. We find that resonant coupling can occur in 3D, but there are new features that are absent in 2D. In particular, the polarisation of the Alfv&eacute;n waves can vary with position throughout the Resonant Zone. Moreover, there are an infinite number of possible paths the resonant waves can exist on.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010022

Authors: Antonio Barletta Michele Celli D. Andrew S. Rees

The Oberbeck&ndash;Boussinesq approximation is the most commonly employed theoretical scheme for the study of natural or mixed convection flows. However, the misunderstanding of this approximated framework is a possibility that may cause the emergence of paradoxes or, at least, incorrect conclusions. In this paper, the basic features of the Oberbeck&ndash;Boussinesq approximation are briefly recalled and three simple examples where this theoretical scheme may be misused are provided. Such misuses of the approximation lead to erroneous conclusions that, in the examples presented in this note, entail violations of the principle of mass conservation. A discussion about the Oberbeck&ndash;Boussinesq approximation as an asymptotic theory obtained by letting the product of the thermal expansion coefficient and the reference temperature difference tend to zero is also presented.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010021

Authors: Jaume Terradas

Coronal holes (CHs) and active regions (ARs) are typical magnetic structures found in the solar corona. The interaction of these two structures was investigated mainly from the observational point of view, but a basic theoretical understanding of how they are connected is missing. To address this problem, in this paper, magnetohydrostatic models are constructed by numerically solving a Grad&ndash;Shafranov equation in two dimensions. A common functional form for the pressure and temperature in the CH and in the AR are assumed throught the study. Keeping the parameters of the CH constant and modifying the parameters of the nearby bipolar AR, one finds essentially three types of solutions depending on the magnitude and sign of the magnetic field at the closest foot of the AR to the CH. Two of the three solutions match well with the observation, but the third solution predicts the existence of closed magnetic field lines with quite low density and temperature with opposite characteristics to those in typical ARs. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for the pressure, temperature and density at the core of the AR and their dependence upon several major physical parameters are studied. The results obtained in this paper need to be contrasted with observations.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010020

Authors: Elton Everardo Díaz-Figueroa Gonzalo Ares de Parga José Juan González-Avilés

In this paper, a series of numerical simulations is performed to recreate small-scale two-fluid jets using the JOANNA code, considering the magnetohydrodynamics of two fluids (ions plus electrons and neutral particles). First, the jets are excited in a uniform magnetic field by using velocity pulse perturbations located at y0= 1.3, 1.5, and 1.8 Mm, considering the base of the photosphere at y=0. Then, the excitation of the jets is repeated in a magnetic field that mimics a flux tube. Mainly, the jets excited at the upper chromosphere (y&sim;1.8 Mm) reach lower heights than those excited at the lower chromosphere (y&sim;1.3 Mm); this is due to the higher initial vertical location because of the lesser amount of plasma dragging. In both scenarios, the dynamics of the neutral particles and ions show similar behavior, however, one can still identify some differences in the velocity drift, which in the simulations here is of the order of 10&minus;3 km/s at the tips of the jets once they reached their maximum heights. In addition, the heat due to the friction between ions and neutrals (Qi,nin) is estimated to be of the order of 0.002&ndash;0.06 W/m3. However, it hardly contributes to the heating of the surroundings of the solar corona. The jets in the two magnetic environments do not show substantial differences other than a slight variation in the maximum heights reached, particularly in the uniform magnetic field scenario. Finally, the maximum heights reached by the three different jets are found in the range of some morphological parameters corresponding to macrospicules, Type I spicules, and Type II spicules.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010019

Authors: A. Salam

The retarded van der Waals dispersion potential between two excited chiral molecules was calculated using an approach, in which electric and magnetic dipole moments are induced in each particle by fluctuations in the vacuum electromagnetic field. An expectation value of the coupling of the moments at different centres to the dipolar interaction tensors was taken over excited matter states and the ground state radiation field, the former yielding excited molecular polarisabilities and susceptibilities, and the latter field&ndash;field spatial correlation functions. The dispersion potential term proportional to the mixed dipolar polarisability is discriminatory, dependent upon molecular handedness, and contains additional terms due to transitions that de-excite each species as well as the usual u-integral term over imaginary frequency, which applies to both upward and downward transitions. Excited state dispersion potentials of a comparable order of magnitude involving paramagnetic and diamagnetic couplings were also computed. Pros and cons of the method adopted are compared to other commonly used approaches.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010018

Authors: Daniel C. Cole

The position probability density function is calculated for a classical electric dipole harmonic oscillator bathed in zero-point plus Planckian electromagnetic fields, as considered in the physical theory of stochastic electrodynamics (SED). The calculations are carried out via two new methods. They start from a general probability density expression involving the formal integration over all probabilistic values of the Fourier coefficients describing the stochastic radiation fields. The first approach explicitly carries out all these integrations; the second approach shows that this general probability density expression satisfies a partial differential equation that is readily solved. After carrying out these two fairly long analyses and contrasting them, some examples are provided for extending this approach to quantities other than position, such as the joint probability density distribution for positions at different times, and for position and momentum. This article concludes by discussing the application of this general probability density expression to a system of great interest in SED, namely, the classical model of hydrogen.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010017

Authors: Sergei Derteev Nikolai Shividov Dzhirgal Bembitov Badma Mikhalyaev

The behavior of acoustic waves in a rarefied high-temperature plasma is studied; as an example, the plasma of the solar corona is considered. Effects of thermal conductivity and a heating/radiative loss are taken into account; data on a temperature distribution of a radiation intensity obtained from the CHIANTI 10 code are used. The classical Spitzer expression for a full-ionized plasma is used for the thermal conductivity. Based on the found values of the radiation-loss function, the cubic spline method is used to construct an approximate analytical expression necessary for studying linear waves. A dispersion relation is obtained, and a frequency, a phase speed, and a damping coefficient are found. Dispersion and damping properties are considered for a temperature of about 106 K and a particle density of about 1015m&minus;3, which are typical for the coronal plasma. In sum, superiority in the dispersion and damping of the thermal conduction is shown; the heating and radiation loss manifest themselves at large wavelengths. In accordance with general results by Field, a condition was found under which the acoustic oscillations become unstable. It is shown that at certain values of the temperature and density, the wave damping is dominated by the heating/radiative loss misbalance. Thus, the earlier results on mechanisms of damping of observed acoustic waves in the solar corona are refined here.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010016

Authors: Reinhard Schlickeiser Martin Kröger

Monitored differential infection rates of past corona waves are used to infer, a posteriori, the real time variation of the ratio of recovery to infection rate as a key parameter of the SIR (susceptible-infected-recovered/removed) epidemic model. From monitored corona waves in five different countries, it is found that this ratio exhibits a linear increase at early times below the first maximum of the differential infection rate, before the ratios approach a nearly constant value close to unity at the time of the first maximum with small amplitude oscillations at later times. The observed time dependencies at early times and at times near the first maximum agree favorably well with the behavior of the calculated ratio for the Gaussian temporal evolution of the rate of new infections, although the predicted linear increase of the Gaussian ratio at late times is not observed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010015

Authors: Dmitrii Y. Kolotkov Valery M. Nakariakov Joseph B. Fihosy

The back-reaction of the perturbed thermal equilibrium in the solar corona on compressive perturbations, also known as the effect of wave-induced thermal misbalance, is known to result in thermal instabilities chiefly responsible for the formation of fine thermal structuring of the corona. We study the role of the magnetic field and field-aligned thermal conduction in triggering instabilities of slow magnetoacoustic and entropy waves in quiescent and hot active region loops, caused by thermal misbalance. Effects of the magnetic field are accounted for by including it in the parametrization of a guessed coronal heating function, and the finite plasma parameter &beta;, in terms of the first-order thin flux tube approximation. Thermal conduction tends to stabilize both slow and entropy modes, broadening the interval of plausible coronal heating functions allowing for the existence of a thermodynamically stable corona. This effect is most pronounced for hot loops. In contrast to entropy waves, the stability of which is found to be insensitive to the possible dependence of the coronal heating function on the magnetic field, slow waves remain stable only for certain functional forms of this dependence, opening up perspectives for its seismological diagnostics in future.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010014

Authors: Gerd Leuchs Margaret Hawton Luis L. Sánchez-Soto

The debate about the emptiness of space goes back to the prehistory of science and is epitomized by the Aristotelian &lsquo;horror vacui&rsquo;, which can be seen as the precursor of the ether, whose modern version is the dynamical quantum vacuum. In this paper, we suggest to change a common view to &lsquo;gaudium vacui&rsquo; and discuss how the vacuum fluctuations fix the value of the permittivity, &epsilon;0, and permeability, &mu;0, by modelling their dynamical response by three-dimensional harmonic oscillators.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010013

Authors: Nicolas Boulanger Fabien Buisseret Victor Dehouck Frédéric Dierick Olivier White

When a Hamiltonian system undergoes a stochastic, time-dependent anharmonic perturbation, the values of its adiabatic invariants as a function of time follow a distribution whose shape obeys a Fokker–Planck equation. The effective dynamics of the body’s centre-of-mass during human walking is expected to represent such a stochastically perturbed dynamical system. By studying, in phase space, the vertical motion of the body’s centre-of-mass of 25 healthy participants walking for 10 min at spontaneous speed, we show that the distribution of the adiabatic invariant is compatible with the solution of a Fokker–Planck equation with a constant diffusion coefficient. The latter distribution appears to be a promising new tool for studying the long-range kinematic variability of walking.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010012

Authors: Andrey G. Tlatov Ivan Berezin

The magnetic field in the interplanetary medium is formed by the action of magnetic field sources on the photosphere of the Sun and currents in the expanding atmosphere of the Sun and the solar wind. In turn, the high-speed plasma flow changes the configuration of the magnetic field lines. The problem of determining the parameters of the magnetic field near the Sun is thus a three-dimensional problem of the interaction of the magnetic field and the plasma of the solar wind. We present analytical expressions for calculating the total magnetic field vector B&rarr;(r,&nbsp;&theta;,&nbsp;&#981;) (in spherical coordinates) for a radially expanding solar wind flow of finite conductivity. The parameters of the solar wind are given in the form of a dimensionless magnetic Reynolds number given as an arbitrary function of the radius, r: Rm = r&sigma;&mu;v=&xi;(r), where &sigma;, &mu;, and v denote, respectively, the conductivity, magnetic permeability, and velocity of the solar wind. The solution for the magnetic field components is obtained in the form of a decomposition in spherical functions and a radial part depending on the distance from the Sun. Examples of calculations of the configuration of magnetic fields and structures of the solar corona for the solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 are given.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010011

Authors: Thomas Howson Ineke De Moortel

Recent studies have identified the potential for coronal wave heating to balance radiative losses in a transversely oscillating low-density loop undergoing resonant absorption, phase mixing and the Kelvin&ndash;Helmholtz instability. This result relied on a continuous, resonant oscillatory driver acting on one of the loop footpoints and similar setups with non-resonant driving produce insufficient heating. Here, we consider broadband and multi-directional drivers with power in both resonant and non-resonant frequencies. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we impose transverse, continuous velocity drivers at the footpoints of a coronal loop, which is dense in comparison to the background plasma. We include the effects of optically thin radiation and a uniform background heating term that maintains the temperature of the external plasma but is insufficient to balance energy losses within the loop. For both broadband and multi-directional drivers, we find that the energy dissipation rates are sufficient to balance the average energy losses throughout the simulation volume. Resonant components of the wave driver efficiently inject energy into the system and these frequencies dominate the energetics. Although the mean radiative losses are balanced, the loop core cools in all cases as the wave heating rates are locally insufficient, despite the relatively low density considered here.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010010

Authors: Michael R. R. Good Yen Chin Ong

We present a moving mirror analog of the electron, whose worldline possesses asymptotic constant velocity with corresponding Bogoliubov &beta; coefficients that are consistent with finite total emitted energy. Furthermore, the quantum analog model is in agreement with the total energy obtained by integrating the classical Larmor power.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010009

Authors: Dirk Van Eester Nil Tournay

A simple model is presented to describe how the radio frequency electromagnetic field modifies the plasma density the antenna faces in tokamaks. Aside from &ldquo;off-the-shelf&rdquo; equations standardly used to describe wave-plasma interaction relying on the quasilinear approach, it invokes the ponderomotive force in presence of the confining static magnetic field. The focus is on dynamics perpendicular to the Bo magnetic field. Stronger fields result in density being pushed further away from the launcher and in stronger density asymmetry along the antenna.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010008

Authors: Saulo Albuquerque Valdir B. Bezerra Iarley P. Lobo Gabriel Macedo Pedro H. Morais Ernesto Rodrigues Luis C. N. Santos Gislaine Varão

In this paper, we reviewtwo approaches that can describe, in a geometrical way, the kinematics of particles that are affected by Planck-scale departures, named Finsler and Hamilton geometries. By relying on maps that connect the spaces of velocities and momenta, we discuss the properties of configuration and phase spaces induced by these two distinct geometries. In particular, we exemplify this approach by considering the so-called q-de Sitter-inspired modified dispersion relation as a laboratory for this study. We finalize with some points that we consider as positive and negative ones of each approach for the description of quantum configuration and phases spaces.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010007

Authors: Giovanni Lapenta

The energy-conserving semi-implicit (ECsim) method presented by the author in 2017, is a particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for the simulation of plasmas. Energy conservation is achieved within a semi-implicit formulation that does not require any non-linear solver. A mass matrix is introduced to linearly express the particle-field coupling. With the mass matrix, the algorithm preserves energy conservation to machine precision. The construction of the mass matrix is the central nature of the method and also the main cost of the computational cycle. Here, three methods that modify the construction of the mass matrix are analyzed. First, the paper considers how the sub-cycling of the particle motion modifies the mass matrix. Second, a form of smoothing that reduces the noise while retaining exact energy conservation is introduced. Finally, an approximation of the mass matrix is discussed that transforms the ECsim scheme to the implicit moment method.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010006

Authors: Physics Editorial Office Physics Editorial Office

High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...]

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010005

Authors: Nguyen Thi Hoa Nguyen Quang Hoc Hua Xuan Dat

We built a model and proposed a theory about the thermodynamic properties of face-centered cubic (FCC) binary interstitial alloy&rsquo;s thin films based on the statistical moment method and performed numerical calculations for AuSi (gold silicide). First, the statistical moment method (SMM) calculations for the thermodynamic properties of Au are compared with reported experiments and calculations that show a good agreement between the calculations in this paper and earlier studies. Additionally, the SMM calculations for thermodynamic properties of AuSi alloy films are performed, which show that the thermal expansion coefficient, the specific heat at constant volume, and the specific heat at constant pressure increases, while the isothermal elastic modulus decreases with increasing temperature and increasing interstitial atom concentration. Furthermore, when the number of layers reaches 100, the thermodynamic properties of the film are similar to those of the bulk material. The achieved theoretical results for AuSi films are novel and can be useful in designing future experiments.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010004

Authors: Ivan Ricardo Cisneros-Contreras Geraldine López-Ganem Oswaldo Sánchez-Dena Yew Hoong Wong Ana Laura Pérez-Martínez Arturo Rodríguez-Gómez

In this study, a low-sophistication low-cost spray pyrolysis system built by undergraduate students is used to grow aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films (ZnO:Al). The pyrolysis system was able to grow polycrystalline ZnO:Al with a hexagonal wurtzite structure preferentially oriented on the c-axis, corresponding to a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and exceptional reproducibility. The ZnO:Al films were studied as transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Our best ZnO:Al TCO are found to exhibit an 80% average transmittance in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum, a sheet resistance of 32 &Omega;/&#9633;, and an optical bandgap of 3.38 eV. After an extensive optical and nanostructural characterization, we determined that the TCOs used are only 4% less efficient than the best ZnO:Al TCOs reported in the literature. This latter, without neglecting that literature-ZnO:Al TCOs, have been grown by sophisticated deposition techniques such as magnetron sputtering. Consequently, we estimate that our ZnO:Al TCOs can be considered an authentic alternative to high-performance aluminum-doped zinc oxide or indium tin oxide TCOs grown through more sophisticated equipment.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010003

Authors: Ulavathi Shettar Mahabaleshwar Rudraiah Mahesh Filippos Sofos

The present study investigates the effect of mass transpiration on heat absorption/generation, thermal radiation and chemical reaction in the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Darcy&ndash;Forchheimer flow of a Newtonian fluid at the thermosolutal Marangoni boundary over a porous medium. The fluid region consists of H2O as the base fluid and fractions of TiO2&ndash;Ag nanoparticles. The mathematical approach given here employs the similarity transformation, in order to transform the leading partial differential equation (PDE) into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The derived equations are solved analytically by using Cardon&rsquo;s method and the confluent hypergeometric function. The solutions are further graphically analyzed, taking into account parameters such as mass transpiration, chemical reaction coefficient, thermal radiation, Schmidt number, Marangoni number, and inverse Darcy number. According to our findings, adding TiO2&ndash;Ag nanoparticles into conventional fluids can greatly enhance heat transfer. In addition, the mixture of TiO2&ndash;Ag with H2O gives higher heat energy compared to the mixture of only TiO2 with H2O.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010002

Authors: Takashi Sakurai

The paper studies the soft X-ray data of solar flares and found that the distribution functions of flare fluence are successfully modeled by tapered power law or gamma function distributions whose power exponent is slightly smaller than 2, indicating that the total energy of the flare populations is mostly due to a small number of large flares. The largest possible solar flares in 1000 years are predicted to be around X70 (a peak flux of 70 &times; 10&minus;4 W m&minus;2) in terms of the GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites) flare class. The paper also studies superflares (more energetic than solar flares) from solar-type stars and found that their power exponent in the fitting of the gamma function distribution is around 1.05, which is much flatter than solar flares. The distribution function of stellar flare energy extrapolated downward does not connect to the distribution function of solar flare energy.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics5010001

Authors: Suddhasattwa Brahma Robert Brandenberger Samuel Laliberte

We review a proposal to obtain an emergent metric space-time and an emergent early universe cosmology from the Banks&ndash;Fischler&ndash;Shenker&ndash;Susskind (BFSS) matrix model. Some challenges and directions for future research are outlined.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4040093

Authors: Thomas Schürmann

The paper considers momentum operators on intrinsically curved manifolds. Given that momentum operators are Killing vector fields whose integral curves are geodesics, the corresponding manifold is flat or of the compact type with positive constant sectional curvature and dimensions equal to 1, 3, or 7. Explicit representations of momentum operators and the associated Casimir element are discussed for the 3-sphere S3. It is verified that the structural constants of the underlying Lie algebra are proportional to 2 &#8463;/R, where R is the curvature radius of S3 and &#8463; is the reduced Planck&rsquo;s constant. This results in a countable energy and momentum spectrum of freely moving particles in S3. The maximal resolution of the possible momenta is given by the de Broglie wave length, &lambda;R=&pi;R, which is identical to the diameter of the manifold. The corresponding covariant position operators are defined in terms of geodesic normal coordinates, and the associated commutator relations of position and momentum are established.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4040092

Authors: Shujie Li Carlos Yero Jennifer Rittenhouse West Clare Bennett Wim Cosyn Douglas Higinbotham Misak Sargsian Holly Szumila-Vance

Observation of the onset of color transparency in baryons would provide a new means of studying the nuclear strong force and would be the first clear evidence of baryons transforming into a color-neutral point-like size in the nucleus as predicted by quantum chromodynamics. Recent C(e,e&prime;p) results from electron-scattering did not observe the onset of color transparency (CT) in protons up to spacelike four-momentum transfers squared, Q2=14.2 GeV2. The traditional methods of searching for CT in (e,e&prime;p) scattering use heavy targets favoring kinematics with already initially reduced final state interactions (FSIs) such that any CT effect that further reduces FSIs will be small. The reasoning behind this choice is the difficulty in accounting for all FSIs. D(e,e&prime;p)n, on the other hand, has well-understood FSI contributions from double scattering with a known dependence on the kinematics and can show an increased sensitivity to hadrons in point-like configurations. Double scattering is the square of the re-scattering amplitude in which the knocked-out nucleon interacts with the spectator nucleon, a process that is suppressed in the presence of point-like configurations and is particularly well-studied for the deuteron. This suppression yields a quadratic sensitivity to CT effects and is strongly dependent on the choice of kinematics. Here, we describe a possible Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) electron-scattering experiment that utilizes these kinematics and explores the potential signal for the onset of CT with enhanced sensitivity as compared to recent experiments.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4040091

Authors: Alexey E. Rastegin

The emergence of a minimal length at the Planck scale is consistent with modern developments in quantum gravity. This is taken into account by transforming the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into the generalized uncertainty principle. Here, the position-momentum commutator is modified accordingly. In this paper, majorization uncertainty relations within the generalized uncertainty principle are considered. Dealing with observables with continuous spectra, each of the axes of interest is divided into a set of non-intersecting bins. Such formulation is consistent with real experiments with a necessarily limited precision. On the other hand, the majorization approach is mainly indicative for high-resolution measurements with sufficiently small bins. Indeed, the effects of the uncertainty principle are brightly manifested just in this case. The current study aims to reveal how the generalized uncertainty principle affects the leading terms of the majorization bound for position and momentum measurements. Interrelations with entropic formulations of this principle are briefly discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4040090

Authors: Gaurav N. Gadbail Sanjay Mandal Pradyumn Kumar Sahoo

In this paper, we investigate the modified symmetric teleparallel gravity or f(Q) gravity, where Q is the nonmetricity, to study the evolutionary history of the universe by considering the functional form of f(Q)=&alpha;Qn, where &alpha; and n are constants. Here, we consider the parametrization form of the deceleration parameter as q=q0+q1z/(1+z)2 (with the parameters q0(q at z=0), q1, and the redshift, z), which provides the desired property for a sign flip from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. We obtain the solution of the Hubble parameter by examining the mentioned parametric form of q, and then we impose the solution in Friedmann equations. Employing the Bayesian analysis for the Observational Hubble data (OHD), we estimated the constraints on the associated free parameters (H0,q0,q1) with H0 the current Hubble parameter to determine if this model may challenge the &Lambda;CDM (&Lambda; cold dark matter with the cosmological constant, &Lambda;) limitations. Furthermore, the constrained current value of the deceleration parameter q0=&minus;0.832&minus;0.091+0.091 shows that the present universe is accelerating. We also investigate the evolutionary trajectory of the energy density, pressure, and EoS (equation-of-state) parameters to conclude the accelerating behavior of the universe. Finally, we try to demonstrate that the considered parametric form of the deceleration parameter is compatible with f(Q) gravity.

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