Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020039

Authors: Gerald A. Miller

Color transparency, the reduction of initial-state or final-state interactions in coherent nuclear processes, is a natural prediction of QCD (quantum chromodynamics) provided that small-sized or point-like configurations (PLCs) are formed in high-momentum transfer, high-energy, semi-exclusive processes. I use the Frankfurt-Miller-Strikman criteria for the existence of PLCs to show that the wave functions of light-front holographic QCD, as currently formulated, do not contain a PLC.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020038

Authors: Pankaj Jain Bernard Pire John P. Ralston

Fourty years after its introduction, the phenomenon of color transparency remains a domain of controversial interpretations of experimental data. In this review, present evidence for or against color transparency manifestation in various exclusive hard scattering reactions is presented. The nuclear transparency experiments reveal whether short-distance processes dominate a scattering amplitude at some given kinematical point. We plead for a new round of nuclear transparency measurements in a variety of experimental set-ups, including near-forward exclusive reactions related to generalized parton distribution (GPD) physics and near-backward exclusive reactions related to transition distribution amplitudes (TDA) physics.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020037

Authors: Shunzo Kumano

The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is a hadron-accelerator facility that aims to provide secondary beams of kaons, pions, neutrinos, muons, and others together with the primary proton beam for investigating a wide range of science projects. High-energy hadron physics can be studied by using high-momentum beams of unseparated hadrons, which are essentially pions, and also primary protons. In this report, possible experiments are explained on color transparency and generalized parton distributions (GPDs). These projects are complementary to lepton-scattering experiments at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), COMPASS/AMBER, and future electron-ion colliders. Thank to hadron-beam energies up to 30 GeV, J-PARC is a unique facility to investigate the transition region from the hadron degrees of freedom to the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. It is suitable for finding mechanisms of the olor transparency. Such color-transparency studies are also valuable for clarifying the factorization of hadron production processes in extracting the GPDs from actual measurements. These studies will lead to the understanding of basic high-energy hadron interactions in nuclear medium and to clarifications on the origins of hadron spins, masses, and internal pressure mechanisms.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020036

Authors: Katharina Lorenz

Despite more than two decades of intensive research, ion implantation in group III nitrides is still not established as a routine technique for doping and device processing. The main challenges to overcome are the complex defect accumulation processes, as well as the high post-implant annealing temperatures necessary for efficient dopant activation. This review summarises the contents of a plenary talk, given at the Applied Nuclear Physics Conference, Prague, 2021, and focuses on recent results, obtained at Instituto Superior T&eacute;cnico (Lisbon, Portugal), on ion implantation into non-conventional GaN structures, such as non-polar thin films and nanowires. Interestingly, the damage accumulation is strongly influenced by the surface orientation of the samples, as well as their dimensionality. In particular, basal stacking faults are the dominant implantation defects in c-plane GaN films, while dislocation loops predominate in a-plane samples. Ion implantation into GaN nanowires, on the other hand, causes a much smaller density of extended defects compared to thin films. Finally, recent breakthroughs concerning dopant activation are briefly reviewed, focussing on optical doping with europium and electrical doping with magnesium.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020035

Authors: B. Alex Brown

Applications of configuration-mixing methods for nuclei near the proton and neutron drip lines are discussed. A short review of magic numbers is presented. Prospects for advances in the regions of four new &ldquo;outposts&rdquo; are highlighted: 28O, 42Si, 60Ca and 78Ni. Topics include shell gaps, single-particle properties, islands of inversion, collectivity, neutron decay, neutron halos, two-proton decay, effective charge, and quenching in knockout reactions.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020034

Authors: Martin Kröger Reinhard Schlickeiser

The temporal evolution of pandemics described by the susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR)-compartment model is sensitively determined by the time dependence of the infection (a(t)) and recovery (&mu;(t)) rates regulating the transitions from the susceptible to the infected and from the infected to the recovered compartment, respectively. Here, approximated SIR solutions for different time dependencies of the infection and recovery rates are derived which are based on the adiabatic approximation assuming time-dependent ratios, k(t)=&mu;(t)/a(t), varying slowly in comparison with the typical time characteristics of the pandemic wave. For such slow variations, the available analytical approximations from the KSSIR-model, developed by us and valid for a stationary value of the ratio k, are used to insert a posteriori the adopted time-dependent ratio of the two rates. Instead of investigating endless different combinations of the time dependencies of the two rates a(t) and &mu;(t), a suitably parameterized reduced time, &tau;, dependence of the ratio k(&tau;) is adopted. Together with the definition of the reduced time, this parameterized ratio k(&tau;) allows us to cover a great variety of different time dependencies of the infection and recovery rates. The agreement between the solutions from the adiabatic approximation in its four different studied variants and the exact numerical solutions of the SIR-equations is tolerable providing confidence in the accuracy of the proposed adiabatic approximation.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020033

Authors: Jan Kučera Jan Kameník Vladimír Havránek Ivana Krausová Ivo Světlík Kateřina Pachnerová Brabcová Marek Fikrle David Chvátil

Five case studies are reported on the use of neutron and photon activation analysis (NAA and PAA, respectively), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis, ion beam analysis (IBA), and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the elemental characterization or dating of various objects of cultural heritage, such as building materials, pottery, metallic artefacts, ancient decorations, or the remains of historical personalities. The use of the individual techniques or their combination proved a useful, frequently indispensable tool for revealing the provenance of the artefacts, the method and time of their manufacturing, the elucidation of ancient human activities, or the verification of various hypotheses or legends related to the artefacts.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020032

Authors: Julia Becker Tjus Mario Hörbe Ilja Jaroschewski Patrick Reichherzer Wolfgang Rhode Marcel Schroller Fabian Schüssler

After the successful detection of cosmic high-energy neutrinos, the field of multiwavelength photon studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is entering an exciting new phase. The first hint of a possible neutrino signal from the blazar TXS 0506+056 leads to the anticipation that AGN could soon be identified as point sources of high-energy neutrino radiation, representing another messenger signature besides the established photon signature. To understand the complex flaring behavior at multiwavelengths, a genuine theoretical understanding needs to be developed. These observations of the electromagnetic spectrum and neutrinos can only be interpreted fully when the charged, relativistic particles responsible for the different emissions are modeled properly. The description of the propagation of cosmic rays in a magnetized plasma is a complex question that can only be answered when analyzing the transport regimes of cosmic rays in a quantitative way. In this paper, therefore, a quantitative analysis of the propagation regimes of cosmic rays is presented in the approach that is most commonly used to model non-thermal emission signatures from blazars, i.e., the existence of a high-energy cosmic-ray population in a relativistic plasmoid traveling along the jet axis. It is shown that in the considered energy range of high-energy photon and neutrino emission, the transition between diffusive and ballistic propagation takes place, significantly influencing not only the spectral energy distribution, but also the lightcurve of blazar flares.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020031

Authors: Lucile Beck

Forgeries exist in many fields. Money, goods, and works of art have been imitated for centuries to deceive and make a profit. In the field of Cultural Heritage, nuclear techniques can be used to study art forgeries. Ion beam analysis (IBA), as well as 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), are now established techniques, and the purpose of this paper is to report on their capacity to provide information on ancient, as well as modern, forgeries. Two case studies are presented: the production of silver counterfeit coins in the 16th century and the detection of recent forgeries of 20th century paintings. For the counterfeit coins, two silvering processes were identified by IBA: mercury silvering (also called amalgam silvering or fire silvering) and pure silver plating. The discovery of 14 mercury silvered coins is an important finding since there are very few known examples from before the 17th century. In the detection of recent forgeries, among the five paintings examined, 14C dating showed that three of them are definitely fakes, one is most likely a fake, and one remains undetermined. These results were obtained by using the bomb peak calibration curve to date canvas and paint samples.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020030

Authors: Garth M. Huber Wenliang B. Li Wim Cosyn Bernard Pire

The paper proposes to study the onset of color transparency in hard exclusive reactions in the backward regime. Guided by the encouraging Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) results on backward &pi; and &omega; electroproduction data at moderate virtuality Q2, which may be interpreted as the signal of an early scaling regime, where the scattering amplitude factorizes in a hard coefficient function convoluted with nucleon to meson transition distribution amplitudes, the study shows that investigations of these channels on nuclear targets opens a new opportunity to test the appearance of nuclear color transparency for a fast-moving nucleon.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020029

Authors: Kai Gallmeister Ulrich Mosel

In this paper, the earlier studies by us on the production of hadrons in a nuclear environment are reviewed. A string-breaking model for the initial production of hadrons and a quantum-kinetic Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport model are used to describe the final state interactions of the newly formed (pre)hadrons. The latter are determined both by the formation times and by the time-development of the hadron&ndash;hadron cross section. First, it is shown that only a linear time dependence is able to describe the available hadronizatin data. Then, the results are compared with detailed data from HERMES and Jefferson Laboratory (JLAB) experiments; a rather good agreement is reached for all reactions, studied without any tuning of parameters. Predictions of spectra for pions and kaons for JLAB experiments at 12 GeV are also repeated. Finally, the absence of color transparency (CT) effects in the recent experiment on proton transparencies in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering events on nuclei is discussed. We propose to look instead for CT effects on protons in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) events.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020028

Authors: Olga Chashchina Zurab Silagadze

This essay is about superluminal motion. It is generally believed that special relativity prohibits movements faster than the speed of light. It is explained which motion is actually forbidden by special relativity and why. Tachyons are breafly discussed and it is explained that, due to internal instability, tachyon fields cannot be used to transmit information faster than the speed of light. However, as John Stuart Bell remarked, &ldquo;what is proved by the impossibility proofs is lack of imagination&rdquo;. Inspired by the Frenkel&ndash;Kontorova model of crystal dislocations, we demonstrate the way to overcome the light speed barrier by introducing elvisebrions. Elvisebrions are defined as objects that can exist in the case when some hidden sectors, very weakly interacting with the visible sector, are either not Lorentz invariant, or Lorentz invariant but with different limiting velocities. In this case, elvisebrions can move in a superluminal manner without violating our existing physical models.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020027

Authors: Luigi Campajola Pierluigi Casolaro Elisa Maria Gandolfo Marcello Campajola Salvatore Buontempo Francesco Di Capua

The study of the effects of the radiation dose on devices and materials is a topic of high interest in several fields, including radiobiology, space missions, microelectronics, and high energy physics. In this paper, a new method, based on radiochromic film dosimetry, is proposed for real-time dose assessment in radiation hardness assurance tests. This method allows for correlating the radiation dose at which devices are exposed to the radiation effects (malfunctioning and/or breakdown). In previous studies, it has already been demonstrated that a system, based on optical fibers and a spectrometer, allows for the real-time dose assessment of radiochromic films. The current study not only validates our previous results, but shows that it is possible to apply the new method to an actual radiation environment for the real-time measurement of the dose delivered to a device in radiation hardness assurance tests. This new dosimeter can be used in different radiation environments for a wide dose range, from a few Gy to a few MGy. This high sensitivity can be reached by changing the radiochromic film type and/or the parameters used for the analysis.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020026

Authors: Seve Nyberg Rami Vainio

In this paper, the effects of wave&ndash;wave interactions of the lowest order, i.e., three-wave interactions, on parallel-propagating Alfv&eacute;n wave spectra on a closed magnetic field line are considered. The spectra are then used to evaluate the transport parameters of energetic particles in a coronal loop. The wave spectral density is the main variable investigated, and it is modelled using a diffusionless numerical scheme. A model, where high-frequency Alfv&eacute;n waves are emitted from the two footpoints of the loop and interact with each other as they pass by, is considered. The wave spectrum evolution shows the erosion of wave energy starting from higher frequencies so that the wave mode emitted from the closer footpoint of the loop dominates the wave energy density. Consistent with the cross-helicity state of the waves, the bulk velocity of energetic protons is from the loop footpoints towards the loop apex. Protons can be turbulently trapped in the loop, and Fermi acceleration is possible near the loop apex, as long as the partial pressure of the particles does not exceed that of the resonant waves. The erosion of the Alfv&eacute;n wave energy density should also lead to the heating of the loop.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4020025

Authors: Lyudmila V. Goncharova Peter J. Simpson

Ion implantation has played a significant role in semiconductor device fabrication and is growing in significance in the fabrication of Si photonic devices. In this paper, recent progress in the growth and characterization of Si and Ge quantum dots (QDs) for photonic light-emitting devices is reviewed, with a focus on ion implantation as a synthetic tool. Light emissions from Si and Ge QDs are compared with emissions from other optically active centers, such as defects in silicon oxide and other thin film materials, as well as rare-earth light emitters. Detection of light in silicon photonics is performed via the integration of germanium and other elements into detector structures, which can also be achieved by ion implantation. Novel techniques to grow SiGe- and SiGeSn-on-Si structure are described along with their application as detectors for operation in the short-wave infrared range.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010024

Authors: Magdalena Górska

Inevitable progress has been achieved in recent years regarding the available data on the structure of 100Sn and neighboring nuclei. Updated nuclear structure data in the region is presented using selected examples. State-of-the-art experimental techniques involving stable and radioactive beam facilities have enabled access to those exotic nuclei. The analysis of experimental data has established the shell structure and its evolution towards N = Z = 50 of the number of neutrons, N, and the atomic number, Z, seniority conservation and proton&ndash;neutron interaction in the g9/2 orbit, the super-allowed Gamow&ndash;Teller decay of 100Sn, masses and half-lives along the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) path and super-allowed &alpha; decay beyond 100Sn. The status of theoretical approaches in shell model and mean-field investigations are discussed and their predictive power assessed. The calculated systematics of high-spin states for N = 50 isotopes including the 5&minus; state and N = Z nuclei in the g9/2 orbit is presented for the first time.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010023

Authors: Merab Gogberashvili

The properties of spinors and vectors in (2 + 2) space of split quaternions are studied. Quaternionic representation of rotations naturally separates two SO(2,1) subgroups of the full group of symmetry of the norms of split quaternions, SO(2,2). One of them represents symmetries of three-dimensional Minkowski space-time. Then, the second SO(2,1) subgroup, generated by the additional time-like coordinate from the basis of split quaternions, can be viewed as the internal symmetry of the model. It is shown that the analyticity condition, applying to the invariant construction of split quaternions, is equivalent to some system of differential equations for quaternionic spinors and vectors. Assuming that the derivatives by extra time-like coordinate generate triality (supersymmetric) rotations, the analyticity equation is reduced to the exact Dirac&ndash;Maxwell system in three-dimensional Minkowski space-time.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010022

Authors: Aditya Nath Mishra Dushmanta Sahu Raghunath Sahoo

Within the color string percolation model (CSPM), jet transport coefficient, q^, is calculated for various multiplicity classes in proton-proton and centrality classes in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider energies for a better understanding of the matter formed in ultra-relativistic collisions. q^ is studied as a function of final state charged particle multiplicity (pseudorapidity density at midrapidity), initial state percolation temperature and energy density. The CSPM results are then compared with different theoretical calculations from the JET Collaboration those incorporate particle energy loss in the medium.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010021

Authors: Anna Ijjas

Advances in our understanding of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe have long been driven by cosmological perturbation theory, model building, and effective field theory. In this review, numerical relativity is introduced as a powerful new complementary tool for fundamental cosmology. To illustrate its power, applications of numerical relativity are discussed to studying the robustness of slow contraction and inflation in homogenizing, isotropizing, and flattening the universe beginning from generic unsmooth initial conditions. In particular, it is described how recent numerical relativity studies of slow contraction have revealed a novel, non-linear smoothing mechanism based on ultralocality that challenges the conventional view on what is required to explain the large-scale homogeneity and isotropy of the observable universe.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010020

Authors: Alexei B. Larionov

Exclusive channels of antiproton annihilation on the bound nucleon are sensitive to mesonic interactions with the target residue. If the hard scale is present, then such interactions should be reduced due to color transparency (CT). In this paper, the d(p&macr;,&pi;&minus;&pi;0)p reaction is discussed at a large center-of-mass angle. Predictions for the future PANDA (antiProton ANnihilations at DArmstadt) experiment at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, Darmstadt, Germany) are given for nuclear transparency ratios calculated within the generalized eikonal approximation and the quantum diffusion model of CT.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010019

Authors: Eugene Oks

The second flavor of hydrogen atoms (SFHA) refers to the kind of hydrogen atoms that have only the states of the zero orbital angular momentum (the S-states), both in the discrete and continuous spectra. They were first discovered theoretically in one of my earlier papers, where a proof of their existence was also provided by analyzing atomic experiments concerning the high-energy tail of the linear momentum distribution in the ground state of hydrogen atoms. From a theoretical point of view, the discovery was based on the standard Dirac equation for hydrogen atoms without changing the existing physical laws. Recently, the existence of the SFHA was seemingly also confirmed by two types of astrophysical observations: the allowance for the SFHA explained the puzzling results concerning both the anomalous absorption of the redshifted 21 cm spectral line from the early Universe, and the observations by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) team where it was found that the distribution of dark matter in the Universe is noticeably smoother than predictions employing Einstein&rsquo;s relativity. In the present review, we exhibit results from two recent papers where attention was brought to a visible difference in the cross-sections of the resonant charge exchange for collisions of the SFHA with incoming protons, compared to collisions of the usual hydrogen atoms with incoming protons. It was shown that, after taking into account the SFHA, there is a better agreement with the corresponding experimental cross-section. Coupled with the previous evidence of the existence of the SFHA, deduced from the analysis of the other kind of atomic experiments, and evidenced by two different kinds of astrophysical observations, this strengthens the standing of the SFHA as the most probable candidate for all or a part of dark matter.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010018

Authors: Takaharu Otsuka

Some emerging concepts of nuclear structure are overviewed. (i) Background: the many-body quantum structure of atomic nucleus, a complex system comprising protons and neutrons (called nucleons collectively), has been studied largely based on the idea of the quantum liquid (&agrave; la Landau), where nucleons are quasiparticles moving in a (mean) potential well, with weak &ldquo;residual&rdquo; interactions between nucleons. The potential is rigid in general, although it can be anisotropic. While this view was a good starting point, it is time to look into kaleidoscopic aspects of the nuclear structure brought in by underlying dynamics and nuclear forces. (ii) Methods: exotic features as well as classical issues are investigated from fresh viewpoints based on the shell model and nucleon&ndash;nucleon interactions. The 70-year progress of the shell&ndash;model approach, including effective nucleon&ndash;nucleon interactions, enables us to do this. (iii) Results: we go beyond the picture of the solid potential well by activating the monopole interactions of the nuclear forces. This produces notable consequences in key features such as the shell/magic structure, the shape deformation, the dripline, etc. These consequences are understood with emerging concepts such as shell evolution (including type-II), T-plot, self-organization (for collective bands), triaxial-shape dominance, new dripline mechanism, etc. The resulting predictions and analyses agree with experiment. (iv) Conclusion: atomic nuclei are surprisingly richer objects than initially thought.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010017

Authors: Sandro Rossi

Protons and carbon ions (hadrons) have useful properties for the treatments of patients affected by oncological pathologies. They are more precise than conventional X-rays and possess radiobiological characteristics suited for treating radio-resistant or inoperable tumours. This paper gives an overview of the status of hadron therapy around the world. It focusses on the Italian National Centre for Oncological Hadron therapy (CNAO), introducing operation procedures, system performance, expansion projects, methodologies and modelling to build individualized treatments. There is growing evidence that supports safety and effectiveness of hadron therapy for a variety of clinical situations. However, there is still a lack of high-level evidence directly comparing hadron therapy with modern conventional radiotherapy techniques. The results give an overview of pre-clinical and clinical research studies and of the treatments of 3700 patients performed at CNAO. The success and development of hadron therapy is strongly associated with the creation of networks among hadron therapy facilities, clinics, universities and research institutions. These networks guarantee the growth of cultural knowledge on hadron therapy, favour the efficient recruitment of patients and present available competences for R&amp;D (Research and Development) programmes.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010016

Authors: John R. Fanchi

A particle beam-thin foil scattering model is updated within the context of parametrized relativistic quantum theory (pRQT). This paper focuses on the creation, annihilation, and detection of tachyons when a beam of particles scatters off a thin foil. Improved calculation procedures and recent data are used to update model calculations for a pion-proton system.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010015

Authors: D. Andrew S. Rees

We examine how a square-grid microstructure affects the manner in which a Bingham fluid is convected in a sidewall-heated rectangular porous cavity. When the porous microstructure is isotropic, flow arises only when the Darcy&ndash;Rayleigh number is higher than a critical value, and this corresponds to when buoyancy forces are sufficient to overcome the yield threshold of the Bingham fluid. In such cases, the flow domain consists of a flowing region and stagnant regions within which there is no flow. Here, we consider a special case where the constituent pores form a square grid pattern. First, we use a network model to write down the appropriate macroscopic momentum equations as a Darcy&ndash;Bingham law for this microstructure. Then detailed computations are used to determine strongly nonlinear states. It is found that the flow splits naturally into four different regions: (i) full flow, (ii) no-flow, (iii) flow solely in the horizontal direction and (iv) flow solely in the vertical direction. The variations in the rate of heat transfer and the strength of the flow with the three governing parameters, the Darcy&ndash;Rayleigh number, Ra, the Rees&ndash;Bingham number, Rb, and the aspect ratio, A, are obtained.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010014

Authors: Yutaka Utsuno

In this paper, the validity of the shell-evolution picture is investigated on the basis of shell-model calculations for the atomic mass number 25&#8818;A&#8818;55 neutron-rich nuclei. For this purpose, the so-called SDPF-MU interaction is used. Its central, two-body spin&ndash;orbit, and tensor forces are taken from a simple Gaussian force, the M3Y (Michigan 3-range Yukawa) interaction, and a &pi;+&rho; meson exchange force, respectively. Carrying out almost a complete survey of the predicted effective single-particle energies, it is confirmed here that the present scheme is quite effective for describing shell evolution in exotic nuclei.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010013

Authors: Daria Boscolo Marco Durante

After decades of research on low-Earth orbit, national space agencies and private entrepreneurs are investing in exploration of the Solar system. The main health risk for human space exploration is late toxicity caused by exposure to cosmic rays. On Earth, the exposure of radiation workers is regulated by dose limits and mitigated by shielding and reducing exposure times. For space travel, different international space agencies adopt different limits, recently modified as reviewed in this paper. Shielding and reduced transit time are currently the only practical solutions to maintain acceptable risks in deep space missions.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010012

Authors: Tatyana P. Shestakova

In this paper, I discuss the idea that the birth of our Universe may be a result of a quantum transition from a physical continuum with the Euclidean signature to a Lorentzian spacetime. A similar idea was expressed by Andrei D. Sakharov At the classical level, the idea was studied by George F. R. Ellis and his collaborators, who explored if solutions to the classical Einstein equation exist which admit a change of metric signature. The present paper aims at examining possible realizations of this idea at the level of quantum gravity, in the framework of the Wheeler&ndash;DeWitt theory and in the extended phase space approach to quantization of gravity. I intend to answer the questions: to answer the questions: Does the Hartle&ndash;Hawking wave function imply such a realization? How can this idea be realized in the extended phase space approach to quantum gravity, where the change of signature is described by imposing special conditions on g00-component of the metric in different regions of the physical continuum? The conclusion is that the idea can be realized from a formal mathematical point of view, but it can hardly help in understanding how spacetime structure and time itself appeared from a timeless continuum.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010011

Authors: Anne Stockem Novo Martin Krüger Marco Stolpe Torsten Bertram

Towards the aim of mastering level 5, a fully automated vehicle needs to be equipped with sensors for a 360&#8728; surround perception of the environment. In addition to this, it is required to anticipate plausible evolutions of the traffic scene such that it is possible to act in time, not just to react in case of emergencies. This way, a safe and smooth driving experience can be guaranteed. The complex spatio-temporal dependencies and high dynamics are some of the biggest challenges for scene prediction. The subtile indications of other drivers&rsquo; intentions, which are often intuitively clear to the human driver, require data-driven models such as deep learning techniques. When dealing with uncertainties and making decisions based on noisy or sparse data, deep learning models also show a very robust performance. In this survey, a detailed overview of scene prediction models is presented with a historical approach. A quantitative comparison of the model results reveals the dominance of deep learning methods in current state-of-the-art research in this area, leading to a competition on the cm scale. Moreover, it also shows the problem of inter-model comparison, as many publications do not use standardized test sets. However, it is questionable if such improvements on the cm scale are actually necessary. More effort should be spent in trying to understand varying model performances, identifying if the difference is in the datasets (many simple situations versus many corner cases) or actually an issue of the model itself.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010010

Authors: Marcelo J. S. de Lemos

In this article, a concept named double decomposition, which is used to model turbulent flows in porous media, is examined. This concept is based on the idea that in a turbulent flow through a porous matrix, local instantaneous variables can be averaged in time and space, simultaneously. Depending on how these operators are applied, averaged equations take different forms. In this article, instantaneous local equations are averaged using both operators and a different set of equations resulting from such operations are commented upon. Additional terms proposed for the averaged equations are discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010009

Authors: Yuval Bloom Ilai Fields Alona Maslennikov Georgi Gary Rozenman

Quantum cryptography is a topic of considerable interest. A simple and robust experiment and theory for a senior level undergraduate investigation of quantum key distribution are described. In the proposed experiment, key principles from the BB84 protocol, used in quantum cryptography, are emulated using an optical apparatus and computational scripts independently.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010008

Authors: Felix Spanier Cedric Schreiner Reinhard Schlickeiser

Transport of energetic electrons in the heliosphere is governed by resonant interaction with plasma waves, for electrons with sub-GeV kinetic energies specifically with dispersive modes in the whistler regime. In this paper, particle-in-cell simulations of kinetic turbulence with test-particle electrons are performed. The pitch-angle diffusion coefficients of these test particles are analyzed and compared to an analytical model for left-handed and right-handed polarized wave modes.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010007

Authors: Sharmin Sultana Ioannis Kourakis

The propagation of dissipative electrostatic (ion-acoustic) solitary waves in a magnetized plasma with trapped electrons is considered via the Schamel formalism. The direction of propagation is assumed to be arbitrary, i.e., oblique with respect to the magnetic field, for generality. A non-Maxwellian (nonthermal) two-component plasma is considered, consisting of an inertial ion fluid, assumed to be cold for simplicity, and electrons. A (kappa) &kappa;-type distribution is adopted for the electron population, in addition to particle trapping taken into account in phase space. A damped version of the Schamel-type equation is derived for the electrostatic potential, and its analytical solution, representing a damped solitary wave, is used to examine the nonlinear features of dissipative ion-acoustic solitary waves in the presence of trapped electrons. The influence of relevant plasma configuration parameters, namely the percentage of trapped electrons, the electron superthermality (spectral) index, and the direction of propagation on the solitary wave characteristics is investigated.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010006

Authors: Physics Editorial Office Physics Editorial Office

Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...]

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010005

Authors: Abdelkader Mojtabi Pierre Costeseque Bafétigué Ouattara Marie-Catherine Charrier-Mojtabi D. Andrew S. Rees

In this paper, an analytical and numerical analysis of the species separation in a binary mixture is performed. The main objective is to study the influence of the thickness and the nature of the bounding plates of the thermogravitational column (TGC) on species separation. The theory of Furry, Jones and Onsager is extended to the cases where bounding conducting walls enclose the TGC. The governing 2-dimensional equations are solved numerically using COMSOL Multiphysics software. A good agreement is found between the analytical and the numerical results. It is shown that the determination of the thermal diffusion coefficient, DT, from the measurement of the vertical mass fraction gradient of binary solutions, does not depend on the temperature difference imposed on the vertical column either on the outer walls of the cavity or on the inner walls in contact with the binary solutions. However, it is found that this result is no longer valid in the case of a binary gas. To our knowledge, in all earlier studies, dealing with the measurement of Soret coefficients in binary fluids, the nature and the thickness of the bounding walls were not considered.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010004

Authors: Marek Rubel Anna Widdowson Laura Dittrich Sunwoo Moon Armin Weckmann Per Petersson

The paper provides a concise overview of ion beam analysis methods and procedures in studies of materials exposed to fusion plasmas in controlled fusion devices with magnetic confinement. An impact of erosion&ndash;deposition processes on the morphology of wall materials is presented. In particular, results for deuterium analyses are discussed. Underlying physics, advantages and limitations of methods are addressed. The role of wall diagnostics in studies of material migration and fuel retention is explained. A brief note on research and handling of radioactive and beryllium-contaminated materials is also given.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010003

Authors: Brunello Tirozzi Paolo Buratti

In this paper, a theory of force-free magnetic field useful for explaining the formation of convex closed sets, bounded by a magnetic separatrix in the plasma, is developed. This question is not new and has been addressed by many authors. Force-free magnetic fields appear in many laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. These fields are defined by the solution of the problem &nabla;&times;B=&Lambda;B with some field conditions B&part;&Omega; on the boundary &part;&Omega; of the plasma region. In many physical situations, it has been noticed that &Lambda; is not constant but may vary in the domain &Omega; giving rise to many different interesting physical situations. We set &Lambda;=&Lambda;(&psi;) with &psi; being the poloidal magnetic flux function. Then, an analytic method, based on a first-order expansion of &psi; with respect to a small parameter &alpha;, is developed. The Grad&ndash;Shafranov equation for &psi; is solved by expanding the solution in the eigenfunctions of the zero-order operator. An analytic expression for the solution is obtained deriving results on the transition through resonances, the amplification with respect to the gun inflow. Thus, the formation of spheromaks or protosphera structure of the plasma is determined in the case of nonconstant &Lambda;.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010002

Authors: Sumita Datta Vanja Dunjko Maxim Olshanii

In this paper, the quantum fluctuations of the relative velocity of constituent solitons in a Gross-Pitaevskii breather are studied. The breather is confined in a weak harmonic trap. These fluctuations are monitored, indirectly, using a two-body correlation function measured at a quarter of the harmonic period after the breather creation. The results of an ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculation, based on the Feynman-Kac path integration method, are compared with the analytical predictions using the recently suggested approach within the Bogoliubov approximation, and a good agreement is obtained.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics4010001

Authors: Pablo Dopazo Carola de Benito Oscar Camps Stavros G. Stavrinides Rodrigo Picos

Memristive technology is a promising game-changer in computers and electronics. In this paper, a system exploring the optimal paths through a maze, utilizing a memristor-based setup, is developed and concreted on a FPGA (field-programmable gate array) device. As a memristor, a digital emulator has been used. According to the proposed approach, the memristor is used as a delay element, further configuring the test graph as a memristor network. A parallel algorithm is then applied, successfully reducing computing time and increasing the system&rsquo;s efficiency. The proposed system is simple, easy to scale up and capable of implementing different graph configurations. The operation of the algorithm in the MATLAB (matrix laboratory) programming enviroment is checked beforehand and then exported to two different Intel FPGAs: a DE0-Nano board and an Arria 10 GX 220 FPGA. In both cases, reliable results are obtained quickly and conveniently, even for the case of a 300 &times; 300 nodes maze.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040079

Authors: Martin Bruschewski Sam Flint Sid Becker

Studies that use magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) to assess flows through porous media require a sufficiently small voxel size to determine the velocity field at a sub-pore scale. The smaller the voxel size, the less information is lost through the discretization. However, the measurement uncertainty and the measurement time are increased. Knowing the relationship between voxel size and measurement accuracy would help researchers select a voxel size that is not too small in order to avoid unnecessary measurement effort. This study presents a systematic parameter study with a low-Reynolds-number flow of a glycerol&ndash;water mixture sent through a regularly periodic porous matrix with a pore size of 5 mm. The matrix was a 3-dimensional polymer print, and velocity-encoded MRV measurements were made at 15 different voxel sizes between 0.42 mm and 4.48 mm. The baseline accuracy of the MRV velocity data was examined through a comparison with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The experiment and simulation show very good agreement, indicating a low measurement error. Starting from the smallest examined voxel size, the influence of the voxel size on the accuracy of the velocity data was then examined. This experiment enables us to conclude that a voxel size of 0.96 mm, which corresponds to 20% of the pore size, is sufficient. The volume-averaged results do not change below a voxel size of 20% of the pore size, whereas systematic deviations occur with larger voxels. The same trend is observed with the local velocity data. The streamlines calculated from the MRV velocity data are not influenced by the voxel size for voxels of up to 20% of the pore size, and even slightly larger voxels still show good agreement. In summary, this study shows that even with a relatively low measurement resolution, quantitative 3-dimensional velocity fields can be obtained through porous flow systems with short measurement times and low measurement uncertainty.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040078

Authors: Marco Rocchini Magda Zielińska

Low-energy Coulomb excitation is capable of providing unique information on static electromagnetic moments of short-lived excited nuclear states, including non-yrast states. The process selectively populates low-lying collective states and is, therefore, ideally suited to study phenomena such as shape coexistence and the development of exotic deformation (triaxial or octupole shapes). Historically, these experiments were restricted to stable isotopes. However, the advent of new facilities providing intense beams of short-lived radioactive species has opened the possibility to apply this powerful technique to a much wider range of nuclei. The paper discusses the observables that can be measured in a Coulomb-excitation experiment and their relation to the nuclear structure parameters with an emphasis on the nuclear shape. Recent examples of Coulomb-excitation studies that provided outcomes relevant for the Shell Model are also presented.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040077

Authors: Alexandra Gade

One ambitious goal of nuclear physics is a predictive model of all nuclei, including the ones at the fringes of the nuclear chart which may remain out of experimental reach. Certain regions of the chart are providing formidable testing grounds for nuclear models in this quest as they display rapid structural evolution from one nucleus to another or phenomena such as shape coexistence. Observables measured for such nuclei can confirm or refute our understanding of the driving forces of the evolution of nuclear structure away from stability where textbook nuclear physics has been proven to not apply anymore. This paper briefly reviews the emerging picture for the very neutron-rich Fe, Cr, and Ti isotopes within the so-called N=40 island of inversion as obtained with nucleon knockout reactions. These have provided some of the most detailed nuclear spectroscopy in very neutron-rich nuclei produced at rare-isotope facilities. The results indicate that our current understanding, as encoded in large-scale shell-model calculations, appears correct with exciting predictions for the N=40 island of inversion left to be proven in the experiment. A bright future emerges with predictions of continued shell evolution and shape coexistence out to neutron number N=50, below 78Ni on the chart of nuclei.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040076

Authors: Marius S. Potgieter O. P. M. Aslam Driaan Bisschoff Donald Ngobeni

Global modulation studies with comprehensive numerical models contribute meaningfully to the refinement of very local interstellar spectra (VLISs) for cosmic rays. Modulation of positrons and anti-protons are investigated to establish how the ratio of their intensity, and with respect to electrons and protons, are changing with solar activity. This includes the polarity reversal of the solar magnetic field which creates a 22-year modulation cycle. Modeling illustrates how they are modulated over time and the particle drift they experience which is significant at lower kinetic energy. The VLIS for anti-protons has a peculiar spectral shape in contrast to protons so that the total modulation of anti-protons is awkwardly different to that for protons. We find that the proton-to-anti-proton ratio between 1&ndash;2 GeV may change by a factor of 1.5 over a solar cycle and that the intensity for anti-protons may decrease by a factor of ~2 at 100 MeV during this cycle. A composition is presented of VLIS for protons, deuteron, helium isotopes, electrons, and particularly for positrons and anti-protons. Gaining knowledge of their respective 11 and 22 year modulation is useful to interpret observations of low-energy anti-nuclei at the Earth as tests of dark matter annihilation.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040075

Authors: Shaaban M. Shaaban Marian Lazar Peter H. Yoon Stefaan Poedts Rodrigo A. López

The ability of space plasmas to self-regulate through mechanisms involving self-generated fluctuations is a topic of high interest. This paper presents the results of a new advanced quasilinear (QL) approach for the instability of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron modes driven by the relative alpha-proton drift observed in solar wind. For an extended parametric analysis, the present QL approach includes also the effects of intrinsic anisotropic temperatures of these populations. The enhanced fluctuations contribute to an exchange of energy between proton and alpha particles, leading to important variations of the anisotropies, the proton-alpha drift and the temperature contrast. The results presented here can help understand the observational data, in particular, those revealing the local variations associated with the properties of protons and alpha particles as well as the spatial profiles in the expanding solar wind.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040074

Authors: Viktor Dubrovich Timur Zalialiutdinov

In the present paper, the process of inverse double-Compton (IDC) scattering is considered in the context of astrophysical applications. It is assumed that the two hard X-ray photons emitted from an astrophysical source are scattered on a free electron and converted into a single soft photon of optical range. Using the QED S-matrix formalism for the derivation of a cross-section of direct double-Compton (DDC) scattering and assuming detailed balance conditions, an analytical expression for the cross-section of the IDC process is presented. It is shown that at fixed energies of incident photons, the inverse cross-section has no infrared divergences, and its behavior is completely defined by the spectral characteristics of the photon source itself, in particular by the finite interaction time of radiation with an electron. Thus, even for the direct process, the problem of resolving infrared divergence actually refers to a real physical source of radiation in which photons are never actually plane waves. As a result, the physical frequency profile of the scattered radiation for DDC as well as for IDC processes is a function of both the intensity and line shape of the incident photon field.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040073

Authors: Luis Augusto Trevisan Carlos Mirez Djalma Inacio da Silva

In this paper, in the scope of a non-extensive statistical model for the nucleon&rsquo;s structure function, the volume of the gluons in the nucleons and the relations among the temperature, T, the parameter &ldquo;q&rdquo; of Tsallis statistics, and the scattering energies, Q2, are studied. A system of equations with the usual sum rules are solved for the valence quarks, the experimental results for the polarized structure function, and the estimated carried moments for gluons and quarks. Each state of T and q leads to a set of chemical potentials and different radii for gluons and quarks. We conclude that gluons must occupy a larger volume than the quarks to fit the fraction of the total momentum. A linear function of the temperature with Q2 is obtained as an approach. The obtained range of temperatures is different from the previous models.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040072

Authors: Yury A. Alyushin

The scientific novelty of this work is determined by the rationale for the participation in transformations, along with the kinetic energy of particles, of four types of elastic energy, identified by the peculiarities of their phase changes in the oscillation process. Two types are converted into kinetic energy, while the other two types change the deformed state of particles in accordance with the equations of motion due to internal sources. The result is obtained based on the use of the superposition principle in the space of Lagrange variables with the imposition of forced and free oscillations, as well as a new model of mechanics based on the concepts of space, time, and energy with a new scale of average stresses that takes into account the energy of particles in the initial state. In such a model of mechanics, a generalized measure of the elastic energy of particles is a quadratic invariant of asymmetric tensor whose components are partial derivatives of Euler variables with respect to Lagrange variables. The concept of kinematic energy parameters is introduced, which differ from the corresponding volumetric energy densities by a multiplier equal to the modulus of elasticity, which is directly proportional to the density and heat capacity of the material, and inversely proportional to the volumetric compression coefficient. Comparison of the values of kinematic parameters shows that most of the energy required for oscillations is associated with the deformation of particles and comes from internal sources. The mechanisms of transformation of forced vibrations into their own for transverse, torsional, and longitudinal vibrations are considered, as well as the occurrence of resonance when free and forced vibrations are superimposed with the same or a similar frequency. The formation of a new free wave after each cycle of external influences with an increase in amplitude, which occurs mainly due to internal, and not external, energy sources is justified.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040071

Authors: Júlio C. Fabris Túlio Ottoni Júnior D. Toniato Hermano Velten

A Newtonian-like theory inspired by the Brans&ndash;Dicke gravitational Lagrangian has been recently proposed by us. For static configurations, the gravitational coupling acquires an intrinsic spatial dependence within the matter distribution. Therefore, the interior of astrophysical configurations may provide a testable environment for this approach as long as no screening mechanism is evoked. In this work, we focus on the stellar hydrostatic equilibrium structure in such a varying Newtonian gravitational coupling G scenario. A modified Lane&ndash;Emden equation is presented and its solutions for various values of the polytropic index are discussed. The role played by the theory parameter &omega;, the analogue of the Brans&ndash;Dicke parameter, in the physical properties of stars is discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040070

Authors: Markus Böttcher

Reinhard Schlickeiser has made groundbreaking contributions to various aspects of blazar physics, including diffusive shock acceleration, the theory of synchrotron radiation, the production of gamma-rays through Compton scattering in various astrophysical sources, etc. This paper, describing the development of a self-consistent shock-in-jet model for blazars with a synchrotron mirror feature, is therefore an appropriate contribution to a Special Issue in honor of Reinhard Schlickeiser&rsquo;s 70th birthday. The model is based on our previous development of a self-consistent shock-in-jet model with relativistic thermal and non-thermal particle distributions evaluated via Monte-Carlo simulations of diffusive shock acceleration, and time-dependent radiative transport. This model has been very successful in modeling spectral variability patterns of several blazars, but has difficulties describing orphan flares, i.e., high-energy flares without a significant counterpart in the low-frequency (synchrotron) radiation component. As a solution, this paper investigates the possibility of a synchrotron mirror component within the shock-in-jet model. It is demonstrated that orphan flares result naturally in this scenario. The model&rsquo;s applicability to a recently observed orphan gamma-ray flare in the blazar 3C279 is discussed and it is found that only orphan flares with mild (&#8818; a factor of 2&ndash;3) enhancements of the Compton dominance can be reproduced in a synchrotron-mirror scenario, if no additional parameter changes are invoked.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040069

Authors: Michael Zacharias

The recent associations of neutrinos with blazars require the efficient interaction of relativistic protons with ambient soft photon fields. However, along side the neutrinos, γ-ray photons are produced, which interact with the same soft photon fields producing electron-positron pairs. The strength of this cascade has significant consequences on the photon spectrum in various energy bands and puts severe constraints on the pion and neutrino production. In this study, we discuss the influence of the external thermal photon fields (accretion disk, broad-line region, and dusty torus) on the proton-photon interactions, employing a newly developed time-dependent one-zone hadro-leptonic code OneHaLe. We present steady-state cases, as well as a time-dependent case, where the emission region moves through the jet. Within the limits of this toy study, the external fields can disrupt the “usual” double-humped blazar spectrum. Similarly, a moving region would cross significant portions of the jet without reaching the previously-found steady states.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040068

Authors: A A Mamun

The basic characteristics of cylindrical as well as spherical solitary and shock waves in degenerate electron-nucleus plasmas are theoretically investigated. The electron species is assumed to be cold, ultra-relativistically degenerate, negatively charged gas, whereas the nucleus species is considered a cold, non-degenerate, positively charged, viscous fluid. The reductive perturbation technique is utilized in order to reduce the basic equations (governing the degenerate electron-nucleus plasmas under consideration) to the modified Korteweg-de Vries and Burgers equations. The latter are numerically solved and analyzed to detect the basic characteristics of solitary and shock waves in such electron-nucleus plasmas. The nonlinear nucleus-acoustic waves are found to be propagated in the form of solitary as well as shock waves in such degenerate electron-nucleus plasmas. Their basic properties as well as their time evolution are significantly modified by the effects of cylindrical as well as spherical geometries. The results of this study is expected to be applicable not only to astrophysical compact objects, but also to ultra-cold dense plasmas produced in laboratory.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040067

Authors: Slobodan Babic

In this paper, the improved and the new analytical and semi-analytical expressions for calculating the magnetic vector potential, magnetic field, magnetic force, mutual inductance, torque, and stiffness between two inclined current-carrying arc segments in air are given. The expressions are obtained either in the analytical form over the incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and the second kind or by the single numerical integration of some elliptical integrals of the first and the second kind. The validity of the presented formulas is proved from the particular cases when the inclined circular loops are addressed. We mention that all formulas are obtained by the integral approach, except the stiffness, which is found by the derivative of the magnetic force. The novelty of this paper is the treatment of the inclined circular carting-current arc segments for which the calculations of the previously mentioned electromagnetic quantities are given.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040066

Authors: Ian Lerche

In 1979, I arrived back at the University of Chicago from a two-year stint in Australia to find a very large German post-doc eagerly awaiting me, so we could work together on transport of cosmic ray electrons perpendicular to the galactic plane [...]

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040065

Authors: Yuri E. Litvinenko

Electromagnetic expulsion acts on a body suspended in a conducting fluid or plasma, which is subject to the influence of electric and magnetic fields. Physically, the effect is a magnetohydrodynamic analogue of the buoyancy (Archimedean) force, which is caused by the nonequal electric conductivities inside and outside the body. It is suggested that electromagnetic expulsion can drive the observed plasma counter-streaming flows in solar filaments. Exact analytical solutions and scaling arguments for a characteristic plasma flow speed are reviewed, and their applicability in the limit of large magnetic Reynolds numbers, relevant in the solar corona, is discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040064

Authors: Boris A. Malomed

A condensed review is presented for two basic topics in the theory of pattern formation in nonlinear dissipative media: (i) domain walls (DWs, alias grain boundaries), which appear as transient layers between different states occupying semi-infinite regions, and (ii) two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) quasiperiodic (QP) patterns, which are built as a superposition of plane&ndash;wave modes with incommensurate spatial periodicities. These topics are selected for the present review, dedicated to the 70th birthday of Professor Michael I. Tribelsky, due to the impact made on them by papers of Prof. Tribelsky and his coauthors. Although some findings revealed in those works may now seem &ldquo;old&rdquo;, they keep their significance as fundamentally important results in the theory of nonlinear DW and QP patterns. Adding to the findings revealed in the original papers by M.I. Tribelsky et al., the present review also reports several new analytical results, obtained as exact solutions to systems of coupled real Ginzburg&ndash;Landau (GL) equations. These are a new solution for symmetric DWs in the bimodal system including linear mixing between its components; a solution for a strongly asymmetric DWs in the case when the diffusion (second-derivative) term is present only in one GL equation; a solution for a system of three real GL equations, for the symmetric DW with a trapped bright soliton in the third component; and an exact solution for DWs between counter-propagating waves governed by the GL equations with group-velocity terms. The significance of the &ldquo;old&rdquo; and new results, collected in this review, is enhanced by the fact that the systems of coupled equations for two- and multicomponent order parameters, addressed in this review, apply equally well to modeling thermal convection, multimode light propagation in nonlinear optics, and binary Bose&ndash;Einstein condensates.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040063

Authors: Mikhail V. Tamm Dmitry G. Koval Vladimir I. Stadnichuk

Experimentally observed complex networks are often scale-free, small-world and have an unexpectedly large number of small cycles. An Apollonian network is one notable example of a model network simultaneously having all three of these properties. This network is constructed by a deterministic procedure of consequentially splitting a triangle into smaller and smaller triangles. In this paper, a similar construction based on the consequential splitting of tetragons and other polygons with an even number of edges is presented. The suggested procedure is stochastic and results in the ensemble of planar scale-free graphs. In the limit of a large number of splittings, the degree distribution of the graph converges to a true power law with an exponent, which is smaller than three in the case of tetragons and larger than three for polygons with a larger number of edges. It is shown that it is possible to stochastically mix tetragon-based and hexagon-based constructions to obtain an ensemble of graphs with a tunable exponent of degree distribution. Other possible planar generalizations of the Apollonian procedure are also briefly discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040062

Authors: Jianguo Li Yuanzhuo Ma Nicolas Michel Baishan Hu Zhonghao Sun Wei Zuo Furong Xu

The Gamow shell model (GSM) is a powerful method for the description of the exotic properties of drip line nuclei. Internucleon correlations are included via a configuration interaction framework. Continuum coupling is directly included at basis level by using the Berggren basis, in which, bound, resonance, and continuum single-particle states are treated on an equal footing in the complex momentum plane. Two different types of Gamow shell models have been developed: its first embodiment is that of the GSM defined with phenomenological nuclear interactions, whereas the GSM using realistic nuclear interactions, called the realistic Gamow shell model, was introduced later. The present review focuses on the recent applications of the GSM to drip line nuclei.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040061

Authors: Klaus Wick

Quantum measurements of physical quantities are often described as ideal measurements. However, only a few measurements fulfil the conditions of ideal measurements. The aim of the present work is to describe real position measurements with detectors that are able to detect single particles. For this purpose, a detector model is developed that can describe the time dependence of the interaction between a non-relativistic particle and a detector. The example of a position measurement shows that this interaction can be described with the methods of quantum mechanics. At the beginning of a position measurement, the detector behaves as a target consisting of a large number of quantum mechanical systems. In the first reaction, the incident particle interacts with a single atom, electron or nucleus, but not with the whole detector. This reaction and all following reactions are quantum mechanical processes. At the end of the measurement, the detector can be considered as a classical apparatus. A detector is neither a quantum mechanical system nor a classical apparatus. The detector model explains why one obtains a well-defined result for each individual position measurement. It further explains that, in general, it is impossible to predict the outcome of an individual measurement.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040060

Authors: Yamin Wu Yang Huang Pujuan Ma Lei Gao

The tunable optical pulling force on a graded plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle consisting of a gain dielectric core and graded plasmonic shell is investigated in the illumination of a plane wave. In this paper, the electrostatic polarizability and the equivalent permittivity of the core-shell sphere are derived and the plasmonic enhanced optical pulling force in the antibonding and bonding dipole modes of the graded nanoparticle are demonstrated. Additionally, the resonant pulling force occurring on the dipole mode is shown to be dependent on the aspect ratio of the core-shell particle, which is illustrated by the obtained equivalent permittivity. This shows that the gradation of the graded shell will influence the plasmonic feature of the particle, thus further shifting the resonant optical force peaks and strengthening the pulling force. The obtained results provide an additional degree of freedom to manipulate nanoparticles and give a deep insight into light–matter interaction.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040059

Authors: Andreas Shalchi

In this paper, a discussion of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves is presented together with a simple derivation which does not require the application of methods of complex analysis. A general dispersion relation is derived systematically which corresponds to a nonlinear equation. The latter equation is solved numerically but asymptotic limits are also discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040058

Authors: Mei Li Ruoxun Zhang Shiping Yang

The purpose of this paper is to study and analyze the concept of fractional-order complex-valued chaotic networks with external bounded disturbances and uncertainties. The synchronization problem and parameter identification of fractional-order complex-valued chaotic neural networks (FOCVCNNs) with time-delay and unknown parameters are investigated. Synchronization between a driving FOCVCNN and a response FOCVCNN, as well as the identification of unknown parameters are implemented. Based on fractional complex-valued inequalities and stability theory of fractional-order chaotic complex-valued systems, the paper designs suitable adaptive controllers and complex update laws. Moreover, it scientifically estimates the uncertainties and external disturbances to establish the stability of controlled systems. The computer simulation results verify the correctness of the proposed method. Not only a new method for analyzing FOCVCNNs with time-delay and unknown complex parameters is provided, but also a sensitive decrease of the computational and analytical complexity.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040057

Authors: Christopher Leon Misak M. Sargsian Frank Vera

Examining the evolution of the maximum of valence quark distribution, qV, weighted by Bjorken x, h(x,t)≡xqV(x,t), it is observed that h(x,t) at the peak becomes a one-parameter function; h(xp,t)=Φ(xp(t)), where xp is the position of the peak, t=logQ2, and Q2 is the resolution scale. This observation is used to derive a new model-independent relation which connects the partial derivative of the valence parton distribution functions (PDFs) in xp to the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) evolution equation through the xp derivative of the logarithm of the function Φ(xp(t)). A numerical analysis of this relation using empirical PDFs results in an observation of the exponential form of the Φ(xp(t))=h(xp,t)=CeDxp(t) for leading to next-to-next leading order approximations of PDFs for the range of Q2, covering four orders in magnitude. The exponent, D, of the observed “height-position” correlation function converges with the increase in the order of approximation. This result holds for all the PDF sets considered. A similar relation is observed also for the pion valence quark distribution, indicating that the obtained relation may be universal for any non-singlet partonic distribution. The observed “height-position” correlation is used also to indicate that no finite number of exchanges can describe the analytic behavior of the valence quark distribution at the position of the peak at fixed Q2.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040056

Authors: Zdzislaw E. Musielak

New null Lagrangians and gauge functions are derived and they are called nonstandard because their forms are different than those previously found. The invariance of the action is used to make the Lagrangians and gauge functions exact. The first exact nonstandard null Lagrangian and its gauge function for the law of inertia are obtained, and their physical implications are discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040055

Authors: Črt Lozej Dragan Lukman Marko Robnik

In this paper, the fluctuation properties of the number of energy levels (mode fluctuation) are studied in the mixed-type lemon billiards at high lying energies. The boundary of the lemon billiards is defined by the intersection of two circles of equal unit radius with the distance 2B between the centers, as introduced by Heller and Tomsovic. In this paper, the case of two billiards, defined by B=0.1953,0.083, is studied. It is shown that the fluctuation of the number of energy levels follows the Gaussian distribution quite accurately, even though the relative fraction of the chaotic part of the phase space is only 0.28 and 0.16, respectively. The theoretical description of spectral fluctuations in the Berry–Robnik picture is discussed. Also, the (golden mean) integrable rectangular billiard is studied and an almost Gaussian distribution is obtained, in contrast to theory expectations. However, the variance as a function of energy, E, behaves as E, in agreement with the theoretical prediction by Steiner.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040054

Authors: Sergej Flach

Almost 70 years ago, the Fermi–Pasta–Ulam–Tsingou (FPUT) paradox was formulated in, observed in, and reported using normal modes of a nonlinear, one-dimensional, non-integrable string. Let us recap the paradox. One normal mode is excited, which drives three or four more normal modes in the core. Then, that is it for quite a long time. So why are many normal modes staying weakly excited in the tail? Furthermore, how many? A quantitative, analytical answer to the latter question is given here using resonances and secular avalanches A comparison with the previous numerical data is made and extremely good agreement is found.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040053

Authors: Vyacheslav I. Yukalov Elizaveta P. Yukalova

The review presents the development of an approach of constructing approximate solutions to complicated physics problems, starting from asymptotic series, through optimized perturbation theory, to self-similar approximation theory. The close interrelation of underlying ideas of these theories is emphasized. Applications of the developed approach are illustrated by typical examples demonstrating that it combines simplicity with good accuracy.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040052

Authors: Florinda Capone Roberta De Luca

In this paper, the instability of a vertical fluid motion, or throughflow, is investigated in a horizontal bidisperse porous layer that is uniformly heated from below. By means of the order-1 Galerkin approximation method, the critical Darcy–Rayleigh number for the onset of steady instability is determined in closed form. The coincidence between the linear instability threshold and the global nonlinear stability threshold, in the energy norm, is shown.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040051

Authors: Victor A. Berezin Vyacheslav I. Dokuchaev

In this paper, conformal invariant gravitation, based on Weyl geometry, is considered. In addition to the gravitational and matter action integrals, the interaction between the Weyl vector (entered in Weyl geometry) and the vector, representing the world line of the independent observer, are introduced. It is shown that the very existence of such an interaction selects the exponentially growing scale factor solutions among the cosmological vacua.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3040050

Authors: Andrei Ermakov Yury Stepanyants

As it was shown earlier, a wide class of nonlinear 3-dimensional (3D) fluid flows of incompressible viscous fluid can be described by only one scalar function dubbed the quasi-potential. This class of fluid flows is characterized by a three-component velocity field having a two-component vorticity field. Both these fields may, in general, depend on all three spatial variables and time. In this paper, the governing equations for the quasi-potential are derived and simple illustrative examples of 3D flows in the Cartesian coordinates are presented. The generalisation of the developed approach to the fluid flows in the cylindrical and spherical coordinate frames represents a nontrivial problem that has not been solved yet. In this paper, this gap is filled and the concept of a quasi-potential to the cylindrical and spherical coordinate frames is further developed. A few illustrative examples are presented which can be of interest for practical applications.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030049

Authors: David Escors Grazyna Kochan

The classical uncertainty principle inequalities are imposed over the general relativity geodesic equation as a mathematical constraint. In this way, the uncertainty principle is reformulated in terms of proper space–time length element, Planck length and a geodesic-derived scalar, leading to a geometric expression for the uncertainty principle (GeUP). This re-formulation confirms the need for a minimum length of space–time line element in the geodesic, which depends on a Lorentz-covariant geodesic-derived scalar. In agreement with quantum gravity theories, GeUP imposes a perturbation over the background Minkowski metric unrelated to classical gravity. When applied to the Schwarzschild metric, a geodesic exclusion zone is found around the singularity where uncertainty in space-time diverged to infinity.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030048

Authors: Kirill A. Bronnikov Sergey G. Rubin

In this paper possible spatial domains, containing expanding extra dimensions, are studied. It is demonstrated that these domains are predicted in the framework of f(R) gravity (where R is the scalar curviture) and could appear due to quantum fluctuations during inflation. The interior of the domains is shown to be characterized by the multidimensional curvature ultimately tending to zero and a slowly growing size of the extra dimensions.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030047

Authors: Ritu Aggarwal Manjit Kaur

Charged particle multiplicity distributions in positron–proton deep inelastic scattering at a centre-of-mass energy s = 300 GeV, measured in the hadronic centre-of-mass frames and in different pseudorapidity windows are studied in the framework of two statistical distributions, the shifted Gompertz distribution and the Weibull distribution. Normalised moments, normalised factorial moments and the H-moments of the multiplicity distributions are determined. The phenomenon of oscillatory behaviour of the counting statistics and the Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling behaviour are investigated. This is the first such analysis using these data. In addition, projections of the two distributions for the expected average charged multiplicities obtainable at the proposed future ep colliders.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030046

Authors: Haifeng Hu Qiwen Zhan

A superchiral field, which can generate a larger chiral signal than circularly polarized light, is a promising mechanism to improve the capability to characterize chiral objects. In this paper, Mie scattering by a chiral sphere is analyzed based on the T-matrix method. The chiral signal by circularly polarized light can be obviously enhanced due to the Mie resonances. By employing superchiral light illumination, the chiral signal is further enhanced by 46.8% at the resonance frequency. The distribution of the light field inside the sphere is calculated to explain the enhancement mechanism. The study shows that a dielectric sphere can be used as an excellent platform to study the chiroptical effects at the nanoscale.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030045

Authors: Andres Mauricio Kowalski Angelo Plastino Gaspar Gonzalez

In this paper, a reference to the semiclassical model, in which quantum degrees of freedom interact with classical ones, is considered. The classical limit of a maximum-entropy density matrix that describes the temporal evolution of such a system is analyzed. Here, it is analytically shown that, in the classical limit, it is possible to reproduce classical results. An example is classical chaos. This is done by means a pure-state density matrix, a rather unexpected result. It is shown that this is possible only if the quantum part of the system is in a special class of states.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030044

Authors: Saneshan Govender

The flow and heat transfer in a rotating vertical porous layer, placed far from the axis of rotation, and subjected to internal heat generation and centrifugal jitter, is considered. The linear stability theory is used to determine the convection threshold, in terms of the critical Rayleigh number. Typical liquids used in engineering applications and heavy liquid metals are used to demonstrate conditions at which the Vadasz number is sufficiently small to warrant the retention of the time derivative in the momentum equation. When considering low amplitude and high frequency approximation, the results show that vibration has a stabilizing effect on the onset of convection. The impact of increasing the Vadasz number is to stabilize the convection, in addition to reducing the transition point from synchronous to subharmonic solutions. In summary, when the Vadasz number is large, centrifugal jitter has no impact on the convection stability criteria. In contrast, when the Vadasz number is small, centrifugal jitter impacts the convection stability criteria.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030043

Authors: Michael I. Tribelsky

The instability of traveling pulses in nonlinear diffusion problems is inspected on the example of Gunn domains in semiconductors. Mathematically, the problem is reduced to the calculation of the “energy” of the ground state in the Schrödinger equation with a complicated potential. A general method to obtain the bottom-part spectrum of such equations based on the approximation of the potential by square wells is proposed and applied. Possible generalization of the approach to other types of nonlinear diffusion equations is discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030042

Authors: Zahra Haghani Tiberiu Harko

In this paper, the effects of the quantum metric fluctuations on the background cosmological dynamics of the universe are considered. To describe the quantum effects, the metric is assumed to be given by the sum of a classical component and a fluctuating component of quantum origin . At the classical level, the Einstein gravitational field equations are equivalent to a modified gravity theory, containing a non-minimal coupling between matter and geometry. The gravitational dynamics is determined by the expectation value of the fluctuating quantum correction term, which can be expressed in terms of an arbitrary tensor Kμν. To fix the functional form of the fluctuation tensor, the Newtonian limit of the theory is considered, from which the generalized Poisson equation is derived. The compatibility of the Newtonian limit with the Solar System tests allows us to fix the form of Kμν. Using these observationally consistent forms of Kμν, the generalized Friedmann equations are obtained in the presence of quantum fluctuations of the metric for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. The corresponding cosmological models are analyzed using both analytical and numerical method. One finds that a large variety of cosmological models can be formulated. Depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, both accelerating and decelerating behaviors can be obtained. The obtained results are compared with the standard ΛCDM (Λ Cold Dark Matter) model.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030041

Authors: Artem Shiryaev Konstantin Rozanov Andrey Naboko Anastasia Artemova Sergey Maklakov Stanislav Bobrovskii Dmitriy Petrov

Composite materials filled with ferromagnetic inclusions are useful in the development of various microwave devices. The performance of such devices is determined both by material properties (such as the saturation magnetization and the permeability) and by the demagnetization effects. The paper is devoted to the study of the demagnetization effect on the permeability measurements of composites under external magnetic bias. The microwave permeability of composites filled with flake sendust (Fe-Si-Al alloy) particles is measured as a function of frequency and the external magnetic field. The measurements are carried out by the Nicolson–Ross–Weir technique in a 7/3 coaxial line in the frequency range of 0.1 to 20 GHz by a vector network analyzer. It is found that the magnetic loss peak is split under external fields of more than 1.5 kOe. The main aim of this paper is to study the causes of this splitting and to interpret the observed magnetic loss peaks. To study this effect, the samples of various thicknesses and the samples with isotropic and anisotropic orientations of particles are measured. The particles in the anisotropic samples are oriented by a strong uniform magnetic field. At a small fraction of inclusions, the permanent magnetic field is demagnetized on the individual particles rather than the whole sample. The splitting of the magnetic loss peak of the isotropic sample is caused by different orientations of particles in the sample. At a high fraction of inclusions, the permanent magnetic field is demagnetized on the whole sample and the magnetic loss peak of the isotropic sample is not split. The saturation magnetization of the material is found by measurements under the external magnetic field of the anisotropic sample.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030040

Authors: Gurgen G. Adamian Nikolai V. Antonenko Horst Lenske Vazgen V. Sargsyan

Using the model based on the Regge-like laws, new analytical formulas are obtained for the moment of inertia, the rotation frequency, and the radius of astronomical non-exotic objects (planets, stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies). The rotation frequency and moment of inertia of a neutron star and the observable Universe are estimated. The estimates of the average numbers of stars and galaxies in the observable Universe are given. The Darwin instability effect in the binary systems (di-planets, di-stars, and di-galaxies) is also analyzed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030039

Authors: Alexander Y. Grosberg

The conjecture is made based on a plausible, but not rigorous argument, suggesting that the unknot probability for a randomly generated self-avoiding polygon of N≫1 edges has only logarithmic, and not power law corrections to the known leading exponential law: Punknot(N)∼exp−N/N0+o(lnN) with N0 being referred to as the random knotting length. This conjecture is consistent with the numerical result of 2010 by Baiesi, Orlandini, and Stella.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030038

Authors: Gonzalo Santos Francisco González Dolores Ortiz José María Saiz Maria Losurdo Yael Gutiérrez Fernando Moreno

Structural color emerges from the interaction of light with structured matter when its dimension is comparable to the incident wavelength. The reflected color can be switched by controlling such interaction with materials whose properties can be changed through external stimuli such as electrical, optical, or thermal excitation. In this research, a molybdenum oxide (MoOx) reflective grating to get a switchable on/off subpixel is designed and analyzed. The design is based on subpixel on and off states that could be controlled through the oxidation degree of MoOx. A suitable combination of three of these subpixels, optimized to get a control of primary colors, red, green, and blue, can lead to a pixel which can cover a wide range of colors in the color space for reflective display applications.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030037

Authors: André Sopczak

The precise determination of the luminosity is essential for many analyses in physics based on the data from the particle accelerator Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. There are different types of detectors used for the luminosity measurements. The focus of this review is on luminosity measurements with hybrid-pixel detectors and the progress made over the past decade. The first generations of detectors of the Medipix and Timepix families had frame-based readout, while Timepix3 has a quasi-continuous readout. The applications of the detectors are manifold, and in particular, the detectors have been operated in the harsh environment of the LHC. The excellent performance in detecting high fluxes of elementary particles made these detectors ideal tools to measure the delivered luminosity resulting from proton–proton collisions. Important aspects of this review are the performance improvements in relative luminosity measurements from one detector generation to another, the long-term stability of the measurements, absolute luminosity measurements, material activation (radiation-induced) corrections, and the measurement of luminosity from neutron counting. Rather than bunch-average luminosity provided by previous detector generations, owing to the excellent time-resolution, Timepix3 measured the luminosity of individual proton bunches that are 25 ns apart. This review demonstrates the large progress in the precision of luminosity measurements during LHC Run-1 and Run-2 operations using hybrid-pixel detectors, and thus their importance for luminosity measurements in the future of LHC operations.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030036

Authors: Spyridon Koutsoumpos Panagiotis Giannios Konstantinos Moutzouris

Critical angle refractometry is an established technique for determining the refractive index of liquids and solids. For transparent samples, the critical angle refractometry precision is limited by incidence angle resolution. For lossy samples, the precision is also affected by reflectance measurement error. In the present study, it is demonstarted that reflectance error can be practically eliminated, provided that the sample’s extinction coefficient is a priori known with sufficient accuracy (typically, better than 5%) through an independent measurement. Then, critical angle refractometry can be as precise with lossy media as with transparent ones.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030035

Authors: Boris S. Murygin Alexander A. Kirillov Valery V. Nikulin

Production of domain walls and string-like solitons in the model with two real scalar fields and potential with at least one saddle point and a local maximum is considered. The model is regarded as 2-dimensional spatial slices of 3-dimensional entire structures. It is shown that, in the early Universe, both types of solitons may appear. In addition, the qualitative estimate of the domain walls and strings formation probabilities is presented. It is found that the probability of the formation of string-like solitons is suppressed compared to that of domain walls.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030034

Authors: Antonio Barletta

In this paper, the instability resulting from small perturbations of the Darcy–Bénard system is explored. An analysis based on time–periodic and spatially developing Fourier modes is adopted. The system under examination is a horizontal porous layer saturated by a fluid. The two impermeable and isothermal plane boundaries are considered to have different temperatures, so that the porous layer is heated from below. The spatial instability for the system is defined by taking into account both the spatial growth rate of the perturbation modes and their propagation direction. A comparison with the neutral stability condition determined by using the classical spatially periodic and time–evolving Fourier modes is performed. Finally, the physical meaning of the concept of spatial instability is discussed. In contrast to the classical analysis, based on spatially periodic modes, the spatial instability analysis, involving time–periodic Fourier modes, is found to lead to the conclusion that instability occurs whenever the Rayleigh number is positive.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030033

Authors: Günter Bärwolff

The understanding of factors that affect the dissemination of a viral infection is fundamental to help combat it. For instance, during the COVID-19 pandemic that changed the lives of people all over the world, one observes regions with different incidences of cases. One can speculate that population density might be one of the variables that affect the incidence of cases. In populous areas, such as big cities or congested urban areas, higher COVID-19 incidences could be observed than in rural regions. It is natural to think that if population density is such an important factor, then a gradient or difference in population density might lead to a diffusion process that will proceed until equilibrium is reached. The aim of this paper consists of the inclusion of a diffusion concept into the COVID-19 modeling. With this concept, one covers a gradient-driven transfer of the infection next to epidemic growth models (SIR-type models). This is discussed for a certain period of the German situation based on the quite different incidence data for the different federal states of Germany. With this ansatz, some phenomena of the actual development of the pandemic are found to be confirmed. The model provides a possibility to investigate certain scenarios, such as border-crossings or local spreading events, and their influence on the COVID-19 propagation. The resulting information can be a basis for the decisions of politicians and medical persons in charge of managing a pandemic.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030032

Authors: Denys Poda

Inorganic crystal scintillators play a crucial role in particle detection for various applications in fundamental physics and applied science. The use of such materials as scintillating bolometers, which operate at temperatures as low as 10 mK and detect both heat (phonon) and scintillation signals, significantly extends detectors performance compared to the conventional scintillation counters. In particular, such low-temperature devices offer a high energy resolution in a wide energy interval thanks to a phonon signal detection, while a simultaneous registration of scintillation emitted provides an efficient particle identification tool. This feature is of great importance for a background identification and rejection. Combined with a large variety of elements of interest, which can be embedded in crystal scintillators, scintillating bolometers represent powerful particle detectors for rare-event searches (e.g., rare alpha and beta decays, double-beta decay, dark matter particles, neutrino detection). Here, we review the features and results of low-temperature scintillation detection achieved over a 30-year history of developments of scintillating bolometers and their use in rare-event search experiments.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3030031

Authors: Aldo Ianni Nicola Rossi

Ongoing social restrictions, including social distancing and lockdown, adopted by many countries to inhibit spread of the the COVID-19 epidemic, must attempt to find a trade-off between induced economic damage, healthcare system collapse, and the costs in terms of human lives. Applying and removing restrictions on a system with a given latency as represented by an epidemic outbreak (and formally comparable with mechanical inertia), may create critical instabilities, overshoots, and strong oscillations in the number of infected people around the desirable set-point, defined in a practical way as the maximum number of hospitalizations acceptable by a given healthcare system. A good understanding of the system reaction to any change of the input control variable can be reasonably achieved using a proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID), which is a widely used technique in various physics and technological applications. In this paper, this control theory to is proposed to be applied epidemiology, to understand the reaction of COVID-19 propagation to social restrictions and to reduce epidemic damages through the correct tuning of the containment policy. Regarding the synthesis of this interdisciplinary approach, the extended to the susceptible–infectious–recovered (SIR) model name “SIR-PID” is suggested.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020030

Authors: Lesley C. Vestal Zdzislaw E. Musielak

The Lagrange formalism is developed for Bateman oscillators, which includes both damped and amplified systems, and a novel method to derive the Caldirola-Kanai and null Lagrangians is presented. For the null Lagrangians, the corresponding gauge functions are obtained. It is shown that the gauge functions can be used to convert the undriven Bateman oscillators into the driven ones. Applications of the obtained results to quantizatation of the Bateman oscillators are briefly discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020029

Authors: Malik Almatwi

In this paper, a current that is called spin current and corresponds to the variation of the matter action in BF theory with respect to the spin connection A which takes values in Lie algebra so(3,C), in self-dual formalism is introduced. For keeping the 2-form Bi constraint (covariant derivation) DBi=0 satisfied, it is suggested adding a new term to the BF Lagrangian using a new field ψi, which can be used for calculating the spin current. The equations of motion are derived and the solutions are dicussed. It is shown that the solutions of the equations do not require a specific metric on the 4-manifold M, and one just needs to know the symmetry of the system and the information about the spin current. Finally, the solutions for spherically and cylindrically symmetric systems are found.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020028

Authors: Reinhard Schlickeiser Martin Kröger

With the vaccination against Covid-19 now available, how vaccination campaigns influence the mathematical modeling of epidemics is quantitatively explored. In this paper, the standard susceptible-infectious-recovered/removed (SIR) epidemic model is extended to a fourth compartment, V, of vaccinated persons. This extension involves the time t-dependent effective vaccination rate, v(t), that regulates the relationship between susceptible and vaccinated persons. The rate v(t) competes with the usual infection, a(t), and recovery, μ(t), rates in determining the time evolution of epidemics. The occurrence of a pandemic outburst with rising rates of new infections requires k+b&lt;1−2η, where k=μ(0)/a(0) and b=v(0)/a(0) denote the initial values for the ratios of the three rates, respectively, and η≪1 is the initial fraction of infected persons. Exact analytical inverse solutions t(Q) for all relevant quantities Q=[S,I,R,V] of the resulting SIRV model in terms of Lambert functions are derived for the semi-time case with time-independent ratios k and b between the recovery and vaccination rates to the infection rate, respectively. These inverse solutions can be approximated with high accuracy, yielding the explicit time-dependences Q(t) by inverting the Lambert functions. The values of the three parameters k, b and η completely determine the reduced time evolution of the SIRV-quantities Q(τ). The influence of vaccinations on the total cumulative number and the maximum rate of new infections in different countries is calculated by comparing with monitored real time Covid-19 data. The reduction in the final cumulative fraction of infected persons and in the maximum daily rate of new infections is quantitatively determined by using the actual pandemic parameters in different countries. Moreover, a new criterion is developed that decides on the occurrence of future Covid-19 waves in these countries. Apart from in Israel, this can happen in all countries considered.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020027

Authors: Polina Petriakova

The possible ways of dynamics of a homogeneous and isotropic space described by the Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker metric in the framework of cubic in the Ricci scalar f(R) gravity in the absence of matter are considered. This paper points towards an effective method for limiting the parameters of extended gravity models. A method for f(R)-gravity models, based on the metric dynamics of various model parameters in the simplest example is proposed. The influence of the parameters and initial conditions on further dynamics are discussed. The parameters can be limited by (i) slow growth of space, (ii) instability and (iii) divergence with the inflationary scenario.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020026

Authors: Viktor D. Stasenko Alexander A. Kirillov

In this paper, the merger rate of black holes in a cluster of primordial black holes (PBHs) is investigated. The clusters have characteristics close to those of typical globular star clusters. A cluster that has a wide mass spectrum ranging from 10−2 to 10M⊙ (Solar mass) and contains a massive central black hole of the mass M•=103M⊙ is considered. It is shown that in the process of the evolution of cluster, the merger rate changed significantly, and by now, the PBH clusters have passed the stage of active merging of the black holes inside them.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020025

Authors: Efim I. Kats

In this paper, a simple example to illustrate what is basically known from the Gauss’ times interplay between geometry and mechanics in thin shells is presented. Specifically, the eigen-mode spectrum in spontaneously curved (i.e., up-down asymmetric) extensible polymerized or elastic membranes is studied. It is found that in the spontaneously curved crystalline membrane, the flexural mode is coupled to the acoustic longitudinal mode, even in the harmonic approximation. If the coupling (proportional to the membrane spontaneous curvature) is strong enough, the coupled modes dispersions acquire the imaginary part, i.e., effective damping. The damping is not related to the entropy production (dissipation); it comes from the redistribution of the energy between the modes. The curvature-induced mode coupling makes the flexural mode more rigid, and the acoustic mode becomes softer. As it concerns the transverse acoustical mode, it remains uncoupled in the harmonic approximation, keeping its standard dispersion law. We anticipate that the basic ideas inspiring this study can be applied to a large variety of interesting systems, ranging from still fashionable graphene films, both in the freely suspended and on a substrate states, to the not yet fully understood lipid membranes in the so-called gel and rippled phases.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020024

Authors: Thomas Berry Matt Visser

In this paper, Lorentz boosts and Wigner rotations are considered from a (complexified) quaternionic point of view. It is demonstrated that, for a suitably defined self-adjoint complex quaternionic 4-velocity, pure Lorentz boosts can be phrased in terms of the quaternion square root of the relative 4-velocity connecting the two inertial frames. Straightforward computations then lead to quite explicit and relatively simple algebraic formulae for the composition of 4-velocities and the Wigner angle. The Wigner rotation is subsequently related to the generic non-associativity of the composition of three 4-velocities, and a necessary and sufficient condition is developed for the associativity to hold. Finally, the authors relate the composition of 4-velocities to a specific implementation of the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff theorem. As compared to ordinary 4×4 Lorentz transformations, the use of self-adjoint complexified quaternions leads, from a computational view, to storage savings and more rapid computations, and from a pedagogical view to to relatively simple and explicit formulae.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020023

Authors: Serge Nagorny

Recent progress in Cs2HfCl6 (CHC) crystal production achieved within the last five years is presented. Various aspects have been analyzed, including the chemical purity of raw materials, purification methods, optimization of the growth and thermal conditions, crystal characterization, defect structure, and internal radioactive background. Large volume, crack-free, and high quality CHC crystals with an ultimate scintillating performance were produced as a result of such extensive research and development (R &amp; D) program. For example, the CHC crystal sample with dimensions ∅23 × 30 mm3 demonstrates energy resolution of 3.2% FWHM at 662 keV, the relative light output at the level of 30,000 ph/MeV and excellent linearity down to 20 keV. Additionally, this material exhibits excellent pulse shape discrimination ability and low internal background of less than 1 Bq/kg. Furthermore, attempts to produce a high quality CHC crystal resulted in research on this material optimization by constitution of either alkali ions (Cs to Tl), or main element (Hf to Zr), or halogen ions (Cl to Br, I, or their mixture in different ratio), as well as doping with various active ions (Te4+, Ce3+, Eu3+, etc.). This leads to a range of new established scintillating materials, such as Tl2HfCl6, Tl2ZrCl6, Cs2HfCl4Br2, Cs2HfCl3Br3, Cs2ZrCl6, and Cs2HfI6. To exploit the whole potential of these compounds, detailed studies of the material’s fundamental properties, and understanding of the variety of the luminescence mechanisms are required. This will help to understand the origin of the high light yield and possible paths to further extend it. Perspectives of CHC crystals and related materials as detectors for rare nuclear processes are also discussed.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020022

Authors: Sukrit Jaiswal Debarati Chatterjee

In this paper, an investigation of the role of nuclear saturation parameters on f-mode oscillations in neutron stars is performed within the Cowling approximation. It is found that the uncertainty in the effective nucleon mass plays a dominant role in controlling the f-mode frequencies. The effect of the uncertainties in saturation parameters on previously-proposed empirical relations of the frequencies with astrophysical observables relevant for asteroseismology are also investigated. These results can serve as an important tool for constraining the nuclear parameter space and understand the behaviour of dense nuclear matter from the future detection of f-modes.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020021

Authors: Airton Deppman

Non-additive entropy is obtained through the thermodynamic description of a system with a fractal structure in its energy-momentum space, called a thermofractal. The entropic parameter, q, is determined in terms of the fractal structure parameters. The characteristics of the thermofractals are determined by two parameters associated with the number of degrees of freedom of the fractal structure and the scale. The parameter q, of non-extensive thermodynamics, has a physical meaning related to the number of degrees of freedom of the thermofractal. The two types of thermofractals are distinguished by the value of q&gt;1 or q&lt;1. Studying the group of transformations of the fractal system, we identify three different classes of transformations and their mathematical expressions. For one class of transformations of thermofractals, the group is isomorphic with q-calculus. Another class of transformations led to new mathematical expressions that extended the deformed q-algebra. Finally, we comment regarding the applications of the results obtained here for different areas such as QCD and scale-free networks.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020020

Authors: Arnab Chaudhuri Maxim Yu. Khlopov

We revisit the possibility of first order electroweak phase transition (EWPT) in one of the simplest extensions of the Standard Model scalar sector, namely the two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM). We take into account the ensuing constraints from the electroweak precision tests, Higgs signal strengths and the recent LHC bounds from direct scalar searches. By studying the vacuum transition in 2HDM, we discuss in detail the entropy released in the first order EWPT in various parameter planes of a 2HDM.

]]>Physics doi: 10.3390/physics3020019

Authors: Pritam Khan K. V. Adarsh

Amorphous chalcogenide glasses are intrinsically metastable, highly photosensitive, and therefore exhibit numerous light-induced effects upon bandgap and sub-bandgap illumination. Depending on the pulse duration of the excitation laser, ChGs exhibit a series of light-induced effects spanning over femtosecond to seconds time domain. For continuous wave (CW) illumination, the effects are dominantly metastable in terms of photodarkening (PD) and photobleaching (PB) that take place via homopolar to heteropolar bond conversion. On the other hand, under nanosecond and ultrafast pulsed illumination, ChGs exhibit transient absorption (TA) that is instigated from the transient bonding rearrangements through self-trapped exciton recombination. In the first part of the review, we pay special attention to continuous wave light-induced PD and PB, while in the second part we will focus on the TA and controlling such effects via internal and external parameters, e.g., chemical composition, temperature, sample history, etc.

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