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Vibration, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Electrical and Electromechanical Parameters on Performance of Galloping-Based Wind Energy Harvester with Piezoelectric and Electromagnetic Transductions
Vibration 2019, 2(2), 222-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration2020014
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 8 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
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Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of galloping-based wind energy harvesters with piezoelectric and electromagnetic transductions. The lumped parameter models of the galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvester (GPEH) and galloping-based electromagnetic energy harvester (GEMEH) are developed and the approximate analytical solutions of the equations are [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of galloping-based wind energy harvesters with piezoelectric and electromagnetic transductions. The lumped parameter models of the galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvester (GPEH) and galloping-based electromagnetic energy harvester (GEMEH) are developed and the approximate analytical solutions of the equations are derived using the harmonic balance method (HBM). The accuracy of the approximate analytical solutions is validated by the numerical solutions. A parametric study is then conducted based on the validated models and solutions to understand the effects of the dimensionless load resistance, r, and electromechanical coupling strength (EMCS) on various quantities indicating the performance of the harvesters, including the dimensionless oscillating frequency, cut-in wind speed, displacement, and average power output. The results show that both r and EMCS can affect the dimensionless oscillating frequencies of the GPEH and GEMEH in a narrow frequency range around the natural frequency. A significant decrease in the displacement around r = 1 for GEPH and at a low r for GEMEH indicates the damping effect induced by the increase in EMCS. There are two optimal r to achieve the maximal power output for GPEH given strong EMCS while there is only one optimal r for GEMEH. Both GPEH and GEMEH show similar characteristics in that the optimal power outputs can reach saturation with an increase of the EMCS. The findings from the parametric study provide useful guidelines for the design of galloping-based energy harvesters with different energy conversion mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Asymmetric Oscillations of AFG Microscale Nonuniform Deformable Timoshenko Beams
Vibration 2019, 2(2), 201-221; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration2020013
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 14 June 2019
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Abstract
A nonlinear vibration analysis is conducted on the mechanical behavior of axially functionally graded (AFG) microscale Timoshenko nonuniform beams. Asymmetry is due to both the nonuniform material mixture and geometric nonuniformity. Using the Timoshenko beam theory, the continuous models for translation/rotation are developed [...] Read more.
A nonlinear vibration analysis is conducted on the mechanical behavior of axially functionally graded (AFG) microscale Timoshenko nonuniform beams. Asymmetry is due to both the nonuniform material mixture and geometric nonuniformity. Using the Timoshenko beam theory, the continuous models for translation/rotation are developed via an energy balance. Size-dependence is incorporated via the modified couple stress theory and the rotation via the Timoshenko beam theory. Galerkin’s method of discretization is applied and numerical simulations are conducted for a size-dependent vibration of the AFG microscale beam. Effects of material gradient index and axial change in the cross-sectional area on the force and frequency diagrams are investigated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental and Signal Processing Techniques for Fault Diagnosis on a Small Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Generator
Vibration 2019, 2(2), 187-200; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration2020012
Received: 8 March 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract
Small horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) is a technology characterized by non-trivial critical points, basically because it is targeted for domestic use and therefore cheap manufacturing and control must conjugate with good efficiency under possibly complex flow conditions (especially in urban environment). Therefore, dynamical [...] Read more.
Small horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) is a technology characterized by non-trivial critical points, basically because it is targeted for domestic use and therefore cheap manufacturing and control must conjugate with good efficiency under possibly complex flow conditions (especially in urban environment). Therefore, dynamical control optimization and noise and vibration mitigation are pressing issues for this kind of technology. Despite this, it is peculiar of small HAWTs that the generator constitutes a non-negligible fraction of the total mass and therefore the electromechanical coupling is relevant, condition monitoring of small HAWT generators is an overlooked topic. The present work is a test case study of damage diagnosis on a permanent magnet generator of a HAWT having 3 kW of maximum power and 2 m of rotor diameter. The experimental analysis is conducted through wind tunnel tests and on a generator test rig where a damaged and an undamaged generators have been driven at different rotational speeds. Vibration measurements are collected in the wind tunnel through radial accelerometers near the rear bearing of the shaft and in the test rig through uni-axial accelerometers (fixed in radial positions, in order to be aligned with front and rear bearings). The test rig data results are particularly useful for studying the low-frequency tail of the vibration spectrum, where the characteristic frequencies of the bearing are located. The experimental data are analyzed in the time and frequency domain for feature extraction: a fault in the cage of the bearing supporting the generator is diagnosed using in particular the spectral coherence analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental and Numerical Vibrational Analysis of Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle
Accelerometer Based Method for Tire Load and Slip Angle Estimation
Vibration 2019, 2(2), 174-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/vibration2020011
Received: 9 February 2019 / Revised: 22 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 28 April 2019
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Abstract
Tire mounted sensors are emerging as a promising technology, capable of providing information about important tire states. This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art in the field of smart tire technology, with a special focus on the different signal processing techniques proposed [...] Read more.
Tire mounted sensors are emerging as a promising technology, capable of providing information about important tire states. This paper presents a survey of the state-of-the-art in the field of smart tire technology, with a special focus on the different signal processing techniques proposed by researchers to estimate the tire load and slip angle using tire mounted accelerometers. Next, details about the research activities undertaken as part of this study to develop a smart tire are presented. Finally, novel algorithms for estimating the tire load and slip angle are presented. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Full article
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Vibration EISSN 2571-631X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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