# A Comprehensive Review on Amplification of Laser Pulses via Stimulated Raman Scattering and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Plasmas

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS)

#### 2.1. Theory

#### 2.2. Factors Limiting Raman Amplification

#### 2.2.1. Forward Raman Scattering (FRS)

#### 2.2.2. Langmuir Wave Breaking

#### 2.2.3. Other Factors Limiting Raman Amplification

#### 2.3. Mitigating the Limiting Factors of Raman Amplification

## 3. Stimulated Brilliouin Scattering (SBS)

#### 3.1. Theory

#### 3.2. Factors Limiting Brillouin Scattering

#### 3.2.1. Forward Raman Scattering

#### 3.2.2. Filamentation

#### 3.3. Mitigating the Limiting Factors for Brillouin Amplification

#### 3.3.1. Studies under Subquarter-Critical Plasma Densities

#### 3.3.2. Studies above Subquarter-Critical Densities

## 4. A Comparison of Raman and Brillouin Scattering

## 5. Amplification in Magnetized Plasma

#### 5.1. Theoretical Structure

#### 5.2. Laser Amplification in Strongly Magnetized Plasma

#### 5.3. Laser Pulse Compression Using Magnetised Plasma

#### 5.4. Amplification of Mid-Infrared Lasers via Magnetized Plasma Coupling

#### 5.5. Kinetic Simulations of Laser Parametric Amplification in Magnetized Plasmas

#### 5.6. Laser-Plasma Interactions in Magnetized Environment

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## Abbreviations

BRA | Backward Raman Amplification |

CPA | Chirped Pulse Amplification |

CPRA | Chirped Pulse Raman Amplification |

CWB | Coherent Wave Breaking |

EBW | Electron Bernstein Waves |

FEL | Free Electron Lasers |

FRS | Forward Raman Scattering |

FWHM | Full Width at Half Maximum |

GDD | Group Delay Dispersion |

ICF | Inertial Confinement Fusion |

ISI | Induced Spatial Incoherence |

LWFA | Laser Wakefield Acceleration |

MBRA | Magnetic Backward Raman Amplification |

MHD | Magneto-hydrodynamic |

MLF | Magnetic Low Frequency |

OAM | Orbital Angular Momentum |

PIC | Particle-in-cell |

SBS | Stimulated Brillouin Scattering |

SMI | Self Modulation Instability |

SM-LWFA | Self-modulated Laser Wakefield Acceleration |

SPM | Self Phase Modulation |

SRA | Stimulated Raman Amplification |

SRS | Stimulated Raman Scattering |

SRSS | Stimulated Raman Side Scattering |

sc-SBS | Strongly Coupled-Stimulated Brillouin Scattering |

wc-SBS | Weakly Coupled-Stimulated Brillouin Scattering |

RBS | Raman Backscattering |

sc-SBS | Strongly Coupled-Stimulated Brillouin Scattering |

wc-SBS | Weakly Coupled-Stimulated Brillouin Scattering |

RBS | Raman Backscattering |

UH | Ultra Hybrid |

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**Figure 1.**Pulsed laser peak power has increased over the past years as a result of introduction of succession of new techniques. The intensity available at the focal spot of the laser beam is presented on the right-Y axis.

**Figure 2.**Schematic of laser amplification via stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering.

**Figure 3.**Temporal evolution of (

**a**) the reflectivity, (

**b**) the seed amplitude, and (

**c**) the seed duration for unchirped and chirped pump laser beams in 1D and 2D geometries. The duration and the energy of the seed laser beam have been set equal to zero for time earlier than ${\omega}_{0}t=711$ (time at which the seed beam enters the plasma). Here, ${\omega}_{0}$ is the frequency of the pump (given as ${\omega}_{pump}$ in the text). For the 2D geometry, the diagnostics were computed on axis. This figure was reprinted/adapted with permission from Ref. [183]. Copyright year: 2022, Publisher: American Physical Society.

**Figure 4.**Results of simulations using a three-wave model. The pump first reaches a high intensity with the flying focus at the right edge, when ionisation is initiated. As various colours converge to various locations, constant intensity moves at $\upsilon =-c$, and as a result, the ionisation wave propagates at a nearly constant distance ahead of the injected seed pulse. We see the ideal plasma amplifier behaviour. This figure was reprinted/adapted with permission from Ref. [197]. Copyright year: 2022, Publisher: American Physical Society.

**Figure 5.**Intensity of the seed pulse predicted/obtained with time from 2000 to 2022 for Raman amplification and Brillouin amplification are presented here.

**Figure 6.**Density of the plasma predicted/obtained with time from 2000 to 2022 for Raman amplification and Brillouin amplification are presented here.

**Figure 7.**Final amplified seed after interaction in a plasma with N = 0.01, L = 175 $\lambda $) with a counter-propagating pump (${a}_{0}$ = 0.007, $\lambda $ = 1 $\mathsf{\mu}$m, and I = 6.7 × 10${}^{13}$ W/cm${}^{2}$. This figure was reprinted/adapted with permission from Ref. [188]. Copyright year: 2022, Publisher: American Physical Society.

**Figure 8.**Spectra of the initial (dashed line) and amplified (solid line) seed pulses for SRS (R), SBS (B) and MLF (P,A), together with the pump spectrum. This figure was reprinted/adapted with permission from Ref. [188]. Copyright year: 2022, Publisher: American Physical Society.

Raman Amplification | Brillouin Amplification | |
---|---|---|

Frequency of pump and seed | Never identical | May or may not be identical |

Energy loss to plasma wave | Comparatively low | Comparatively high |

Plasma density ratio | Forbidden for density ratios > 0.25 | Allowed in density ratios below and above 0.25 |

Contact length of plasma wave and seed pulse | Long | Short |

Peak Intensities | Comparatively lower | Comparatively higher |

Major Limitations | Forward Raman scattering, Langmuir wave breaking, super-luminous precursor of the amplified pulse, pulse scattering by plasma density inhomogeneties, parasitic effects of plasma noise on Raman scattering | Forward Raman Scattering, Filamentation |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Miriam Cheriyan, R.; Varghese, N.; Sooraj, R.S.; Rao, K.H.; Smijesh, N.
A Comprehensive Review on Amplification of Laser Pulses via Stimulated Raman Scattering and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Plasmas. *Plasma* **2022**, *5*, 499-539.
https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma5040037

**AMA Style**

Miriam Cheriyan R, Varghese N, Sooraj RS, Rao KH, Smijesh N.
A Comprehensive Review on Amplification of Laser Pulses via Stimulated Raman Scattering and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Plasmas. *Plasma*. 2022; 5(4):499-539.
https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma5040037

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Miriam Cheriyan, Renju, Nikhil Varghese, R. S. Sooraj, Kavya H. Rao, and N. Smijesh.
2022. "A Comprehensive Review on Amplification of Laser Pulses via Stimulated Raman Scattering and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in Plasmas" *Plasma* 5, no. 4: 499-539.
https://doi.org/10.3390/plasma5040037