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Ceramics, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Direct Laser Interference Patterning of Bioceramics: A Short Review
Ceramics 2019, 2(4), 578-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2040045 - 28 Oct 2019
Abstract
Bioceramics are a great alternative to use in implants due to their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Depending on their composition, bioceramics can be classified into bioinert and bioactive, which relate to their interaction with the surrounding living tissue. Surface morphology also [...] Read more.
Bioceramics are a great alternative to use in implants due to their excellent biocompatibility and good mechanical properties. Depending on their composition, bioceramics can be classified into bioinert and bioactive, which relate to their interaction with the surrounding living tissue. Surface morphology also has great influence on the implant biological behavior. Controlled texturing can improve osseointegration and reduce biofilm formation. Among the techniques to produce nano- and micropatterns, laser texturing has shown promising results due to its excellent accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, the use of laser techniques to improve surface morphology of biomaterials is reviewed, focusing on the application of direct laser interference patterning (DLIP) technique in bioceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessCommunication
Is a Zirconia Dental Implant Safe When It Is Available on the Market?
Ceramics 2019, 2(4), 568-577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2040044 - 12 Oct 2019
Viewed by 229
Abstract
The market share of zirconia (ZrO2) dental implants is steadily increasing. This material comprises a polymorphous character with three temperature-dependent crystalline structures, namely monoclinic (m), tetragonal (t) and cubic (c) phases. Special attention is given to the tetragonal phase when maintained [...] Read more.
The market share of zirconia (ZrO2) dental implants is steadily increasing. This material comprises a polymorphous character with three temperature-dependent crystalline structures, namely monoclinic (m), tetragonal (t) and cubic (c) phases. Special attention is given to the tetragonal phase when maintained in a metastable state at room temperature. Metastable tetragonal grains allow for the beneficial phenomenon of Phase Transformation Toughening (PTT), resulting in a high fracture resistance, but may lead to an undesired surface transformation to the monoclinic phase in a humid environment (low-temperature degradation, LTD, often referred to as ‘ageing’). Today, the clinical safety of zirconia dental implants by means of long-term stability is being addressed by two international ISO standards. These standards impose different experimental setups concerning the dynamic fatigue resistance of the final product (ISO 14801) or the ageing behavior of a standardized sample (ISO 13356) separately. However, when evaluating zirconia dental implants pre-clinically, oral environmental conditions should be simulated to the extent possible by combining a hydrothermal treatment and dynamic fatigue. For failure analysis, phase transformation might be quantified by non-destructive techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) or Raman spectroscopy, whereas Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of cross-sections or Focused Ion Beam (FIB) sections might be used for visualization of the monoclinic layer growth in depth. Finally, a minimum load should be defined for static loading to fracture. The purpose of this communication is to contribute to the current discussion on how to optimize the aforementioned standards in order to guarantee clinical safety for the patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Osteogenic Enhancement of Zirconia-Toughened Alumina with Silicon Nitride and Bioglass®
Ceramics 2019, 2(4), 554-567; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2040043 - 04 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Alumina (Al2O3) ceramic implants do not stimulate osteoblasts in vivo. Surface alterations targeted at changing the chemistry or topography have been proposed to enhance the bioactivity of alumina. This surface modification is intended to improve oxide bioceramic’s ability to [...] Read more.
Alumina (Al2O3) ceramic implants do not stimulate osteoblasts in vivo. Surface alterations targeted at changing the chemistry or topography have been proposed to enhance the bioactivity of alumina. This surface modification is intended to improve oxide bioceramic’s ability to integrate with the biological environment and, in particular, to rapidly osteointegrate. In this study, the surface of zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) was functionalized using two methods: (i) Surface laser-patterning and successive filling of patterned wells with powder mixtures of bioglass and Si3N4; and, (ii) Si3N4 coating by pulse-laser sintering. Functionalized ZTA surfaces were characterized with vibrational spectroscopy, biological testing, and laser microscopy. Both enhancements resulted in osteoblast activation, a property that is relevant to osteosynthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ceramics for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessEditorial
Advances in Ice-Templated and Freeze-Casted Ceramics
Ceramics 2019, 2(4), 551-553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics2040042 - 26 Sep 2019
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Ice-templating, also known as freeze-casting, has become over the past 15 years a well-established materials processing route [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ice-Templated and Freeze-Cast Ceramics)
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