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Ceramics, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 15 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Two additions, multilayered graphene (MLG) and graphene oxide (GrO), were added to an Si3N4 ceramic [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion Mechanism of A Density-Reduced Steel Ladle Lining Containing Porous Spinel-Calcium Aluminate Aggregates
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 155-170; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010015 - 23 Mar 2020
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Refractory monolithics for steel ladle linings are typically products with low porosities and high bulk densities. They achieve high temperature, penetration, and corrosion resistance. Despite the high density of these products, which is due to the low porosity of the aggregates, their matrices [...] Read more.
Refractory monolithics for steel ladle linings are typically products with low porosities and high bulk densities. They achieve high temperature, penetration, and corrosion resistance. Despite the high density of these products, which is due to the low porosity of the aggregates, their matrices still exhibit a high amount of pores. Since calcium magnesium aluminate (CMA) has already proven its resistance to penetration and corrosion as a binder in the matrix, this paper investigated if alumina spinel refractories containing microporous calcium magnesium aluminate aggregates can withstand conditions that occur in a steel ladle wall. The objective was to reduce the castable density with the advantage of a lower material requirement for a ladle lining and reduced heat and energy losses. This was achieved by replacing dense alumina aggregates by up to 38% of porous CMA aggregates (grains with 30 vol% porosity), which resulted in a bulk density reduction from 3.1 g/cm3 for the dense alumina castable to 2.8 g/cm3 for the 38% CMA aggregates containing castable. However, the despite the higher porosity, penetration, and corrosion resistance and thermomechanical properties were not impacted negatively for a model alumina spinel castable. A postmortem investigation was conducted on a newly developed dry-gunning mix that was installed in a steel ladle wall on top of a slag penetrated castable and that achieved a service life of 31 heats versus only 18 heats for the reference mix that contained dense alumina and spinel aggregates. This new repair mix contained the newly designed porous CMA aggregates, which in this case partly replaced the dense alumina and spinel aggregates. These porous aggregates consisted of magnesium aluminate and calcium aluminate micro-crystals. The postmortem study revealed two important phenomena that can explain the improved performance: at the hot face in contact with steel and slag, a thin densified zone was observed that blocked the slag penetration into the porous matrix and the porous aggregates. Iron oxides were almost completely blocked from penetration, and only some manganese oxide was observed in the penetrated zone together with some silica and lime from the slag. Clusters of calcium aluminate (CA6) and magnesium aluminate (MA) spinel build the refractory back-bone on the hot side of the material and gussets filled with mostly glassy calcium aluminum silicates close to the hot face and gehlenite further inside the penetrated zone. Alumina grains had a reaction rim consisting of CA2 or CA6 and a very intimate connection to the surrounding matrix unlike the CMA-free mix that showed micro cracks around the alumina grains. At the colder side, the gunning mix with CMA aggregates showed a very good connection to the substrate, supported by a hercynite formation in the gunning mix resulting from a cross-reaction with remains of iron oxide on the CMA containing repair mix. Furthermore, macroscopic observations of a CMA aggregate containing alumina magnesia castable in the metal zone of a steel ladle revealed that macro cracks developed only very slowly, which resulted in a superior service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Properties, Damage and Lifetime of Refractory Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Qualitative and Quantitative Coating Tests: A Comparison in Magnesia–Spinel Refractory Bricks
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 144-154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010014 - 21 Mar 2020
Viewed by 324
Abstract
In cement processing, which involves the production of clinker in rotary kilns, the main refractories used in the transition and burning zones are magnesia–spinel bricks. These bricks present suitable chemical and thermomechanical properties, not to mention that they can be easily landfilled. Among [...] Read more.
In cement processing, which involves the production of clinker in rotary kilns, the main refractories used in the transition and burning zones are magnesia–spinel bricks. These bricks present suitable chemical and thermomechanical properties, not to mention that they can be easily landfilled. Among the main wear mechanisms of these bricks in the kiln, the infiltration of alkaline salts is noteworthy and occurs through the open pores of the refractory. In this way, the coating—a clinker layer adhered to the brick surface—appears as a protection mechanism of the lining against infiltration. Thus, the objective of this investigation is to run a qualitative coating test based on the contact method, and quantitative coating test based on the sandwich method to check the suitability of the methodologies and to evaluate the coating adherence on two different magnesia–spinel bricks. It was possible to distinguish the superior adherence ability of brick B in both coatings due to the higher porosity and the presence of nonreacted ZrO2. Despite the similarity between the test results, the quantitative sandwich-coating test is preferable because it does not depend on subjective analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Properties, Damage and Lifetime of Refractory Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Titanium Oxide Additions on the Phase Chemistry and Properties of Chromite-Magnesia Refractories
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 127-143; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010013 - 20 Mar 2020
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The microstructure of a direct-bonded chromite-magnesia refractory brick, typically used in copper and platinum converters, was modified by adding different amounts of nano-size TiO2 to the raw material mixture. Bricks with 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mass% TiO2 were produced [...] Read more.
The microstructure of a direct-bonded chromite-magnesia refractory brick, typically used in copper and platinum converters, was modified by adding different amounts of nano-size TiO2 to the raw material mixture. Bricks with 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mass% TiO2 were produced and compared in terms of spinel formation; the role of the tetravalent cation Ti4+ in the bonding phase; as well as changes in density, porosity, thermal expansion, and internal stress. This was done through a comprehensive XRD and SEM-EDS study. It was found that Ti is accommodated in the secondary spinel that has formed, where Mg in excess of unity in the tetrahedral site combines with an equal amount of Ti in the octahedral sites to maintain charge balance. The 1 mass% TiO2 brick had the lowest bulk density (but not significantly different from the original chromite-magnesia brick), the smallest difference in unit cell volumes between the primary and secondary spinels, and the lowest stress arising from the smallest difference in linear thermal expansion coefficients of the phases present. The calculated porosities correspond well with experimentally determined apparent porosity values, whereas the linear thermal expansion coefficients calculated at 1392K are similar to the values measured from 293 to 1273 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Properties, Damage and Lifetime of Refractory Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Improved Electrochemical Properties of an Ni-Based YSZ Cermet Anode for the Direct Supply of Methane by Co Alloying with an Impregnation Method
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 114-126; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010012 - 19 Mar 2020
Viewed by 316
Abstract
To avoid the proneness to degradation due to coking in the operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) directly running on methane (CH4) fuels, a modified porous anode of the Ni1−XCoX/YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) cermet prepared by an [...] Read more.
To avoid the proneness to degradation due to coking in the operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) directly running on methane (CH4) fuels, a modified porous anode of the Ni1−XCoX/YSZ (yttria-stabilized zirconia) cermet prepared by an impregnation method is presented. The influence of the Co alloying content on the cermet microstructure, SOFC characteristics, and prolonged cell performance stability has been studied. Co was incorporated into Ni and formed a solid solution of Ni1−XCoX alloy connected with the YSZ as the cermet anode. The porous microstructure of the Ni1−XCoX/YSZ cermet anode formed by sintering exhibited a grain growth with an increase in the Co alloying content. The electrochemical performance of the cells consisting of the Ni1−XCoX/YSZ cermet anode, the YSZ electrolyte, and the LSM (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3) cathode showed an enhancement by the Ni1−XCoX impregnation treatment for the respective supply of H2 and CH4 to the anode. The cell using the Ni0.75Co0.25/YSZ cermet anode (the Ni0.75Co0.25 cell) showed the highest cell performance among the cells tested. In particular, the performance enhancement of this cell was found to be more significant for CH4 than that for H2; a 45% increase in the maximum power density for CH4 and a 17% increase for H2 at 750 °C compared with the performance of the cell using the Ni/YSZ cermet anode. Furthermore, the prolonged cell performance stability with a continuous CH4 supply was found for the Ni0.85Co0.15 and Ni0.75Co0.25 cells at least for 60 h at 750 °C. These enhancement effects were caused by the optimum porous microstructure of the cermet anode with the low anodic polarization resistance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Thermo-Elastic Material and Corrosion Behavior of Refractory Castables by In-Situ Measurements
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 101-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010011 - 09 Mar 2020
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Corrosion is one of the most common wear mechanisms of refractories. Corrosive attacks lead to chemical and microstructural changes. Hot corrosion compromises chemical and/or physical interactions. Thus, the process is complex and not yet fully understood. Currently, corrosion is investigated post mortem by [...] Read more.
Corrosion is one of the most common wear mechanisms of refractories. Corrosive attacks lead to chemical and microstructural changes. Hot corrosion compromises chemical and/or physical interactions. Thus, the process is complex and not yet fully understood. Currently, corrosion is investigated post mortem by means of X-ray diffraction or scanning electron microscopy. These methods have the drawback that some information is lost on cooling. In-situ measurements, however, take measurements within the process. In resonant frequency and damping analysis (RFDA), a sample is excited to vibrate by a mechanical impulse. The vibrating sample emits an acoustic signal. This is recorded with a microphone and evaluated by means of Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). We measured the change of the frequency of a low cement castable during the corrosion process. Further simplified experiments with less complex materials were done to confirm the results. Distinctive points of the curves could be correlated to specific corrosion phenomena, like melting or infiltration. The applied methods include a first characterization of the material with open porosity, density and in-situ high-temperature (HT)-RFDA measurements as well as a study of the slag behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Properties, Damage and Lifetime of Refractory Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Centimetric-Sized Chromium (III) Oxide Object Synthesized by Means of the Carbon Template Replication
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 92-100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010010 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
A simple, efficient synthesis approach for designing large ceramic pieces, herein termed chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3) material, is provided. The process can be called the replica technique, or replication. The elaboration of a material with a unique morphology is [...] Read more.
A simple, efficient synthesis approach for designing large ceramic pieces, herein termed chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3) material, is provided. The process can be called the replica technique, or replication. The elaboration of a material with a unique morphology is a result of a ceramic salt coating that has been previously dissolved in ethylene glycol as the solvent; this process is performed on a carbon material surface that is selected as a template. Here, the carbon template was carbon fiber. After a heat treatment to convert the ceramic precursor to the corresponding ceramic oxide followed by the removal of the template, hollow ceramic oxide wires were obtained. The resulting material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy. The material exhibited a multiscale architecture, assembling nanosized nodules to form micron-sized tubes that assemble themselves into a centimetric structure. Objects with such tailored architectures can be used in a large variety of applications in fields as diverse as pyrotechnics, adsorption, and catalysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Flexure Strength and Fracture Propagation in Zirconia Ceramic Composites with Exfoliated Graphene Nanoplatelets
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 78-91; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010009 - 05 Mar 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
In this work, the flexure strength and fracture propagation mechanisms in yttria tetragonal zirconia (3YTZP) dense composites with 1 and 5 vol.% exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (e-GNP) were assessed. The composite powders were processed by dry planetary ball milling to exfoliate the as-received GNP, [...] Read more.
In this work, the flexure strength and fracture propagation mechanisms in yttria tetragonal zirconia (3YTZP) dense composites with 1 and 5 vol.% exfoliated graphene nanoplatelets (e-GNP) were assessed. The composite powders were processed by dry planetary ball milling to exfoliate the as-received GNP, and then densified by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The hardness and Young’s modulus were measured by Vickers indentation and the impulse-echo technique, respectively. Flexural strength and modulus were estimated by four-point bending tests. Finally, cracks originated by Vickers indentations were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Raman spectra and SEM observations showed a reduction in the number of graphene layers and most remarkably in the lateral size of the e-GNP, achieving a very homogeneous distribution in the ceramic matrix. The hardness, elastic modulus, and flexural strength of the 3YTZP matrix did not vary significantly with the addition of 1 vol.% e-GNP, but they decreased when the content increased to 5 vol.%. The addition of e-GNP to 3YTZP increased its reliability under bending, and the small lateral size of the e-GNP produced isotropic fracture propagation. However, the energy dissipation mechanisms conventionally attributed to the larger GNP such as fracture deflection or blocking were limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Influence of Printing Parameters, Post-Processing, and Testing Conditions on the Properties of Binder Jetting Additive Manufactured Functional Ceramics
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 65-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010008 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
This article outlines the current state-of-the-art binder jetting (BJT) additive manufacturing of functional ceramics. The impact of printing parameters, heat treatment processing, and testing conditions on the observed performance of these ceramics is discussed. Additionally, this article discusses the impact of physical properties [...] Read more.
This article outlines the current state-of-the-art binder jetting (BJT) additive manufacturing of functional ceramics. The impact of printing parameters, heat treatment processing, and testing conditions on the observed performance of these ceramics is discussed. Additionally, this article discusses the impact of physical properties such as density and mechanical strength on the overall performance of these functional ceramics. Although printing parameters and initial feedstock are crucial for the printability of the desired parts, other factors play an important role in the performance of the ceramic. Thermal post-processing is crucial to achieve optimized functional properties, while the testing orientation is key to obtaining the maximum output from the part. Finally, future research directions for this field are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Past, Present, and Future of Inkjet-Based Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Zirconia (3Y-TZP)/Zr Composites Prepared by Wet Processing and Subsequent Spark Plasma Sintering
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 53-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010007 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
ZrO2 (3Y-TZP) matrix composites with 30 vol % Zr metallic particles were obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using a colloidal processing method. The microstructure and mechanical properties of this novel ceramic–metal composite have been studied. The fracture toughness of composites is [...] Read more.
ZrO2 (3Y-TZP) matrix composites with 30 vol % Zr metallic particles were obtained by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using a colloidal processing method. The microstructure and mechanical properties of this novel ceramic–metal composite have been studied. The fracture toughness of composites is slightly higher than the values corresponding to monolithic zirconia. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the crack path show that the major contributions to toughening are the resulting crack blunting and branching that occurs at crack tips in the metallic particles before the onset of crack propagation. Plastic deformation of the metallic particles is strongly influenced by the constraint induced by the different phase arrangements. This system can be considered as a particulate composite with a periodic residual stress field, in which the metal phase is under strong compression due to the residual thermal stresses as a consequence of the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch. Therefore, the plastic deformation of the metallic particles in this composite is likely to be reduced to a large extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Ceramics in 2019
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 51-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010006 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 332
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Graphene and Graphene Oxide on Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered Si3N4 Ceramic Matrix
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 40-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010005 - 05 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 436
Abstract
The sintering of ceramic matrix composites is usually carried out by raising the sintering temperature below the melting point of components. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has the capability to densify ceramics at a relatively low temperature in a very short time. Two different [...] Read more.
The sintering of ceramic matrix composites is usually carried out by raising the sintering temperature below the melting point of components. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has the capability to densify ceramics at a relatively low temperature in a very short time. Two different additions, multilayered graphene (MLG) and graphene oxide (GrO), were added to Si3N4 ceramic matrix in various amount; 5 wt% and 30 wt%. The influence of reinforcing phase on final properties of spark plasma sintered Si3N4 composite was studied. The uniaxial-pressure-assisted SPS sintering resulted in a preferential alignment of both type of graphene in the Si3N4 ceramic matrix, leading to highly anisotropic properties with lower mechanical behavior but better tribological and electrical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Ceramic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement in Slag Resistance of No-Cement Refractory Castables by Matrix Design
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 31-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010004 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 466
Abstract
The corrosion resistance of spinel containing cement bonded castables has been extensively investigated in the past. However, corrosion of no-cement refractory castables (NCC) has not been widely studied since the use of NCC has been relatively limited up till now. This paper focuses [...] Read more.
The corrosion resistance of spinel containing cement bonded castables has been extensively investigated in the past. However, corrosion of no-cement refractory castables (NCC) has not been widely studied since the use of NCC has been relatively limited up till now. This paper focuses on the slag resistance of NCCs, and the often-used spinel containing low cement castable (LCC) is used as the reference. Three different NCC binders were designed: (i) Al2O3 + MgO (alumina bond), in situ spinel formation; (ii) Al2O3 + SiO2 (microsilica-gel bond), mullite formation; and (iii) Al2O3 + MgO + SiO2 (MgO-SiO2 bond). Slag resistance tests were conducted using the static crucible method with ladle slag. The corrosion mechanisms were studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and thermodynamic simulations. The results confirmed that the mineral phases, microstructure, and liquid formation at a high temperature of the refractory materials had a strong impact on the corrosion resistance. The slag resistance was significantly improved when the cement was replaced by the cement-free binders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Properties, Damage and Lifetime of Refractory Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Photocatalytic Activity for Hydrogen Evolution of Heteroatom-Doped SrTiO3 Prepared Using a Graphitic-Carbon Nitride Nanosheet
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 22-30; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010003 - 11 Jan 2020
Viewed by 423
Abstract
We developed a novel method to synthesize a visible-light-responsible photocatalyst from a composite of SrTiO3 and a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet. Heteroatoms were successfully doped into a lattice of SrTiO3 by mild calcination of a composite [...] Read more.
We developed a novel method to synthesize a visible-light-responsible photocatalyst from a composite of SrTiO3 and a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheet. Heteroatoms were successfully doped into a lattice of SrTiO3 by mild calcination of a composite that the g-C3N4 nanosheet adsorbed on to the SrTiO3 surface. The absorption edge in the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the doped sample was shifted to a longer wavelength region. The photocatalytic activity of the doped sample under UV light irradiation was higher than those of both pristine SrTiO3 and the g-C3N4 nanosheet, suggesting that the photocatalytic property of SrTiO3 was enhanced by doping. The doped sample showed photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (>420 nm), which was enhanced by Pt loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Properties of Metals/Metal-Base Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Corrosion of MgO-C with Magnesium Aluminate Spinel Addition in A Steel Casting Simulator
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 12-21; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010002 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
For more than 20 years, the sidewalls and bottom of steel ladles have been lined with carbon-bonded magnesia (MgO-C) and magnesia-alumina bricks (MAC). The alumina raw materials react with magnesia forming a spinel, which decreases open porosity and slag infiltration. The amount, grain [...] Read more.
For more than 20 years, the sidewalls and bottom of steel ladles have been lined with carbon-bonded magnesia (MgO-C) and magnesia-alumina bricks (MAC). The alumina raw materials react with magnesia forming a spinel, which decreases open porosity and slag infiltration. The amount, grain size, and chemistry of the added spinel impact the properties of spinel-containing MgO-C. Corrosion tests have been performed in a steel casting simulator at 1580 °C using 18CrNiMo7-6 steel and Fe-rich slag as corrosion medium. Digital light microscopy and SEM/ EDS (scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy) were used to evaluate the corrosion mechanisms. The metal casting simulator test showed that the addition of CaO-MgO-Al2O3 aggregates results in the highest corrosion resistance against molten steel and synthetic basic slag compared to alumina-rich spinel aggregates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Properties, Damage and Lifetime of Refractory Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Aluminium and Boron Orthophosphate on the Setting and the Resulting Structure of Alkali Silicate Binders for Refractory Application
Ceramics 2020, 3(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/ceramics3010001 - 09 Jan 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Liquid alkali silicates (waterglasses) are used as chemical binders for a wide range of refractory applications, the setting of which can be initiated by the addition of phosphate hardeners. The duration of the setting process is of special interest for an economic lining [...] Read more.
Liquid alkali silicates (waterglasses) are used as chemical binders for a wide range of refractory applications, the setting of which can be initiated by the addition of phosphate hardeners. The duration of the setting process is of special interest for an economic lining with short aggregate downtimes. Therefore, in the present work, the influences of two different types of phosphate (aluminium orthophosphate and boron orthophosphate) on the hardening mechanisms of waterglasses are investigated. Time-dependent measurements by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) are carried out to observe the setting process. Structural information of the hardened amorphous samples is obtained by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. It is shown that the use of different phosphates leads to differences in the setting rate, caused by different modes of network formation. The resultant silicate networks incorporate the aluminium or boron species but differ in the connectivity of those units. In addition, the distribution following the well-known Qn notation of the silicate units is directly influenced by the phosphate type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Properties, Damage and Lifetime of Refractory Ceramics)
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