Optimization of the LS89 Axial Turbine Profile Using a CAD and Adjoint Based Approach †
Received: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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The LS89 high pressure axial turbine vane was originally designed and optimized for a downstream isentropic Mach number of 0.9. This profile has been widely used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation in the open literature but very few attempts have been made
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The LS89 high pressure axial turbine vane was originally designed and optimized for a downstream isentropic Mach number of 0.9. This profile has been widely used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation in the open literature but very few attempts have been made to improve the already optimized design. This paper presents a sound methodology to design and optimize the LS89 using computer-aided design (CAD) at design conditions. The novelty of the study resides in the parametrization of design space, which is done at the CAD level, and the detailed analysis of the aerodynamic performance of the optimized design. Higher level constraints are imposed on the shape, such as the trailing edge thickness, the axial chord length, and G2 geometric continuity between the suction side and pressure side at the leading edge. The gradients used for the optimization are obtained by applying algorithmic differentiation to the CAD kernel and grid generator and the discrete adjoint method to the CFD solver. A reduction of almost 12% entropy generation is achieved, which is equivalent to a 16% total pressure loss reduction. The entropy generation is reduced while keeping the exit flow angle as a flow constraint, which is enforced via the penalty formulation. The resulting unconstrained optimization problem is solved by the L-BFGS-B algorithm. The flow is governed by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the one-equation transport Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The optimal profile is compared and benchmarked against the baseline case.