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Adaptive Time-Triggered Multi-Core Architecture

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Siegen, 57068 Siegen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
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The static resource allocation in time-triggered systems offers significant benefits for the safety arguments of dependable systems. However, adaptation is a key factor for energy efficiency and fault recovery in Cyber-Physical System (CPS). This paper introduces the Adaptive Time-Triggered Multi-Core Architecture (ATMA), which supports adaptation using multi-schedule graphs while preserving the key properties of time-triggered systems including implicit synchronization, temporal predictability and avoidance of resource conflicts. ATMA is an overall architecture for safety-critical CPS based on a network-on-a-chip with building blocks for context agreement and adaptation. Context information is established in a globally consistent manner, providing the foundation for the temporally aligned switching of schedules in the network interfaces. A meta-scheduling algorithm computes schedule graphs and avoids state explosion with reconvergence horizons for events. For each tile, the relevant part of the schedule graph is efficiently stored using difference encodings and interpreted by the adaptation logic. The architecture was evaluated using an FPGA-based implementation and example scenarios employing adaptation for improved energy efficiency. The evaluation demonstrated the benefits of adaptation while showing the overhead and the trade-off between the degree of adaptation and the memory consumption for multi-schedule graphs. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-triggered system; real-time; cyber-physical systems; adaptation; scheduling; multi-core time-triggered system; real-time; cyber-physical systems; adaptation; scheduling; multi-core

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Obermaisser, R.; Ahmadian, H.; Maleki, A.; Bebawy, Y.; Lenz, A.; Sorkhpour, B. Adaptive Time-Triggered Multi-Core Architecture. Designs 2019, 3, 7.

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