Next Issue
Volume 4, December
Previous Issue
Volume 4, June
 
 

Vision, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Due to the widespread impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection and how it relates to ocular transmission is needed. Taken together, the current available data support that SARS-CoV-2 may either directly infect cells on the ocular surface, or the virus can be carried through the nasolacrimal duct to infect the respiratory or gastrointestinal epithelium. Efforts to shield the ocular surface should be employed in conjunction with respiratory protection to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Erratum
Erratum: Longhi Bitencourt, E. et al. South American Values of the Optical Straylight Function. Vision 2020, 4, 2
Vision 2020, 4(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030042 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1288
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following erratum to this paper [...] Full article
Review
Effect of Intraocular Lens Tilt and Decentration on Visual Acuity, Dysphotopsia and Wavefront Aberrations
Vision 2020, 4(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030041 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3553
Abstract
Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses (IOL) may occur secondary to a complicated cataract surgery or following an uneventful phacoemulsification. Although up to 2–3° tilt and a 0.2–0.3 mm decentration are common and clinically unnoticed for any design of IOL, larger extent of [...] Read more.
Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses (IOL) may occur secondary to a complicated cataract surgery or following an uneventful phacoemulsification. Although up to 2–3° tilt and a 0.2–0.3 mm decentration are common and clinically unnoticed for any design of IOL, larger extent of tilt and decentration has a negative impact on the optical performance and subsequently, the patients’ satisfaction. This negative impact does not affect various types of IOLs equally. In this paper we review the methods of measuring IOL tilt and decentration and focus on the effect of IOL tilt and decentration on visual function, in particular visual acuity, dysphotopsia, and wavefront aberrations. Our review found that the methods to measure the IOL displacement have significantly evolved and the available studies have employed different methods in their measurement, while comparability of these methods is questionable. There has been no universal reference point and axis to measure the IOL displacement between different studies. A remarkably high variety and brands of IOLs are used in various studies and occasionally, opposite results are noticed when two different brands of a same design were compared against another IOL design in two studies. We conclude that <5° of inferotemporal tilt is common in both crystalline lenses and IOLs with a correlation between pre- and postoperative lens tilt. IOL tilt has been noticed more frequently with scleral fixated compared with in-the-bag IOLs. IOL decentration has a greater impact than tilt on reduction of visual acuity. There was no correlation between IOL tilt and decentration and dysphotopsia. The advantages of aspheric IOLs are lost when decentration is >0.5 mm. The effect of IOL displacement on visual function is more pronounced in aberration correcting IOLs compared to spherical and standard non-aberration correcting aspherical IOLs and in multifocal versus monofocal IOLs. Internal coma has been frequently associated with IOL tilt and decentration, and this increases with pupil size. There is no correlation between spherical aberration and IOL tilt or decentration. Although IOL tilt produces significant impact on visual outcome in toric IOLs, these lenses are more sensitive to rotation compared to tilt. Full article
Review
Potential of Ocular Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: A Review
Vision 2020, 4(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030040 - 01 Sep 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 4576
Abstract
Purpose of review: to provide a prospective on the current mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 enters cells and replicates, and its implications for ocular transmission. The literature was analyzed to understand ocular transmission as well as molecular mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 enters cells and [...] Read more.
Purpose of review: to provide a prospective on the current mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 enters cells and replicates, and its implications for ocular transmission. The literature was analyzed to understand ocular transmission as well as molecular mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 enters cells and replicates. Analysis of gene expression profiles from available datasets, published immunohistochemistry, as well as current literature was reviewed, to assess the likelihood that ocular inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 results in systemic infection. Recent findings: The ocular surface and retina have the necessary proteins, Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2), CD147, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Cathepsin L (CTSL) necessary to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. In addition to direct ocular infection, virus carried by tears through the nasolacrimal duct to nasal epithelium represent a means of ocular inoculation. Summary: There is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may either directly infect cells on the ocular surface, or virus can be carried by tears through the nasolacrimal duct to infect the nasal or gastrointestinal epithelium. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
EX-PRESS Glaucoma Filtration Device: Management of Complications
Vision 2020, 4(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030039 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
The EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration device appears to be an effective addition to our options to treat refractory glaucoma. The possibility to create a sclerostomy without tissue excision provides a safe and reliable outflow pathway for aqueous that is standard in size, reducing much [...] Read more.
The EX-PRESS glaucoma filtration device appears to be an effective addition to our options to treat refractory glaucoma. The possibility to create a sclerostomy without tissue excision provides a safe and reliable outflow pathway for aqueous that is standard in size, reducing much of the variability associated with a surgical procedure. Prospective randomized studies comparing EX-PRESS implantation with trabeculectomy show encouraging results. However, complications usually encountered in filtration surgery have been reported, and EX-PRESS implantation can also lead to specific device-related complications. This article reviews the most common complications associated with this procedure. Full article
Editorial
Imaging the Choroid
Vision 2020, 4(3), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030038 - 16 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1510
Abstract
The choroid is the most vascular tissue of the eye, sandwiched between sclera and retina, and responsible for blood supply of the outer retina [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging the Choroid)
Article
Foreground Scattering Elimination by Inverse Lock-in-Like Spatial Modulation
Vision 2020, 4(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030037 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
We describe a simple approach to enhance vision, which is impaired by close range obscuring and/or scattering structures. Such structures may be found on a dirty windscreen of a car, or by tree branches blocking the vision of objects behind. The main idea [...] Read more.
We describe a simple approach to enhance vision, which is impaired by close range obscuring and/or scattering structures. Such structures may be found on a dirty windscreen of a car, or by tree branches blocking the vision of objects behind. The main idea is to spatially modulate the obscuration, either by periodically moving the detector/eye or by letting the obscuration modulate itself, such as branches swinging in the wind. The approach has similarities to electronic lock-in techniques, where the feature of interest is modulated to enable it to be isolated from the strong perturbing background, but now, we modulate the background instead to isolate the static feature of interest. Thus, the approach can be denoted as “inverse lock-in-like spatial modulation”. We also apply a new digital imaging processing technique based on a combination of the Interframe Difference and Gaussian Mixture models for digital separation between the objects of interest and the background, and make connections to the Gestalt vision psychology field. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Intraocular Pressure Rise Linked to Silicone Oil in Retinal Surgery: A Review
Vision 2020, 4(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030036 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2399
Abstract
Silicone oil represents the main choice for intraocular tamponade in cases of complicated retinal detachment surgery. The intraocular pressure of an eye filled with silicone oil could increase, driven by a variety of different forces, according to several mechanisms. Two main conditions have [...] Read more.
Silicone oil represents the main choice for intraocular tamponade in cases of complicated retinal detachment surgery. The intraocular pressure of an eye filled with silicone oil could increase, driven by a variety of different forces, according to several mechanisms. Two main conditions have been highlighted, depending on the onset: early hypertension or late glaucoma. The different types of silicone oils and their physico-chemical properties are varied and may play a role in the determination of intraocular pressure rise. The current body of literature allows for the illustration and categorization of the incidence and risk factors, as well as the pathogenesis and the management of the early postoperative hypertension subtended by an open- and closed-angle, along with the late onset silicone oil-induced glaucoma. Understanding the leading actors on the stage of ocular pressure elevation concurrently with silicone oil application for retinal surgery could help in guiding the timely and appropriate course of treatment. Full article
Article
Expert Event Segmentation of Dance Is Genre-Specific and Primes Verbal Memory
Vision 2020, 4(3), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030035 - 10 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
By chunking continuous streams of action into ordered, discrete, and meaningful units, event segmentation facilitates motor learning. While expertise in the observed repertoire reduces the frequency of event borders, generalization of this effect to unfamiliar genres of dance and among other sensorimotor experts [...] Read more.
By chunking continuous streams of action into ordered, discrete, and meaningful units, event segmentation facilitates motor learning. While expertise in the observed repertoire reduces the frequency of event borders, generalization of this effect to unfamiliar genres of dance and among other sensorimotor experts (musicians, athletes) remains unknown, and was the first aim of this study. Due to significant overlap in visuomotor, language, and memory processing brain networks, the second aim of this study was to investigate whether visually priming expert motor schemas improves memory for words related to one’s expertise. A total of 112 participants in six groups (ballet, Bharatanatyam, and “other” dancers, athletes, musicians, and non-experts) segmented a ballet dance, a Bharatanatyam dance, and a non-dance control sequence. To test verbal memory, participants performed a retrieval-induced forgetting task between segmentation blocks. Dance, instrument, and sport word categories were included to probe the second study aim. Results of the event segmentation paradigm clarify that previously-established expert segmentation effects are specific to familiar genres of dance, and do not transfer between different types of experts or to non-dance sequences. Greater recall of dance category words among ballet and Bharatanatyam dancers provides novel evidence for improved verbal memory primed by activating familiar sensorimotor representations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Attention Distribution While Detecting Conflicts between Converging Objects: An Eye-Tracking Study
Vision 2020, 4(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030034 - 22 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
In many domains, including air traffic control, observers have to detect conflicts between moving objects. However, it is unclear what the effect of conflict angle is on observers’ conflict detection performance. In addition, it has been speculated that observers use specific viewing techniques [...] Read more.
In many domains, including air traffic control, observers have to detect conflicts between moving objects. However, it is unclear what the effect of conflict angle is on observers’ conflict detection performance. In addition, it has been speculated that observers use specific viewing techniques while performing a conflict detection task, but evidence for this is lacking. In this study, participants (N = 35) observed two converging objects while their eyes were recorded. They were tasked to continuously indicate whether a conflict between the two objects was present. Independent variables were conflict angle (30, 100, 150 deg), update rate (discrete, continuous), and conflict occurrence. Results showed that 30 deg conflict angles yielded the best performance, and 100 deg conflict angles the worst. For 30 deg conflict angles, participants applied smooth pursuit while attending to the objects. In comparison, for 100 and especially 150 deg conflict angles, participants showed a high fixation rate and glances towards the conflict point. Finally, the continuous update rate was found to yield shorter fixation durations and better performance than the discrete update rate. In conclusion, shallow conflict angles yield the best performance, an effect that can be explained using basic perceptual heuristics, such as the ‘closer is first’ strategy. Displays should provide continuous rather than discrete update rates. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Three-Dimensional Motion Perception: Comparing Speed and Speed Change Discrimination for Looming Stimuli
Vision 2020, 4(3), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/vision4030033 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
Judging the speed of objects moving in three dimensions is important in our everyday lives because we interact with objects in a three-dimensional world. However, speed perception has been seldom studied for motion in depth, particularly when using monocular cues such as looming. [...] Read more.
Judging the speed of objects moving in three dimensions is important in our everyday lives because we interact with objects in a three-dimensional world. However, speed perception has been seldom studied for motion in depth, particularly when using monocular cues such as looming. Here, we compared speed discrimination, and speed change discrimination, for looming stimuli, in order to better understand what visual information is used for these tasks. For the speed discrimination task, we manipulated the distance and duration information available, in order to investigate if participants were specifically using speed information. For speed change discrimination, total distance and duration were held constant; hence, they could not be used to successfully perform that task. For the speed change discrimination task, our data were consistent with observers not responding specifically to speed changes within an interval. Instead, they may have used alternative, arguably less optimal, strategies to complete the task. Evidence suggested that participants used a variety of cues to complete the speed discrimination task, not always solely relying on speed. Further, our data suggested that participants may have switched between cues on a trial to trial basis. We conclude that speed changes in looming stimuli were not used in a speed change discrimination task, and that naïve participants may not always exclusively use speed for speed discrimination. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop