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Open AccessArticle

Spontaneous Perspective Taking in Humans?

Centre for Brain Science, University of Essex, Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK
Department of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QJ, UK
Department of Psychology, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3HP, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandro Soranzo, Wilson Christopher and Marco Bertamini
Vision 2017, 1(2), 17;
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reflexive Shifts in Visual Attention)
A number of social cognition studies posit that humans spontaneously compute the viewpoint of other individuals. This is based on experiments showing that responses are shorter when a human agent, located in a visual display, can see the stimuli relevant to the observer’s task. Similarly, responses are slower when the agent cannot see the task-relevant stimuli. We tested the spontaneous perspective taking theory by incorporating it within two classic visual cognition paradigms (i.e., the flanker effect and the Simon effect), as well as reassessing its role in the gaze cueing effect. Results showed that these phenomena (e.g., the Simon effect) are not modulated according to whether a gazing agent can see the critical stimuli or not. We also examined the claim that previous results attributed to spontaneous perspective taking are due to the gazing agent’s ability to shift attention laterally. Results found no evidence of this. Overall, these data challenge both the spontaneous perspective taking theory, as well as the attentional shift hypothesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: perspective taking; vision; theory of mind; social attention perspective taking; vision; theory of mind; social attention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cole, G.G.; Atkinson, M.A.; D’Souza, A.D.C.; Smith, D.T. Spontaneous Perspective Taking in Humans? Vision 2017, 1, 17.

AMA Style

Cole GG, Atkinson MA, D’Souza ADC, Smith DT. Spontaneous Perspective Taking in Humans? Vision. 2017; 1(2):17.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cole, Geoff G.; Atkinson, Mark A.; D’Souza, Antonia D.C.; Smith, Daniel T. 2017. "Spontaneous Perspective Taking in Humans?" Vision 1, no. 2: 17.

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