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Inventions, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Potential of Iridoid Derivatives: Patent Review
Inventions 2019, 4(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions4020029 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 9 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Iridoids belong to a family of monoterpenoids comprising the cyclopentan[c]-pyran system; this class of compounds offers a wide range of biological effects, namely antileishmanial, anticancer, antiplasmodial, and anti-inflammatory potency. To date, a large number of biologically active iridoid derivatives have been [...] Read more.
Iridoids belong to a family of monoterpenoids comprising the cyclopentan[c]-pyran system; this class of compounds offers a wide range of biological effects, namely antileishmanial, anticancer, antiplasmodial, and anti-inflammatory potency. To date, a large number of biologically active iridoid derivatives have been reported from various plant families, including Rubiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Verbenaceae. Furthermore, iridoids have the potential to form conjugates with other anticancer, antidiabetic, antileishmanial, and antimalarial drugs which synergistically have the potential to increase their effects. Additionally, future research should focus on the synthesis of halo analogs as well as preparing homo dimers or heterodimers of iridoids, since these might quite conceivably possess an increased bioactivity. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Thermodynamics of Manufacturing Processes—The Workpiece and the Machinery
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Considered the world’s largest industry, manufacturing transforms billions of raw materials into useful products. Like all real processes and systems, manufacturing processes and equipment are subject to the first and second laws of thermodynamics and can be modeled via thermodynamic formulations. This article [...] Read more.
Considered the world’s largest industry, manufacturing transforms billions of raw materials into useful products. Like all real processes and systems, manufacturing processes and equipment are subject to the first and second laws of thermodynamics and can be modeled via thermodynamic formulations. This article presents a simple thermodynamic model of a manufacturing sub-process or task, assuming multiple tasks make up the entire process. For example, to manufacture a machined component such as an aluminum gear, tasks include cutting the original shaft into gear blanks of desired dimensions, machining the gear teeth, surfacing, etc. The formulations presented here, assessing the workpiece and the machinery via entropy generation, apply to hand-crafting. However, consistent isolation and measurement of human energy changes due to food intake and work output alone pose a significant challenge; hence, this discussion focuses on standardized product-forming processes typically via machine fabrication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics in the 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle
Control of Distributed Generators and Direct Harmonic Voltage Controlled Active Power Filters for Accurate Current Sharing and Power Quality Improvement in Islanded Microgrids
Received: 15 April 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 15 May 2019
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Abstract
Harmonics are regarded as one of the main challenges in a microgrid. This issue may even get worse when different distributed generators (DGs) work together to solve the load sharing problems due to mismatched feeder impedances and diversified DG ratings. Even though load [...] Read more.
Harmonics are regarded as one of the main challenges in a microgrid. This issue may even get worse when different distributed generators (DGs) work together to solve the load sharing problems due to mismatched feeder impedances and diversified DG ratings. Even though load sharing can be achieved, the microgrid suffers from voltage unbalance and total harmonic distortion (THD) issues at the output of DG terminals as well as at the point of common coupling (PCC). Thus, in this paper, the power quality improving method is discussed, with a target of load sharing under the hierarchical control of different DG units and an active power filter (APF) in microgrids. To achieve this objective, we propose integrating a direct harmonic voltage controlled APF with DGs to improve their harmonic compensation performance. This proposed control scheme has many advantages over conventional control using a shunt resistive active power filter (R-APF) with voltage controlled DGs. First, based on the existing THD level of the PCC voltage, the proposed scheme provides improved voltage compensation and reduction in THD in the islanded microgrid. Secondly, equal load sharing can be achieved simultaneously. Thus, the proposed scheme provides better performance and a seamless interface as the proposed study mainly contains both the voltage controlled DGs and the local based voltage detection APF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of a Smart Bartender with Peristaltic Pumps
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 17 April 2019 / Accepted: 29 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, the development of a smart scalable system for liquid supply based on high-precision peristaltic pumps is described. The architecture of software and hardware for the proposed system is considered. This liquid supply system can be used for mixed and layered [...] Read more.
In this paper, the development of a smart scalable system for liquid supply based on high-precision peristaltic pumps is described. The architecture of software and hardware for the proposed system is considered. This liquid supply system can be used for mixed and layered cocktail preparation in public catering establishments, such as bars, as well as for home use. Due to the flexibility and scalability of the system, it is possible to apply it in various branches of human activity, where fine dosing of liquids is required, e.g., for beverage mixing, cooking, health and medical applications. By using open architecture and software, this system can be built in a smart home environment. The cross-platform control software and an embedded Bluetooth module allow using the developed setup in various use case scenarios. The result of the project is a DIY-kit, capable of mixing 6 to 32 different liquids in specified proportions and the programmable sequence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Inventions and innovation in Advanced Manufacturing)
Open AccessArticle
Smart Integration of a DC Microgrid: Enhancing the Power Quality Management of the Neighborhood Low-Voltage Distribution Network
Received: 25 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
The fast development of the residential sector regarding the additional integration of renewable distributed energy sources and the modern expansion usage of essential DC electrical equipment may cause severe power quality problems. For example, the integration of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) may cause unbalance, [...] Read more.
The fast development of the residential sector regarding the additional integration of renewable distributed energy sources and the modern expansion usage of essential DC electrical equipment may cause severe power quality problems. For example, the integration of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) may cause unbalance, and voltage fluctuation, which can add constraints for further PV integrations to the network, and the deployment of DC native loads with their nonlinear behavior adds harmonics to the network. This paper demonstrates the smart integration of a DC microgrid to the neighborhood low-voltage distribution network (NLVDN). The DC microgrid is connected to the NLVDN through a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI), in which the VSI works as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM). Unlike previous STATCOM work in the literature, the proposed controller of the VSI of the DC smart building allows for many functions: (a) it enables bidirectional active/reactive power flow between the DC building and the AC grid at point of common coupling (PCC); (b) it compensates for the legacy unbalance in the distribution network, providing harmonics elimination and power factor correction capability at PCC; and (c) it provides voltage support at PCC. The proposed controller was validated by Matlab/Simulink and by experimental implementation at the lab. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Noisy and Marvelous Molecular World of Biology
Received: 20 February 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
At the molecular level biology is intrinsically noisy. The forces that regulate the myriad of molecular reactions in the cell are tiny, on the order of piconewtons (10−12 Newtons), yet they proceed in concerted action making life possible. Understanding how this is [...] Read more.
At the molecular level biology is intrinsically noisy. The forces that regulate the myriad of molecular reactions in the cell are tiny, on the order of piconewtons (10−12 Newtons), yet they proceed in concerted action making life possible. Understanding how this is possible is one of the most fundamental questions biophysicists would like to understand. Single molecule experiments offer an opportunity to delve into the fundamental laws that make biological complexity surface in a physical world governed by the second law of thermodynamics. Techniques such as force spectroscopy, fluorescence, microfluidics, molecular sequencing, and computational studies project a view of the biomolecular world ruled by the conspiracy between the disorganizing forces due to thermal motion and the cosmic evolutionary drive. Here we will digress on some of the evidences in support of this view and the role of physical information in biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics in the 21st Century)
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Open AccessArticle
A Thermodynamic Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation: Application of the Degradation-Entropy Generation Theorem
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
Presented is a lithium-ion battery degradation model, based on irreversible thermodynamics, which was experimentally verified, using commonly measured operational parameters. The methodology, applicable to all lithium-ion batteries of all chemistries and composition, combined fundamental thermodynamic principles, with the Degradation–Entropy Generation theorem, to relate [...] Read more.
Presented is a lithium-ion battery degradation model, based on irreversible thermodynamics, which was experimentally verified, using commonly measured operational parameters. The methodology, applicable to all lithium-ion batteries of all chemistries and composition, combined fundamental thermodynamic principles, with the Degradation–Entropy Generation theorem, to relate instantaneous capacity fade (loss of useful charge-holding capacity) in the lithium-ion battery, to the irreversible entropy generated via the underlying dissipative physical processes responsible for battery degradation. Equations relating capacity fade—aging—to battery cycling were also formulated and verified. To show the robustness of the approach, nonlinear data from abusive and inconsistent battery cycling was measured and used to verify formulations. A near 100% agreement between the thermodynamic battery model and measurements was achieved. The model also gave rise to new material and design parameters to characterize all lithium-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermodynamics in the 21st Century)
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Inventions EISSN 2411-5134 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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