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Instruments, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Development of New Target Stations for the South African Isotope Facility
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040029
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
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Abstract
The development of new target stations for radioisotope production based on a dedicated 70 MeV commercial cyclotron (for protons) is described. Currently known as the South African Isotope Facility (SAIF), this initiative will free the existing separated-sector cyclotron (SSC) at iThemba LABS (near [...] Read more.
The development of new target stations for radioisotope production based on a dedicated 70 MeV commercial cyclotron (for protons) is described. Currently known as the South African Isotope Facility (SAIF), this initiative will free the existing separated-sector cyclotron (SSC) at iThemba LABS (near Cape Town) to mainly pursue research activities in nuclear physics and radiobiology. It is foreseen that the completed SAIF facility will realize a three-fold increase in radioisotope production capacity compared to the current programme based on the SSC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instruments and Methods for Cyclotron Produced Radioisotopes)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Novel Setup for LEDs Lifetime Estimation on Molded Interconnect Devices
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040028
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 28 November 2018 / Accepted: 30 November 2018 / Published: 4 December 2018
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Abstract
Higher energy efficiency, more compact design, and longer lifetime of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have resulted in increasing their market share in the lighting industry, especially in the industries of consumer electronics, automotive, and general lighting. Due to their robustness and reliability, LEDs have [...] Read more.
Higher energy efficiency, more compact design, and longer lifetime of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have resulted in increasing their market share in the lighting industry, especially in the industries of consumer electronics, automotive, and general lighting. Due to their robustness and reliability, LEDs have replaced conventional light sources, such as fluorescent lamps. Many studies are examining the reliability of LEDs as such or investigating their long-term behavior on standard printed circuit boards (PCB). However, the thermal performance of LEDs mounted on nonconventional substrates is still not explored enough. An interesting example for this is the molded interconnect devices (MID), which are well known for the great design freedom and the great potential for functional integration. These characteristics not only underline the main abilities of the MID technology, but also present some challenges concerning thermal management. The long-term behavior of LEDs on MID is still quite untapped and this prevents this technology from consolidating its existence. In this context, this work highlights a developed test setup aimed at investigating LEDs, mounted on molded interconnect devices, under combined stress conditions. The results of the reliability study, as well as the resulting lifetime model, are also illustrated and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Longitudinal Tension and Mechanical Stability of a Pressurized Straw Tube
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040027
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 21 November 2018 / Published: 22 November 2018
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Abstract
For the development of charged particle detectors based on straw tubes operating in vacuum, a special measurement technique is required for the evaluation of their mechanical properties. A summary of the known equations that govern straw behavior under internal pressure is provided, and [...] Read more.
For the development of charged particle detectors based on straw tubes operating in vacuum, a special measurement technique is required for the evaluation of their mechanical properties. A summary of the known equations that govern straw behavior under internal pressure is provided, and a new experimental method of a strained pressurized straw tube study is presented in this paper. The Poisson’s ratio of the straw wall, which defines the stability conditions of a built-in tube, was measured for the NA62 spectrometer straw, and its minimum pre-tension was estimated. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Feasibility Study of a Proton Irradiation Facility for Radiobiological Measurements at an 18 MeV Cyclotron
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040026
Received: 30 September 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
A feasibility study of an experimental setup for the irradiation of biological samples at the cyclotron facility installed at the National Centre of Accelerators (Seville, Spain) is presented. This cyclotron, which counts on an external beam line for interdisciplinary research purposes, produces an [...] Read more.
A feasibility study of an experimental setup for the irradiation of biological samples at the cyclotron facility installed at the National Centre of Accelerators (Seville, Spain) is presented. This cyclotron, which counts on an external beam line for interdisciplinary research purposes, produces an 18 MeV proton beam, which is suitable for the irradiation of mono-layer cultures for the measurement of proton cell damages and Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) at energies below the beam nominal value. Measurements of this kind are of interest for proton therapy, since the variation of proton RBE at the distal edge of the Bragg curve may have implications in clinical proton therapy treatments. In the following, the characteristics of the beam line and the solutions implemented for the irradiation of biological samples are described. When dealing with the irradiation of cell cultures, low beam intensities and broad homogeneous irradiation fields are required, in order to assure that all the cells receive the same dose with a suitable dose rate. At the cyclotron, these constraints have been achieved by completely defocusing the beam, intercepting the beam path with tungsten scattering foils and varying the exit-window-to-sample distance. The properties of the proton beam thus obtained have been analysed and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The results of this comparison, as well as the experimental measurement of the lateral dose profiles expected at the position of samples are presented. Meaningful dose rates of about 2–3 Gy/min have been obtained. Homogeneous lateral dose profiles, with maximum deviations of 5%, have been measured at a distance of approximately 50 cm in air from the exit window, placing a tungsten scattering foil of 200 μm in the beam path. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics for Beam and Patient Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Correction of Geometrical Effects of a Knife-Edge Slit Camera for Prompt Gamma-Based Range Verification in Proton Therapy
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040025
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract
Prompt gamma (PG) based range verification can potentially reduce the safety margins in proton therapy. A knife-edge slit camera has been developed in this context using analytical PG simulations as reference for absolute range verification during patient treatment. Geometrical deviations between measurement and [...] Read more.
Prompt gamma (PG) based range verification can potentially reduce the safety margins in proton therapy. A knife-edge slit camera has been developed in this context using analytical PG simulations as reference for absolute range verification during patient treatment. Geometrical deviations between measurement and simulation could be observed and have to be corrected for in order to improve the range retrieval of the system. A geometrical correction model is derived from Monte Carlo simulations in water. The influence of different parameters is tested and the model is validated in a dedicated benchmark experiment. We found that the geometrical correction improves the agreement between measured and simulated PG profiles resulting in an improved range retrieval and higher accuracy for absolute range verification. An intrinsic offset of 1.4 mm between measurement and simulation is observed in the experimental data and corrected in the PG simulation. In summary, the absolute range verification capabilities of a PG camera have been improved by applying a geometrical correction model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics for Beam and Patient Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Dielectric-Filled Reentrant Cavity Resonator as a Low-Intensity Proton Beam Diagnostic
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040024
Received: 23 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Measurement of the proton beam current (0.1–40 nA) at the medical treatment facility PROSCAN at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is performed with ionization chambers. To mitigate the scattering issues and to preserve the quality of the beam delivered to the patients, a [...] Read more.
Measurement of the proton beam current (0.1–40 nA) at the medical treatment facility PROSCAN at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is performed with ionization chambers. To mitigate the scattering issues and to preserve the quality of the beam delivered to the patients, a non-interceptive monitor based on the principle of a reentrant cavity resonator has been built. The resonator with a fundamental resonance frequency of 145.7 MHz was matched to the second harmonic of the pulse repetition rate (72.85 MHz) of the beam extracted from the cyclotron. This was realized with the help of ANSYS HFSS (High Frequency Structural Simulator) for network analysis. Both, the pickup position and dielectric thickness were optimized. The prototype was characterized with a stand-alone test bench. There is good agreement between the simulated and measured parameters. The observed deviation in the resonance frequency is attributed to the frequency dependent dielectric loss tangent. Hence, the dielectric had to be resized to tune the resonator to the design resonance frequency. The measured sensitivity performances were in agreement with the expectations. We conclude that the dielectric reentrant cavity resonator is a promising candidate for measuring low proton beam currents in a non-destructive manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostics for Beam and Patient Monitoring)
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Open AccessArticle Instrumentation for Simultaneous Non-Destructive Profiling of Refractive Index and Rare-Earth-Ion Distributions in Optical Fiber Preforms
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040023
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
We present a non-destructive technique for a combined evaluation of refractive index and active-dopant distribution in the same position along a rare-earth-doped optical fiber preform. The method relies on luminescence measurements, analyzed through an optical tomography technique, to define the active dopant distribution [...] Read more.
We present a non-destructive technique for a combined evaluation of refractive index and active-dopant distribution in the same position along a rare-earth-doped optical fiber preform. The method relies on luminescence measurements, analyzed through an optical tomography technique, to define the active dopant distribution and ray-deflection measurements to calculate the refractive index profile. The concurrent evaluation of both the preform refractive index and the active dopant profiles allows for an accurate establishment of the dopant distribution within the optical core region. This combined information is important for the optimization and development of a range of advanced fibers, used, for example, in a high-power fiber lasers and modern spatial-division-multiplexing optical communication systems. In addition, the non-destructive nature allows the technique to be used to identify the most appropriate preform segment, thus increasing fiber yield and reducing development cycles. We demonstrate the technique on an Yb3+-doped aluminosilicate fiber preform and compare it with independent refractive index and active-dopant measurements. This technique will be useful for quality evaluation and optimization of optical fiber preforms and lends itself to advanced instrumentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Devices Instrumentation and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Optimizing Momentum Resolution with a New Fitting Method for Silicon-Strip Detectors
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040022
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Two new fitting methods are explored for momentum reconstruction. They give a substantial increase of momentum resolution compared to standard fit. The key point is the use of a different (realistic) probability distribution for each hit (heteroscedasticity). In the first fitting method an [...] Read more.
Two new fitting methods are explored for momentum reconstruction. They give a substantial increase of momentum resolution compared to standard fit. The key point is the use of a different (realistic) probability distribution for each hit (heteroscedasticity). In the first fitting method an effective variance is calculated for each hit, the second method uses the search of the maximum likelihood. The tracker model is similar to the PAMELA tracker with its two sided detectors. Here, each side is simulated as a momentum reconstruction device. One of the two is similar to silicon micro-strip detectors of large use in running experiments. The gain obtained in momentum resolution is measured as the virtual magnetic field and the virtual signal-to-noise ratio required by the standard fits to overlap with the best of the new methods. For the low noise side, the virtual magnetic field must be increased 1.5 times to reach the overlap and 1.8 for the other. For the high noise side, the increases must be 1.8 and 2.0. The signal-to-noise ratio has to be increased by 1.6 for the low noise side and 2.2 for the high noise side ( η -algorithms). Each one of our two methods shows a very rapid linear increase of the resolution with the number N of detector layers, the two standard fits have the usual slow growth less than N . Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Timing System of the TOTEM Experiment
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040021
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
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Abstract
The new proton timing stations of the Totem experiment are based on UltraFast Silicon Detectors installed in Roman Pots at 220 m from the interaction point 5 at LHC. The sensors have shown in beam test a timing resolution in the range 30–100 [...] Read more.
The new proton timing stations of the Totem experiment are based on UltraFast Silicon Detectors installed in Roman Pots at 220 m from the interaction point 5 at LHC. The sensors have shown in beam test a timing resolution in the range 30–100 ps, depending on the pixel size. The readout is performed through a fast sampler chip: the SAMPIC. The best timing resolution can indeed be obtained only by recording the full waveform of the detector signal. The challenges to integrate the chip and the detector in the Totem-CMS DAQ and control systems will be discussed, together with the solutions adopted. The system has been successfully operated in LHC during some commissioning runs and during the special run in July 2018. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beam-Background Tests with TOTEM Roman Pot Detectors at the LHC Injection Energy
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040020
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
With the aim of measuring the total cross-section and the ρ parameter, TOTEM has performed tests of beam conditions at the LHC injection energy of s=900 GeV. The tests have revealed complications in setting up the LHC collimators to [...] Read more.
With the aim of measuring the total cross-section and the ρ parameter, TOTEM has performed tests of beam conditions at the LHC injection energy of s = 900   GeV . The tests have revealed complications in setting up the LHC collimators to minimise the background observed in the Roman Pot (RP) detectors, summarised in this article. In two tests a subset of the RPs was exposed to background compatible with the physics requirements. If no improvement of the collimation strategy is found, it is shown that a small retraction of the RPs can significantly reduce the observed background level. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quenching Circuit and SPAD Integrated in CMOS 65 nm with 7.8 ps FWHM Single Photon Timing Resolution
Instruments 2018, 2(4), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/instruments2040019
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 September 2018 / Published: 22 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a new quenching circuit (QC) and single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) implemented in TSMC CMOS 65 nm technology. The QC was optimized for single photon timing resolution (SPTR) with a view to an implementation in a 3D digital SiPM. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new quenching circuit (QC) and single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) implemented in TSMC CMOS 65 nm technology. The QC was optimized for single photon timing resolution (SPTR) with a view to an implementation in a 3D digital SiPM. The presented QC has a timing jitter of 4 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the SPAD and QC has a 7.8 ps FWHM SPTR. The QC adjustable threshold allows timing resolution optimization as well as SPAD excess voltage and rise time characterization. The adjustable threshold, hold-off and recharge are essential to optimize the performances of each SPAD. This paper also provides a better understanding of the different contributions to the SPTR. A study of the contribution of the SPAD excess voltage variation combined to the QC time propagation delay variation is presented. The proposed SPAD and QC eliminates the SPAD excess voltage contribution to the SPTR for excess voltage higher than 1 V due to its fixed time propagation delay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Particle Detectors and Electronics for Fast Timing)
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