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Open AccessTechnical Note
Methods Protoc. 2019, 2(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/mps2010007

A Software Architecture to Mimic a Ventricular Tachycardia in Intact Murine Hearts by Means of an All-Optical Platform

1
European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
2
Division of Physiology, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, 50134 Florence, Italy
3
National Institute of Optics, National Research Council, 50125 Florence, Italy
4
Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract

Optogenetics is an emerging method that uses light to manipulate electrical activity in excitable cells exploiting the interaction between light and light-sensitive depolarizing ion channels, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Initially used in the neuroscience, it has been adopted in cardiac research where the expression of ChR2 in cardiac preparations allows optical pacing, resynchronization and defibrillation. Recently, optogenetics has been leveraged to manipulate cardiac electrical activity in the intact heart in real-time. This new approach was applied to simulate a re-entrant circuit across the ventricle. In this technical note, we describe the development and the implementation of a new software package for real-time optogenetic intervention. The package consists of a single LabVIEW program that simultaneously captures images at very high frame rates and delivers precisely timed optogenetic stimuli based on the content of the images. The software implementation guarantees closed-loop optical manipulation at high temporal resolution by processing the raw data in workstation memory. We demonstrate that this strategy allows the simulation of a ventricular tachycardia with high stability and with a negligible loss of data with a temporal resolution of up to 1 ms. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical mapping; voltage imaging; voltage sensitive dye; optical manipulation; optogenetics; channelrhodopsin-2; cardiac electrophysiology; LabVIEW; closed-loop; real-time analysis optical mapping; voltage imaging; voltage sensitive dye; optical manipulation; optogenetics; channelrhodopsin-2; cardiac electrophysiology; LabVIEW; closed-loop; real-time analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Giardini, F.; Biasci, V.; Scardigli, M.; Pavone, F.S.; Bub, G.; Sacconi, L. A Software Architecture to Mimic a Ventricular Tachycardia in Intact Murine Hearts by Means of an All-Optical Platform. Methods Protoc. 2019, 2, 7.

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