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Volume 5, September

Non-Coding RNA, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) has emerged as a prominent mechanism governing the assembly of membraneless compartments in the nucleus. However, recent work reveals that some nuclear structures violate key predictions of LLPS. New experimental strategies, such as concentration dependence and diffusion dynamics, are necessary to distinguish LLPS from alternative mechanisms such as binding or bridging of nucleic acid scaffolds. The application of more rigorous criteria will enable us to identify the mechanism(s) that drive spatiotemporal organization of the nucleus and facilitate functional diversity among nuclear compartments. View this paper.
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Understanding Long Noncoding RNA and Chromatin Interactions: What We Know So Far
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5040054 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1951
Abstract
With the evolution of technologies that deal with global detection of RNAs to probing of lncRNA-chromatin interactions and lncRNA-chromatin structure regulation, we have been updated with a comprehensive repertoire of chromatin interacting lncRNAs, their genome-wide chromatin binding regions and mode of action. Evidence [...] Read more.
With the evolution of technologies that deal with global detection of RNAs to probing of lncRNA-chromatin interactions and lncRNA-chromatin structure regulation, we have been updated with a comprehensive repertoire of chromatin interacting lncRNAs, their genome-wide chromatin binding regions and mode of action. Evidence from these new technologies emphasize that chromatin targeting of lncRNAs is a prominent mechanism and that these chromatin targeted lncRNAs exert their functionality by fine tuning chromatin architecture resulting in an altered transcriptional readout. Currently, there are no unifying principles that define chromatin association of lncRNAs, however, evidence from a few chromatin-associated lncRNAs show presence of a short common sequence for chromatin targeting. In this article, we review how technological advancements contributed in characterizing chromatin associated lncRNAs, and discuss the potential mechanisms by which chromatin associated lncRNAs execute their functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Intracellular Structures)
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Open AccessReview
MiR-205 Dysregulations in Breast Cancer: The Complexity and Opportunities
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5040053 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that downregulate target gene expression by imperfect base-pairing with the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of target gene mRNAs. MiRNAs play important roles in regulating cancer cell proliferation, stemness maintenance, tumorigenesis, cancer metastasis, and cancer therapeutic resistance. [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding small RNAs that downregulate target gene expression by imperfect base-pairing with the 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of target gene mRNAs. MiRNAs play important roles in regulating cancer cell proliferation, stemness maintenance, tumorigenesis, cancer metastasis, and cancer therapeutic resistance. While studies have shown that dysregulation of miRNA-205-5p (miR-205) expression is controversial in different types of human cancers, it is generally observed that miR-205-5p expression level is downregulated in breast cancer and that miR-205-5p exhibits a tumor suppressive function in breast cancer. This review focuses on the role of miR-205-5p dysregulation in different subtypes of breast cancer, with discussions on the effects of miR-205-5p on breast cancer cell proliferation, epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, stemness and therapy-resistance, as well as genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate miR-205-5p expression in breast cancer. In addition, the potential diagnostic and therapeutic value of miR-205-5p in breast cancer is also discussed. A comprehensive list of validated miR-205-5p direct targets is presented. It is concluded that miR-205-5p is an important tumor suppressive miRNA capable of inhibiting the growth and metastasis of human breast cancer, especially triple negative breast cancer. MiR-205-5p might be both a potential diagnostic biomarker and a therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNAs as Therapeutic Targets)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Assembly and Function of Gonad-Specific Non-Membranous Organelles in Drosophila piRNA Biogenesis
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5040052 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2036
Abstract
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that repress transposons in animal germlines. This protects the genome from the invasive DNA elements. piRNA pathway failures lead to DNA damage, gonadal development defects, and infertility. Thus, the piRNA pathway is indispensable for the continuation [...] Read more.
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that repress transposons in animal germlines. This protects the genome from the invasive DNA elements. piRNA pathway failures lead to DNA damage, gonadal development defects, and infertility. Thus, the piRNA pathway is indispensable for the continuation of animal life. piRNA-mediated transposon silencing occurs in both the nucleus and cytoplasm while piRNA biogenesis is a solely cytoplasmic event. piRNA production requires a number of proteins, the majority of which localize to non-membranous organelles that specifically appear in the gonads. Other piRNA factors are localized on outer mitochondrial membranes. In situ RNA hybridization experiments show that piRNA precursors are compartmentalized into other non-membranous organelles. In this review, we summarize recent findings about the function of these organelles in the Drosophila piRNA pathway by focusing on their assembly and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Intracellular Structures)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Small RNA Species and microRNA Profiles are Altered in Severe Asthma Nanovesicles from Broncho Alveolar Lavage and Associate with Impaired Lung Function and Inflammation
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5040051 - 02 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
MicroRNAs are known to regulate important pathways in asthma pathology including the IL-6 and IFN pathways. MicroRNAs have been found not only within cells but also within extracellular vesicles such as exosomes. In this study, we particularly focused on microRNA cargo of nanovesicles [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs are known to regulate important pathways in asthma pathology including the IL-6 and IFN pathways. MicroRNAs have been found not only within cells but also within extracellular vesicles such as exosomes. In this study, we particularly focused on microRNA cargo of nanovesicles in bronchoalveolar lavage of severe asthmatic patients. We extracted nanovesicle RNA using a serial filtration method. RNA content was analyzed with small RNA sequencing and mapped to pathways affected using WebGestalt 2017 Software. We report that severe asthma patients have deficient loading of microRNAs into their airway luminal nanovesicles and an altered profile of small RNA nanovesicle content (i.e., ribosomal RNA and broken transcripts, etc.). This decrease in microRNA cargo is predicted to increase the expression of genes by promoting inflammation and remodeling. Consistently, a network of microRNAs was associated with decreased FEV1 and increased eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in severe asthma. MicroRNAs in airway nanovesicles may, thus, be valid biomarkers to define abnormal biological disease processes in severe asthma and monitor the impact of interventional therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and the Immune System)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Evidence for and against Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in the Nucleus
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5040050 - 01 Nov 2019
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4111
Abstract
Enclosed by two membranes, the nucleus itself is comprised of various membraneless compartments, including nuclear bodies and chromatin domains. These compartments play an important though still poorly understood role in gene regulation. Significant progress has been made in characterizing the dynamic behavior of [...] Read more.
Enclosed by two membranes, the nucleus itself is comprised of various membraneless compartments, including nuclear bodies and chromatin domains. These compartments play an important though still poorly understood role in gene regulation. Significant progress has been made in characterizing the dynamic behavior of nuclear compartments and liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has emerged as a prominent mechanism governing their assembly. However, recent work reveals that certain nuclear structures violate key predictions of LLPS, suggesting that alternative mechanisms likely contribute to nuclear organization. Here, we review the evidence for and against LLPS for several nuclear compartments and discuss experimental strategies to identify the mechanism(s) underlying their assembly. We propose that LLPS, together with multiple modes of protein-nucleic acid binding, drive spatiotemporal organization of the nucleus and facilitate functional diversity among nuclear compartments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA and Intracellular Structures)
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Open AccessCommentary
Accurate Adapter Information Is Crucial for Reproducibility and Reusability in Small RNA Seq Studies
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5040049 - 28 Oct 2019
Viewed by 1337
Abstract
A necessary pre-processing data analysis step is the removal of adapter sequences from the raw reads. While most adapter trimming tools require adapter sequence as an essential input, adapter information is often incomplete or missing. This can impact quantification of features, reproducibility of [...] Read more.
A necessary pre-processing data analysis step is the removal of adapter sequences from the raw reads. While most adapter trimming tools require adapter sequence as an essential input, adapter information is often incomplete or missing. This can impact quantification of features, reproducibility of the study and might even lead to erroneous conclusions. Here, we provide examples to highlight the importance of specifying the adapter sequence by demonstrating the effect of using similar but different adapter sequences and identify additional potential sources of errors in the adapter trimming step. Finally, we propose solutions by which users can ensure their small RNA-seq data is fully annotated with adapter information. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Expression of Long Non-Coding RNAs by Human Retinal Müller Glial Cells Infected with Clonal and Exotic Virulent Toxoplasma gondii
Non-Coding RNA 2019, 5(4), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/ncrna5040048 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii—ocular toxoplasmosis—is a common cause of vision impairment worldwide. Pathology combines parasite-induced retinal cell death and reactive intraocular inflammation. Müller glial cells, which represent the supporting cell population of the retina, are relatively susceptible to infection with T. [...] Read more.
Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii—ocular toxoplasmosis—is a common cause of vision impairment worldwide. Pathology combines parasite-induced retinal cell death and reactive intraocular inflammation. Müller glial cells, which represent the supporting cell population of the retina, are relatively susceptible to infection with T. gondii. We investigated expression of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with immunologic regulatory activity in Müller cells infected with virulent T. gondii strains—GT1 (haplogroup 1, type I) and GPHT (haplogroup 6). We first confirmed expression of 33 lncRNA in primary cell isolates. MIO-M1 human retinal Müller cell monolayers were infected with T. gondii tachyzoites (multiplicity of infection = 5) and harvested at 4, 12, 24, and 36 h post-infection, with infection being tracked by the expression of parasite surface antigen 1 (SAG1). Significant fold-changes were observed for 31 lncRNAs at one or more time intervals. Similar changes between strains were measured for BANCR, CYTOR, FOXD3-AS1, GAS5, GSTT1-AS1, LINC-ROR, LUCAT1, MALAT1, MIR22HG, MIR143HG, PVT1, RMRP, SNHG15, and SOCS2-AS1. Changes differing between strains were measured for APTR, FIRRE, HOTAIR, HOXD-AS1, KCNQ1OT1, LINC00968, LINC01105, lnc-SGK1, MEG3, MHRT, MIAT, MIR17HG, MIR155HG, NEAT1, NeST, NRON, and PACER. Our findings suggest roles for lncRNAs in regulating retinal Müller cell immune responses to T. gondii, and encourage future studies on lncRNA as biomarkers and/or drug targets in ocular toxoplasmosis. Full article
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