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Gels, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 5 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Natural polymer-based nanocomposite hydrogels are emerging as a potential system for drug delivery [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Doxycycline and Monocaprin In Situ Hydrogel: Effect on Stability, Mucoadhesion and Texture Analysis and In Vitro Release
Gels 2019, 5(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels5040047 - 09 Dec 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop a stable aqueous formulation containing a combination of doxycycline and monocaprin in clinically relevant concentrations. Increase in expression of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and microbial role in oral diseases is well established and the combination of [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop a stable aqueous formulation containing a combination of doxycycline and monocaprin in clinically relevant concentrations. Increase in expression of Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and microbial role in oral diseases is well established and the combination of above active ingredients could be potentially beneficial in treatment of oral mucosal conditions. The hydrogels containing different concentrations of doxycycline and monocaprin in the presence and absence of stabilizing excipients were developed and their stabilities were studied at 4 °C for up to 1 year. The drug–drug interaction was evaluated using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The addition of monocaprin on doxycycline in situ hydrogel’s mucoadhesiveness, texture properties and drug release mechanism was studied. The addition of monocaprin negatively affected the doxycycline stability and was concentration dependent, whereas monocaprin was stable up to 1 year. Doxycycline did not interfere with the anti-Candidal activity of monocaprin. Furthermore, the presence of monocaprin significantly affected the formulation hardness, compressibility and adhesiveness. Monocaprin and doxycycline release followed zero order kinetics and the release mechanism was, by anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion. The addition of monocaprin increased the drug release time and altered the release mechanism. It is possible to stabilize doxycycline in the presence of monocaprin up to 1 year at 4 °C. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Cryogelation and Cryogels
Gels 2019, 5(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels5040046 - 03 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Cryogenic processes are increasingly being utilized to create unique polymeric materials that tackle challenges mainly in the biomedical arena, environmental science, and field of food technology [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryogelation and Cryogels)
Open AccessArticle
Gelating Abilities of Two-Component System of Catecholic Derivatives and a Boronic Acid
Gels 2019, 5(4), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels5040045 - 22 Oct 2019
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Abstract
In the last two decades, various kinds of the low-molecular-weight organogelators (LMOGs) have been investigated in terms of technological applications in various fields as well as their fundamental scientific properties. The process of gelation is generally considered to arise from immobilization of the [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, various kinds of the low-molecular-weight organogelators (LMOGs) have been investigated in terms of technological applications in various fields as well as their fundamental scientific properties. The process of gelation is generally considered to arise from immobilization of the solvents in the three-dimensional networks formed by the assembly of gelator molecules through weak intermolecular noncovalent interactions. From these points of view a huge number of organogelators have been developed so far. In the course of our research on LMOGs we have noticed a mixture of two gelators could show a different trend in gelation compared to the single gelator. It is well known that the catecholic moiety easily forms cyclic boronate esters with the boronic acid. Thus, we have investigated the two-component system based on cyclic boronate esters formed by the catechols and a boronic acid in terms of the control of gelation capability. Basic gelation properties of the constituent catecholic gelators have also been clarified. The catecholic gelators with the amide unit form no gel by addition of the boronic acid. In contrast, the catecholic gelators with the glutamic acid moiety improve their gelation abilities by mixing with the boronic acid. Furthermore, the gelation ability of the catecholic gelators having the urea unit is maintained after addition of the boronic acid. It has been found that gelation abilities of the catecholic gelators are highly affected by addition of the boronic acid. In terms of practical applications some gels can be obtained by on-site mixture of two kinds of solutions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Nanoclay on the pH-Responsiveness and Biodegradable Behavior of Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposite Hydrogels
Gels 2019, 5(4), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels5040044 - 16 Oct 2019
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Abstract
This research work deployed free radical polymerization for the development of pH-responsive hybrid nanocomposite hydrogels (NCHs) with the formation of improved interpenetrating networks (IPN). The crosslinked biopolymeric system was composed of (chitosan (CH)/guar gum (GG)/polyol) and a nanofiller (Cloisite 30B). The study was [...] Read more.
This research work deployed free radical polymerization for the development of pH-responsive hybrid nanocomposite hydrogels (NCHs) with the formation of improved interpenetrating networks (IPN). The crosslinked biopolymeric system was composed of (chitosan (CH)/guar gum (GG)/polyol) and a nanofiller (Cloisite 30B). The study was aimed to investigate the role of Cloisite 30B as a nanofiller and linseed oil-derived polyol to induce stable interpenetrating networks in chitosan‒guar gum-based hydrogels. FT-IR analysis confirmed the formation of crosslinked networks with the formation of hydrogen bonds in the synthesized NCHs. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry revealed high thermal stability of the NCHs. The hydrolytic and soil burial degradation tests confirmed the biodegradability of the synthesized NCHs. An extraordinarily high swelling capacity in a buffer solution of pH 4.0 and 7.4 demonstrated their pH-responsive behavior. It has been demonstrated that even the minimal addition of polyol to the guar gum-based hydrogels has influenced the stability and characteristic features such as high swelling capacity owing to the formation of interpenetrating networks and the biodegradability of the hydrogels. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Uptake and Release of Species from Carbohydrate Containing Organogels and Hydrogels
Gels 2019, 5(4), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels5040043 - 30 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Hydrogels are used for a variety of technical and medical applications capitalizing on their three-dimensional (3D) cross-linked polymeric structures and ability to act as a reservoir for encapsulated species (potentially encapsulating or releasing them in response to environmental stimuli). In this study, carbohydrate-based [...] Read more.
Hydrogels are used for a variety of technical and medical applications capitalizing on their three-dimensional (3D) cross-linked polymeric structures and ability to act as a reservoir for encapsulated species (potentially encapsulating or releasing them in response to environmental stimuli). In this study, carbohydrate-based organogels were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of a β-D-glucose pentaacetate containing methacrylate monomer (Ac-glu-HEMA) in the presence of a di-vinyl cross-linker; these organogels could be converted to hydrogels by treatment with sodium methoxide (NaOMe). These materials were studied using solid state 13C cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The swelling of the gels in both organic solvents and water were studied, as was their ability to absorb model bioactive molecules (the cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB)) and absorb/release silver nitrate, demonstrating such gels have potential for environmental and biomedical applications. Full article
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