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Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: A Worldwide Problem?

Mycology Reference Laboratory, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III., Carretera de Majadahonda a Pozuelo Km. 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain
Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RD12/0015)—co-financed by European Development Regional Fund “A way to achieve Europe” ERDF, Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William J. Steinbach
J. Fungi 2016, 2(3), 21;
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 4 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aspergillus fumigatus: From Diagnosis to Therapy)
Since the first description of an azole-resistant A. fumigatus strain in 1997, there has been an increasing number of papers describing the emergence of azole resistance. Firstly reported in the USA and soon after in Europe, it has now been described worldwide, challenging the management of human aspergillosis. The main mechanism of resistance is the modification of the azole target enzyme: 14-α sterol demethylase, encoded by the cyp51A gene; although recently, other resistance mechanisms have also been implicated. In addition, a shift in the epidemiology has been noted with other Aspergillus species (mostly azole resistant) increasingly being reported as causative agents of human disease. This paper reviews the current situation of Aspergillus azole resistance and its implications in the clinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus; aspergillosis; azole drug resistance; cyp51A; mutations Aspergillus fumigatus; aspergillosis; azole drug resistance; cyp51A; mutations
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Rivero-Menendez, O.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Mellado, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M. Triazole Resistance in Aspergillus spp.: A Worldwide Problem? J. Fungi 2016, 2, 21.

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