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Geriatrics, Volume 7, Issue 4 (August 2022) – 14 articles

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Article
Comparative Outcomes and Surgical Timing for Operative Fragility Hip Fracture Patients during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040084 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 135
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic had wide-reaching effects on healthcare delivery, including care for hip fractures, a common injury among older adults. This study characterized factors related to surgical timing and outcomes, length-of-stay, and discharge disposition among patients treated for operative hip fractures during the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic had wide-reaching effects on healthcare delivery, including care for hip fractures, a common injury among older adults. This study characterized factors related to surgical timing and outcomes, length-of-stay, and discharge disposition among patients treated for operative hip fractures during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to historical controls. A retrospective, observational cohort study was conducted from 16 March 2020-20 May 2020 with a consecutive series of 64 operative fragility hip fracture patients at three tertiary academic medical centers. Historical controls were matched based on sex, surgical procedure, age, and comorbidities. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality and time-to-surgery. Secondary outcomes included 30-day postoperative complications, length-of-stay, discharge disposition, and time to obtain a COVID-19 test result. There was no difference in 30-day mortality, complication rates, length-of-stay, anesthesia type, or time-to-surgery, despite a mean time to obtain a final preoperative COVID-19 test result of 17.6 h in the study group. Notably, 23.8% of patients were discharged to home during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to 4.8% among controls (p = 0.003). On average, patients received surgical care within 48 h of arrival during the COVID-19 pandemic. More patients were discharged to home rather than a facility with no change in complications, suggesting an opportunity for increased discharge to home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Responding to the Pandemic: Geriatric Care Models)
Article
Nutritional Intervention Effectiveness on Slowing Time to Dialysis in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease—A Retrospective Cohort Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040083 - 13 Aug 2022
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health issue. Evidence of the effectiveness of nutritional intervention on slowing time to dialysis is limited in Arab countries. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to current research by providing new insights on the efficacy of [...] Read more.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health issue. Evidence of the effectiveness of nutritional intervention on slowing time to dialysis is limited in Arab countries. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to current research by providing new insights on the efficacy of personalized nutritional intervention in pre-dialysis patients in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 265 CKD patients (163 males and 108 females) who were admitted to the nephrology outpatient clinic at Salmaniya Medical Complex in Bahrain. The nutritional intervention group (NIG) receiving dietary advice by an expert renal dietitian consisted of 121 patients, while the non-nutritional intervention control group (non-NIG) that did not receive any nutritional support consisted of 150 patients. Patients were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Results: The NIG had a significant increase in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) compared to the non-NIG that had a significant decrease (5.16 vs. −2.85 mL/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.000), respectively). When adjusted for age and gender, the mean difference was greater (8.0 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.000). Additionally, there was a significant reduction in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine (−2.19 mmol/L and −25.31 µmol/L; p = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, the intervention had a positive impact on weight loss and body mass index (−1.84 kg and−0.69 kg/m2, respectively; p = 0.000) and lipid profile, with a significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels (−0.17 mmol/L, p = 0.006 and −0.15 mmol/L, p = 0.026, respectively). Additional significant results from the NIG included reduced uric acid (−28.35 µmol/L, p = 0.006), serum phosphorus (−0.05 mol/L, p = 0.025), fasting blood glucose (−0.70 mmol/L, p = 0.016) and glycated hemoglobin (1.10 mmol/mol, p = 0.419). Conclusions: This study suggests that, in patients of CKD, nutritional intervention counselling plays a significant role in reducing the time needed for dialysis and improves nutritional-related biomarkers compared to patients not receiving this intervention. Full article
Article
Home-Dwelling Older Adults’ Day-to-Day Community Interactions: A Qualitative Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040082 - 12 Aug 2022
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Background: Many home-dwelling older adults present abnormal behaviours related to dementia or to non-dementia cognitive impairment (e.g., agitation, anxiety, apathy, etc.). Because many older adults live at home alone or are able to hide any signs of abnormal behaviours from others, the non-healthcare [...] Read more.
Background: Many home-dwelling older adults present abnormal behaviours related to dementia or to non-dementia cognitive impairment (e.g., agitation, anxiety, apathy, etc.). Because many older adults live at home alone or are able to hide any signs of abnormal behaviours from others, the non-healthcare workers who interact with older adults on a daily basis are key actors in detecting those behaviours and orienting older adults towards appropriate support services. To the best of our knowledge, no studies to date have explored the daily interactions experienced between older adults and the various non-healthcare workers whom they regularly encounter in the community. This work aimed to identify the non-healthcare workers who are regularly in direct contact with older adults during their day-to-day activities and then develop specific training for these workers on the subject of abnormal behaviours among the elderly. Methods: This qualitative and ethnographic study asked 21 home-dwelling older adults aged 65 years old or more to answer open-ended questions. Sixteen had no self-reported cognitive impairments, and five had a probable or diagnosed slight cognitive impairment or mild-to-moderate dementia. A thematic analysis of the data was carried out. Results: The non-healthcare workers who spent the most time with older adults with and without reported cognitive impairments were those working in cafés or tea rooms and leisure or activity centres. Conclusions: In view of the significant amounts of contact between home-dwelling older adults and non-healthcare workers, it seems necessary and sensible to increase non-healthcare workers’ knowledge about abnormal behaviours, especially by offering them training. The proactive detection and identification of older adults’ abnormal behaviours by non-healthcare workers will ensure earlier care and reduce avoidable hospitalisations, institutionalisations and costs linked to geriatric healthcare. Full article
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Article
Healthcare-Associated Adverse Events in Alternate Level of Care Patients Awaiting Long-Term Care in Hospital
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040081 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Introduction: A growing number of Canadian older adults are designated alternate level of care (ALC) and await placement into long-term care (LTC) while admitted to hospital. This creates infrastructural challenges by using resources allocated for acute care during disproportionately long hospital stays. For [...] Read more.
Introduction: A growing number of Canadian older adults are designated alternate level of care (ALC) and await placement into long-term care (LTC) while admitted to hospital. This creates infrastructural challenges by using resources allocated for acute care during disproportionately long hospital stays. For ALC patients, hospital environments maladapted to their needs impart risk of healthcare-associated adverse events. Methods: In this retrospective descriptive study, we examined healthcare-associated adverse events in 156 ALC patients, 65 years old and older, awaiting long-term care while admitted to two hospitals in London, Ontario in 2015–2018. We recorded incidence of infections and antimicrobial days prescribed. We recorded incidence of non-infectious adverse events including delirium, falls, venothrombotic events, and pressure ulcers. We used a restricted cubic spline model to characterize adverse events as a function of length of stay. Results: Patients waited an average of 56 ALC days (ranging from 6 to 333 days) before LTC placement, with seven deaths occurring prior to placement. We recorded 362 total adverse events accrued over 8668 ALC days: 94 infections and 268 non-infectious adverse events. The most common hospital-acquired infections were urinary-tract infections and respiratory infections. The most common non-infectious adverse events were delirium and falls. A total of 620 antimicrobial days were prescribed for infections. Conclusions: ALC patients incur a meaningful and predictable number of adverse events during their stay in acute care. The incidence of these adverse events should be used to educate stakeholders on risks of ALC stay and to advocate for strategies to minimize ALC days. Full article
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Editorial
New Trends in Cognitive Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040080 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 365
Abstract
In this editorial, we aim to highlight some lessons learned in our field and to discuss some open questions regarding the continuum between healthy cognitive aging and dementia [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Aging and Cognitive Impairment 2021)
Article
Weighted Blankets’ Effect on the Health of Older People Living in Nursing Homes
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040079 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Background: An increasingly aging population is a global phenomenon. While considered a positive step forward, vulnerability to age-related health problems increases along with the ageing population. The aim of the study was to investigate weighted blankets’ effect on health regarding quality of life [...] Read more.
Background: An increasingly aging population is a global phenomenon. While considered a positive step forward, vulnerability to age-related health problems increases along with the ageing population. The aim of the study was to investigate weighted blankets’ effect on health regarding quality of life (QoL), sleep, nutrition, cognition, activities of daily living ADL and medication in older people living in nursing homes. Methods: In total, 110 older people were involved in an intervention with weighted blankets, and 68 older people completed the intervention. Measures before and after were performed regarding quality of life; QoL-AD, EQ-VAS, sleep; MISS, nutrition; MNA, cognition; S -MMSE (ADL) and medication. Comparative statistical analyses were applied. Results: After intervention with weighted blankets, health in general, such as QoL, improved. Sleep also improved significantly, especially with respect to waking up during the night. Nutrition was enhanced, health as a cognitive ability improved, and medication in the psychoanaleptic group decreased. The effect size varied between small and large. Conclusions: A weighted blanket seems to be an effective and safe intervention for older people in nursing homes, as several improvements were made regarding the health of older people. Full article
Article
Efficiency of Diagnostic Test for SARS-CoV-2 in a Nursing Home
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040078 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Background: there is no consensus on how to optimally use diagnostic tests in each stage of COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this research is to determine the efficiency of sorting positive antibody test quarterly. Methods: this research uses a retrospective, observational study. COVID-19 [...] Read more.
Background: there is no consensus on how to optimally use diagnostic tests in each stage of COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this research is to determine the efficiency of sorting positive antibody test quarterly. Methods: this research uses a retrospective, observational study. COVID-19 diagnostic tests performed and avoided refer to a Spanish nursing home. Population: 261 employees and 107 residents. A quarterly antibody test was performed on subjects who had tested positive during the first wave of coronavirus, and a antibody rapid test on the remaining subjects. Results: during the first wave, 24.0% of the employees and 51.4% of the residents had a positive antibody test. Seronegativization was observed in 7.6% of employees and 1.6% of residents. An employee was infected with COVID-19 in September 2020, followed by a nursing home outbreak in October: 118 Polymerase Chain Reactions tests were avoided in residents and 18 in employees, which in turn prevented 15 workers from going on sick leave and the quarantine of 59 residents. This represents savings of about $15,000. Conclusions: our study supports the need to know and apply the strategies for early detection, surveillance and control of COVID-19 for future outbreaks. We conclude that surveillance for positive COVID-19 serology among long-term care staff and residents may be a cost-effective strategy during a pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health: Law and Ethics)
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Brief Report
Cataract Surgery during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights from a Greek Tertiary Hospital
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040077 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 264
Abstract
Background: COVID-19 has affected everyday clinical practice, having an impact on the quality of healthcare provided, even in eye clinic departments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consequences of this worldwide pandemic on cataract surgery in a Greek tertiary university [...] Read more.
Background: COVID-19 has affected everyday clinical practice, having an impact on the quality of healthcare provided, even in eye clinic departments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consequences of this worldwide pandemic on cataract surgery in a Greek tertiary university hospital. Methods: A total of 805 patients were included in this study. The number of cataract surgeries (CS), the type, the unilateral or bilateral appearance as well as the stage of cataract were recorded for the months between January and June 2019 (pre-COVID period) and compared with the same period in 2021 (during the pandemic outbreak) in the Department of Ophthalmology of Thessaloniki General Hospital G. Papanikolaou. Results: A significant reduction in the number of CS as well as a significant increase in advanced and/or bilateral cataracts in 2021 compared to the pre-COVID period were observed. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected equally the value of ophthalmic interventions as well as the patients’ quality of life, being a powerful reminder of the significant physical and psychological benefits of CS, especially for older adults and patients with comorbidities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Ophthalmology)
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Systematic Review
The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Frailty in Older People: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040076 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Aims: Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and frailty are associated with increased all-cause mortality, yet the complex interplay between these two conditions has not adequately been elucidated. We aim to analyse the relationship between MetS and frailty through a systematic review of the literature [...] Read more.
Aims: Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and frailty are associated with increased all-cause mortality, yet the complex interplay between these two conditions has not adequately been elucidated. We aim to analyse the relationship between MetS and frailty through a systematic review of the literature with meta-analyses. Methods: A literature search was conducted via MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if validated frameworks for defining frailty and MetS (presence of at least 3 out of the five constitutive components: abdominal obesity, high fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia, and low high-density lipoprotein level) were utilised, in addition to the inclusion of participants aged 60 or older. Results: Eleven studies were included, all observational. All were in community-dwelling older people, 9 cross-sectional and 2 longitudinal. Most of the studies used Fried’s frailty phenotype. The prevalence of frailty ranged from 0.9% to 14.8% in population-based studies and 35.6% in the outpatient clinic setting. The prevalence of MetS was also higher in the outpatient clinic setting at 47.5%, compared to 17.5–41.0% in the community-dwelling populations. The meta-analysis of 11 studies showed that MetS was associated with an increased risk of frailty (pooled OR 1.73, 95% CI, 1.41–2.13). Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that frailty was more prevalent in older people with MetS compared to older people without MetS. The study findings suggest the importance of frailty screening in older people with MetS and a distinct role of managing MetS in preventing frailty in older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiogeriatrics)
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Article
Cheese Intake Exhibits an Alteration of Glycolipid Profile and Impacts on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Bahraini Older Adults
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040075 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial condition characterized by a complex interrelation between genetic and environmental factors that heighten the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. It is hypothesized that diet may play an important role in the regulation of [...] Read more.
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial condition characterized by a complex interrelation between genetic and environmental factors that heighten the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. It is hypothesized that diet may play an important role in the regulation of metabolic syndrome factors and influence the process. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the specific dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome markers and quantify the possible effects of dietary patterns among Bahrain older adults. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 Bahraini patients diagnosed with MetS, 89 (58.7%) were females and 62 (41.3%) males. Results: The prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver was 89%. Statistically significant correlations were found between dairy products with low fat and SBP (r = 0.182, p < 0.001) body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.195; p < −0.01). Higher chicken consumption was associated with reduction of BMI (r = −0.273; p < −0.01). A higher consumption of ricotta and cheddar cheese (high in fat) was associated with higher levels of triglycerides (p < 0.01). Higher frequent consumption of rice (basmati) was associated with lower glucose levels (r = −0.200; p < −0.01). Fatty liver has been associated with high consumption of cream cheese (p < 0.01). Conclusion: In older Bahraini adults with metabolic syndrome, higher frequency of food consumption of full-fat cheese was linked with a derangement of lipid profile and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver. Positive effects on BMI have been recorded with higher-frequency consumption of basmati rice and chicken. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Nutrition)
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Article
The Prevalence of Low Handgrip Strength and Its Predictors among Outpatient Older Adults in a Tertiary Care Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040074 - 08 Jul 2022
Viewed by 400
Abstract
Background: Low muscle strength is linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, there are limited data regarding its prevalence and associated factors in Thai older adults. This study aimed to fill that gap. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with patients aged ≥ [...] Read more.
Background: Low muscle strength is linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, there are limited data regarding its prevalence and associated factors in Thai older adults. This study aimed to fill that gap. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with patients aged ≥ 60 years at the outpatient clinic of the internal medicine department of a tertiary care hospital from April 2020 to December 2021. Patient characteristics were collected, and a handgrip dynamometer was used to measure handgrip strength (HGS). Low HGS was defined according to the 2019 recommendations of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Results: In total, 198 patients were recruited. The prevalence of low HGS was 51%. Median HGS was 17.8 kg and 27.7 kg in women and men, respectively. Every age per year increase, greater number of medications of any type, and lower Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score were independent factors associated with low HGS, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.1, 1.2, and 0.9, respectively. Conclusions: Low HGS was prevalent among older patients in this setting, indicating a high degree of possible sarcopenia. As there were some modifiable factors associated with low HGS, routine measurement, medication review, and cognitive evaluation are recommended for early diagnosis and management. Full article
Article
The Role of Cognitive Performance and Physical Functions in the Association between Age and Gait Speed: A Mediation Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040073 - 07 Jul 2022
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Introduction: With vulnerable aging, gait speed (GS) undergoes progressive changes, becoming slower. In this process, cognitive performance (CP) and physical function (PF) both play an important role. This study aims (1) to investigate the association between CP and PF with GS and (2) [...] Read more.
Introduction: With vulnerable aging, gait speed (GS) undergoes progressive changes, becoming slower. In this process, cognitive performance (CP) and physical function (PF) both play an important role. This study aims (1) to investigate the association between CP and PF with GS and (2) to examine whether CP and PF mediate the association between age and GS in a large sample of Brazilian older adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study analyzed 697 individuals (mean age 70.35 ± 6.86 years) from the state of Amazonas. The CP was evaluated by the COGTEL test battery, PF by the Senior Fitness Test battery, and GS with the 50-foot Walk Test. Results: Older adults with a lower CP and PF had a 70% and 86% chance of slow GS, respectively. When CP and PF were placed simultaneously as mediators, the direct effect estimated by the model revealed a non-significant relationship between age and GS. Specifically, CP and PF mediated the association between age and GS, at approximately 12% and 98%, respectively. Conclusions: CP and PF show the potential to estimate GS performance among older adults. Moreover, CP and PF indicated a negative and direct association between age and slow GS, especially PF. Full article
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Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overlapping Infinity Loops, Wire Cube, and Clock Drawing Tests in Subjective Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040072 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 511
Abstract
Figure drawing tasks are commonly used standalone or as part of broader screening tests to detect cognitive impairment. Only one study has compared the classification accuracy of three common drawing tasks—overlapping infinity loops, wire cube, and the clock drawing task (CDT)—in mild cognitive [...] Read more.
Figure drawing tasks are commonly used standalone or as part of broader screening tests to detect cognitive impairment. Only one study has compared the classification accuracy of three common drawing tasks—overlapping infinity loops, wire cube, and the clock drawing task (CDT)—in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, but age and education, which impact performance, were not accounted for. We replicated the research, adjusting for age and education and, for the first time, assessed subjective cognitive decline (SCD) too. Participants were recruited from the Tasmanian ISLAND Cognitive Clinic and healthy controls from a community sample. All participants completed the three figure drawing tasks. The clinic patients were categorised according to interdisciplinary consensus diagnosis. Binomial logistic regression and area under ROC curves (AUC) were calculated to determine the discriminatory ability of each drawing task. Overall, 112 adults were recruited; 51 had normal cognition (NC), 21 SCD, 24 MCI, and 16 had dementia. The infinity loops test did not discriminate any of the groups, casting some doubt on its usefulness. The wire cube discriminated NC from dementia (AUC 0.7; p < 0.05). The CDT discriminated NC from dementia (AUC 0.77; p < 0.01), NC from cognitive impairment (dementia + MCI; AUC 0.59; p < 0.05), and MCI from dementia (AUC 0.76; p < 0.01). None of the tests discriminated NC from MCI or NC from SCD. The CDT was the most discriminatory test, followed by the wire cube. This may help guide clinicians who often choose just one figure drawing task due to time constraints or patient fatigue. Full article
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Article
Sex Difference in Control of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Older Patients after Acute Coronary Syndrome
Geriatrics 2022, 7(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7040071 - 24 Jun 2022
Viewed by 521
Abstract
Objective. The main aim of this study is to examine the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in older patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the secondary aim is to examine sex difference in LDL-C target achievement. Methods. Patients aged ≥60 [...] Read more.
Objective. The main aim of this study is to examine the achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets in older patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the secondary aim is to examine sex difference in LDL-C target achievement. Methods. Patients aged ≥60 years with ACS admitted to a tertiary hospital in Vietnam were recruited from December 2019 to August 2020. LDL-C target achievement was defined as having an LDL-C goal of <1.8 mmol/L. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to investigate the predictive factors for LDL-C target achievement. Results. A total of 232 participants were included in this study (mean age 75.5 years, 40.1% were women). Participants had an average of three chronic conditions other than coronary heart disease. All participants were prescribed statin monotherapy at discharge (59.5% on high-intensity statins). After 3 months, 218 (94.0%) of the participants were on statin monotherapy, 14 (6.0%) were on statin combined with ezetimibe. The proportion of participants that achieved LDL-C target after 3 months was 56.5% (40.9% in women and 66.9% in men, p < 0.001). On univariate logistic regression, women were less likely to achieve their LDL-C target compared to men (unadjusted OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20–0.59). This association was still significant in the adjusted model (adjusted OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24–0.78). Other factors that were significantly associated with LDL-C target achievement included age, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, LDL-C level on admission, history of using statin before admission, and high-intensity statin prescribed at discharge. Conclusions. Our study found that nearly a half of older patients with ACS did not achieve their LDL-C target after 3 months, and suboptimal control of LDL-C was more common in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiogeriatrics)
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