Next Article in Journal
Palliative Care for Children with Central Nervous System Malignancies
Next Article in Special Issue
Predicting the Biodegradation of Magnesium Alloy Implants: Modeling, Parameter Identification, and Validation
Previous Article in Journal
GSK461364A, a Polo-Like Kinase-1 Inhibitor Encapsulated in Polymeric Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Bioengineering 2018, 5(4), 84;

Medial Collateral Ligament Deficiency of the Elbow Joint: A Computational Approach

Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 2411 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
Department of Orthopaedics, Truman Medical Centers, 2301 Holmes Street, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Bone-Implant Materials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2849 KB, uploaded 10 October 2018]   |  


Computational elbow joint models, capable of simulating medial collateral ligament deficiency, can be extremely valuable tools for surgical planning and refinement of therapeutic strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying levels of medial collateral ligament deficiency on elbow joint stability using subject-specific computational models. Two elbow joint models were placed at the pronated forearm position and passively flexed by applying a vertical downward motion on humeral head. The models included three-dimensional bone geometries, multiple ligament bundles wrapped around the joint, and the discretized cartilage representation. Four different ligament conditions were simulated: All intact ligaments, isolated medial collateral ligament (MCL) anterior bundle deficiency, isolated MCL posterior bundle deficiency, and complete MCL deficiency. Minimal kinematic differences were observed for isolated anterior and posterior bundle deficient elbows. However, sectioning the entire MCL resulted in significant kinematic differences and induced substantial elbow instability. Joint contact areas were nearly similar for the intact and isolated posterior bundle deficiency. Minor differences were observed for the isolated anterior bundle deficiency, and major differences were observed for the entire MCL deficiency. Complete elbow dislocations were not observed for any ligament deficiency level. As expected, during isolated anterior bundle deficiency, the remaining posterior bundle experiences higher load and vice versa. Overall, the results indicate that either MCL anterior or posterior bundle can provide anterior elbow stability, but the anterior bundle has a somewhat bigger influence on joint kinematics and contact characteristics than posterior one. A study with a larger sample size could help to strengthen the conclusion and statistical significant. View Full-Text
Keywords: elbow joint; medial collateral ligament; ligament deficiency; computational model; kinematics; upper extremity elbow joint; medial collateral ligament; ligament deficiency; computational model; kinematics; upper extremity

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rahman, M.; Cil, A.; Stylianou, A.P. Medial Collateral Ligament Deficiency of the Elbow Joint: A Computational Approach. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 84.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Bioengineering EISSN 2306-5354 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top