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Article

Differences in Exposure to Nicotine, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines, and Volatile Organic Compounds among Electronic Cigarette Users, Tobacco Smokers, and Dual Users from Three Countries

1
Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London WC1E 6BT, UK
3
Tobacco and Volatiles Branch, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
4
Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Katowice Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, Jagiellonska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040088
Received: 24 August 2020 / Revised: 7 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 October 2020 / Published: 14 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Knowledge of E-cigarettes and Heated Tobacco Products)
Country-level differences in nicotine vaping products used and biomarkers of exposure among long-term e-cigarette users and dual users remain understudied. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 in the United States (n = 166), United Kingdom (n = 129), and Poland (n = 161). We compared patterns of tobacco product use and nicotine and toxicant exposure among cigarette-only smokers (n = 127); e-cigarette-only users (n = 124); dual users of tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes (n = 95); and non-users (control group, n = 110) across three countries using mixed-effects linear regression. Compared with cigarette smokers, e-cigarette-only users had lower levels of toxicant biomarkers, but higher levels of nicotine biomarkers. Dual users had higher levels of toxicant biomarkers than e-cigarette-only users but similar levels to cigarette-only smokers. E-cigarette users in Poland, who overwhelmingly used refillable tank devices, exhibited greater levels of nicotine, and toxicant biomarkers relative to e-cigarette users in US/UK. Despite smoking fewer cigarettes, dual users from Poland exhibited similar levels of nicotine biomarkers compared with UK dual users, but higher than US dual users. Country-level differences in e-cigarette devices used and smoking behaviors (e.g., intensity) may contribute to differences in biomarker levels among users of the same products residing in different countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: e-cigarettes; harm reduction; vaping; nicotine; toxicants; global health e-cigarettes; harm reduction; vaping; nicotine; toxicants; global health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, D.M.; Shahab, L.; Blount, B.C.; Gawron, M.; Kosminder, L.; Sobczak, A.; Xia, B.; Sosnoff, C.S.; Goniewicz, M.L. Differences in Exposure to Nicotine, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines, and Volatile Organic Compounds among Electronic Cigarette Users, Tobacco Smokers, and Dual Users from Three Countries. Toxics 2020, 8, 88. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040088

AMA Style

Smith DM, Shahab L, Blount BC, Gawron M, Kosminder L, Sobczak A, Xia B, Sosnoff CS, Goniewicz ML. Differences in Exposure to Nicotine, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines, and Volatile Organic Compounds among Electronic Cigarette Users, Tobacco Smokers, and Dual Users from Three Countries. Toxics. 2020; 8(4):88. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040088

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith, Danielle M., Lion Shahab, Benjamin C. Blount, Michal Gawron, Leon Kosminder, Andrzej Sobczak, Baoyun Xia, Connie S. Sosnoff, and Maciej L. Goniewicz 2020. "Differences in Exposure to Nicotine, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines, and Volatile Organic Compounds among Electronic Cigarette Users, Tobacco Smokers, and Dual Users from Three Countries" Toxics 8, no. 4: 88. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040088

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