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Toxics, Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2017) – 4 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Untreated pharmaceutical wastewater causes water pollution. Phytotoxicity of metronidazole to soybean plants (Glycine max) was investigated. Healthy plants assigned to 3 treatment groups (0 mg/L, 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L) were exposed to designated concentration of metronidazole at 42d after planting. The relationship between metronidazole concentration and phytotoxicity was determined. Phytotoxicity was quantified by relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in grams per gram per day (gg-1d-1). Multiple comparisons demonstrates statistically significant differences in RGR between control and treatment plants: control and 50mg/L (p < 0.025); control and 100mg/L (p < 0.0001); 50mg/L and 100mg/L (p < 0.0001). Phytotoxicity increased with increasing metronidazole concentration. View this paper
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1103 KiB  
Article
Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Water from Asunle Stream, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
by Godwin O. Olutona, John A.O. Oyekunle, Aderemi O. Ogunfowokan and Olalekan S.  Fatoki
Toxics 2017, 5(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5020013 - 16 Jun 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4534
Abstract
This study assessed the concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in stream water obtained from Asunle stream, an adjoining stream of the Obafemi Awolowo University dumpsite. Water samples were collected for a period of eight months from six different locations comprising of a spot [...] Read more.
This study assessed the concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in stream water obtained from Asunle stream, an adjoining stream of the Obafemi Awolowo University dumpsite. Water samples were collected for a period of eight months from six different locations comprising of a spot upstream in an uphill area relative to the refuse dumpsite and five others downstream along the stream course. The sampled waters were extracted with dicholoromethane using liquid-liquid extraction method and cleanup was carried out with silica gel. The final extracts after concentration were analyzed using GC-MS/MS. The recovery experiments were adequate (105%–110%). The mean levels of Ʃ6PBDEs compounds analyzed ranged from 0.03 to 0.45 ng/mL. Seasonal variability of PBDEs indicated that higher levels were found during the wet season. The levels of PBDEs recorded in this work were relatively lower compared to the values reported in the literature from other developed nations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater Systems)
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1550 KiB  
Article
The Investigation of Unexpected Arsenic Compounds Observed in Routine Biological Monitoring Urinary Speciation Analysis
by Elizabeth Leese, Malcolm Clench, Jackie Morton, Philip H.E. Gardiner and Vikki A. Carolan
Toxics 2017, 5(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5020012 - 20 May 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6192
Abstract
This study investigates the identity of two unexpected arsenic species found separately in a number of urine samples sent to the Health and Safety Executive’s Health and Safety Laboratory for arsenic speciation (arsenobetaine, AB; arsenite, As3+; arsenate, As5+; monomethylarsonic [...] Read more.
This study investigates the identity of two unexpected arsenic species found separately in a number of urine samples sent to the Health and Safety Executive’s Health and Safety Laboratory for arsenic speciation (arsenobetaine, AB; arsenite, As3+; arsenate, As5+; monomethylarsonic acid, MMA5+; and dimethylarsinic acid, DMA5+). Micro liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (µLC-ICP-MS) and electrospray time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS) were used to identify the two arsenic peaks by comparison to several characterized arsenicals: arsenocholine, AC; trimethyl arsine oxide, TMAO; dimethylarsenoacetate, DMAA; dimethylarsenoethanol, DMAE; thio-dimethylarsinate, thio-DMA; thio-dimethylarsenoacetate, thio-DMAA and thio-dimethylarsenoethanol, thio-DMAE. The results from both the ICP-MS and ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS investigations indicate that the unexpected arsenic species termed peak 1 was thio-DMA. While the unexpected arsenic species termed peak 2 has yet to be identified, this investigation shows that it was not AC, TMAO, DMAA, DMAE, thio-DMA, thio-DMAA or thio-DMAE. This study demonstrates the incidence of unexpected arsenic species in both routine and non-routine urine samples from both workers and hospital patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
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390 KiB  
Article
Vitis vinifera Extract Ameliorate Hepatic and Renal Dysfunction Induced by Dexamethasone in Albino Rats
by Nabil A. Hasona, Ahmed A. Alrashidi, Thamer Z. Aldugieman, Ali M. Alshdokhi and Mohammed Q. Ahmed
Toxics 2017, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5020011 - 11 Apr 2017
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 5036
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical effects of grape seed extract against dexamethasone-induced hepatic and renal dysfunction in a female albino rat. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided randomly into four equal groups: Group 1: animals were injected subcutaneously with saline [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical effects of grape seed extract against dexamethasone-induced hepatic and renal dysfunction in a female albino rat. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided randomly into four equal groups: Group 1: animals were injected subcutaneously with saline and consider as normal control one. Group 2: animals were injected subcutaneously with dexamethasone in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight. Group 3: animals were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, and then treated with a grape seed extract in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. Group 4: animals were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, and then treated with a grape seed extract in a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. After 4 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, albumin, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose levels were assayed. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein content, and catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were also assayed. Dexamethasone administration caused elevation of serum levels of glucose, uric acid, creatinine, ALT, AST activities, and a decrease in other parameters such as hepatic glutathione, total protein levels, and catalase enzyme activity. Treatment with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract showed a significant increase in the body weight of rats in the group treated with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract orally compared with the dexamethasone control group. An increase in GSH and catalase activity in response to oral treatment with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract was observed after treatment. Grape seed extract positively affects glucocorticoid-induced hepatic and renal alteration in albino rats. Full article
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452 KiB  
Article
Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max)
by Okhumode H. Yakubu
Toxics 2017, 5(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5020010 - 02 Apr 2017
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 6440
Abstract
Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max) is investigated. [...] Read more.
Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg−1d−1) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants (Glycine max) based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs) before discharge into the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater Systems)
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