Special Issue "Toxic Effects of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) on Non-Target Aquatic Organisms"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Marco Parolini Website E-Mail
Department of Environmental Science and Policy, University of Milan, 20122, Milan, Italy
Interests: ecotoxicology; biomarkers; environmental pollution; emerging contaminants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are a diverse group of chemicals that have received comparatively little attention as potential environmental pollutants. PPCPs comprise all the drugs that are primarily used to prevent or treat human and animal disease, diagnostic agents, “nutraceuticals”, and personal care products used to improve the quality of human daily life. After their use, PPCPs are generally excreted as parental compound and/or metabolites and unwittingly enter the sewerage system. Since the traditional wastewater treatment plants have a limited removal efficiency for most of these molecules, a wide spectrum of PPCPs enters surface waters. Although concentrations in natural aquatic ecosystems are generally low, PPCPs are biologically active compounds that could be potentially dangerous to aquatic non-target organisms. On that basis, even if concerns have been raised about the broad range of adverse effects caused by PPCPs exposure diverse aquatic species, which could differ between and among each class of therapeutics, and a considerable amount of work has been done, the knowledge regarding this topic remains still scant but worthy of being implemented.

In this Special Issue, authors are invited to submit original manuscripts, reviews and/or short communications highlighting the potential toxicity of PPCPs, focusing on the wide variety of adverse effects induced by the exposure to these emerging aquatic pollutants in both marine and freshwater species.

Dr. Marco Parolini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • pharmaceuticals
  • personal care products
  • aquatic organisms
  • exposure
  • toxicity
  • adverse effects

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Vitis vinifera Extract Ameliorate Hepatic and Renal Dysfunction Induced by Dexamethasone in Albino Rats
Toxics 2017, 5(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics5020011 - 11 Apr 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical effects of grape seed extract against dexamethasone-induced hepatic and renal dysfunction in a female albino rat. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided randomly into four equal groups: Group 1: animals were injected subcutaneously with saline [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to evaluate the biochemical effects of grape seed extract against dexamethasone-induced hepatic and renal dysfunction in a female albino rat. Twenty-eight adult female rats were divided randomly into four equal groups: Group 1: animals were injected subcutaneously with saline and consider as normal control one. Group 2: animals were injected subcutaneously with dexamethasone in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight. Group 3: animals were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, and then treated with a grape seed extract in a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. Group 4: animals were injected subcutaneously with 0.1 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, and then treated with a grape seed extract in a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. After 4 weeks, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, albumin, uric acid, creatinine, and glucose levels were assayed. Hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein content, and catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were also assayed. Dexamethasone administration caused elevation of serum levels of glucose, uric acid, creatinine, ALT, AST activities, and a decrease in other parameters such as hepatic glutathione, total protein levels, and catalase enzyme activity. Treatment with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract showed a significant increase in the body weight of rats in the group treated with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract orally compared with the dexamethasone control group. An increase in GSH and catalase activity in response to oral treatment with Vitis vinifera L. seed extract was observed after treatment. Grape seed extract positively affects glucocorticoid-induced hepatic and renal alteration in albino rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Potential Vulnerability and Response of Fish to Simulated Avian Predation after Exposure to Psychotropic Pharmaceuticals
Toxics 2016, 4(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4020009 - 13 Apr 2016
Cited by 5
Abstract
Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis [...] Read more.
Psychotropic pharmaceuticals present in the environment may impact organisms both directly and via interaction strengths with other organisms, including predators; therefore, this study examined the potential effects of pharmaceuticals on behavioral responses of fish to avian predators. Wild-caught juvenile perch (Perca fluviatilis) were assayed using a striking bird model after a seven-day exposure to psychotropic pharmaceuticals (the antidepressants fluoxetine or sertraline, or the β-blocker propranolol) under the hypotheses that exposure would increase vulnerability to avian predation via increasing the probability of predator encounter as well as degrading evasive behaviors upon encounter. None of the substances significantly affected swimming activity of the fish, nor did they increase vulnerability by affecting encounter probability or evasive endpoints compared to control treatments. Counter to our expectations, fish exposed to 100 μg/L fluoxetine (but no other concentrations or pharmaceuticals) were less likely to enter the open area of the arena, i.e., less likely to engage in risky behavior that could lead to predator encounters. Additionally, all fish exposed to environmentally relevant, low concentrations of sertraline (0.12 μg/L) and propranolol (0.1 μg/L) sought refuge after the simulated attack. Our unexpected results warrant further research as they have interesting implications on how these psychotropic pharmaceuticals may affect predator-prey interactions spanning the terrestrial-aquatic interface. Full article
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