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Article

Complex Evaluation of Tissue Factors in Pediatric Cholesteatoma

1
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Riga Stradiņš University, LV-1002 Riga, Latvia
2
Department of Morphology, Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradiņš University, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Oscar Redaelli de Zinis
Children 2021, 8(10), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100926
Received: 6 September 2021 / Revised: 1 October 2021 / Accepted: 13 October 2021 / Published: 16 October 2021
The aim of this study was to describe the appearance and distribution of tissue remodeling markers (MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-4), Sonic hedgehog gene protein (Shh), pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL–1, IL–10), transcription factor (NF-κβ), proliferation marker (Ki–67), angiogenetic factor (VEGF), tissue defensins (HβD–2, HβD–4) of the pediatric cholesteatoma. Sixteen cholesteatoma samples were obtained from children, eleven skin controls from cadavers. Tissues were stained for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-2, TIMP-4, Shh, IL–1, IL–10, NF-κβ, Ki–67, VEGF, HβD–2, HβD–4. Non-parametric statistic, Mann–Whitney, and Spearman’s coefficient was used. A statistically significant difference was seen between Shh and HβD–2 in perimatrix and control connective tissue, between NF-κβ in cholesteatoma and control skin, and between HβD–4 in matrix and skin epithelium. Complex intercorrelations between MMPs, NF-κβ and VEGF cause the intensification of angiogenesis in cholesteatoma. The persistent increase in Shh gene protein expression in cholesteatoma perimatrix suggests the stimulation of the cholesteatoma growth in children. Similar expression of IL-1 and IL-10 and their intercorrelation, proves there is a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. NF-κβ, and not Ki-67, seems to be the main inducer of cellular proliferation. The main antimicrobial protection is provided by HβD-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesteatoma; metalloproteases; sonic hedgehog; cytokines; transcription factors; Ki-67; vascular endothelial growth factor; defensins; children cholesteatoma; metalloproteases; sonic hedgehog; cytokines; transcription factors; Ki-67; vascular endothelial growth factor; defensins; children
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dambergs, K.; Sumeraga, G.; Pilmane, M. Complex Evaluation of Tissue Factors in Pediatric Cholesteatoma. Children 2021, 8, 926. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100926

AMA Style

Dambergs K, Sumeraga G, Pilmane M. Complex Evaluation of Tissue Factors in Pediatric Cholesteatoma. Children. 2021; 8(10):926. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100926

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dambergs, Kristaps, Gunta Sumeraga, and Māra Pilmane. 2021. "Complex Evaluation of Tissue Factors in Pediatric Cholesteatoma" Children 8, no. 10: 926. https://doi.org/10.3390/children8100926

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