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Review

Microglia: The Real Foe in HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders?

1
Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Roma, Italy
3
Translational Neuroscience Group-CIBERSAM, Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), Área Sanitaria de Vigo-Hospital Álvaro Cunqueiro, SERGAS-UVIGO, 36213 Vigo, Spain
4
Neuro Epigenetics Laboratory, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, SERGAS-UVIGO, 36213 Virgo, Spain
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Nursing Team-Intensive Care Unit, Área Sanitaria de Vigo, Estrada de Clara Campoamor 341, SERGAS-UVigo, 36312 Virgo, Spain
6
Department of Psychiatry, Área Sanitaria de Vigo, Estrada de Clara Campoamor 341, SERGAS-UVigo, 36312 Vigo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chiara Brignole
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080925
Received: 10 June 2021 / Revised: 19 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 30 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Neurobiology and Neurologic Disease)
The current use of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is leading to a significant decrease in deaths and comorbidities associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Nonetheless, none of these therapies can extinguish the virus from the long-lived cellular reservoir, including microglia, thereby representing an important obstacle to curing HIV. Microglia are the foremost cells infected by HIV-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) and are believed to be involved in the development of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). At present, the pathological mechanisms contributing to HAND remain unclear, but evidence suggests that removing these infected cells from the brain, as well as obtaining a better understanding of the specific molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 latency in these cells, should help in the design of new strategies to prevent HAND and achieve a cure for these diseases. The goal of this review was to study the current state of knowledge of the neuropathology and research models of HAND containing virus susceptible target cells (microglial cells) and potential pharmacological treatment approaches under investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders; microglia; pharmacological treatment; central nervous system; antiretroviral therapy HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders; microglia; pharmacological treatment; central nervous system; antiretroviral therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Borrajo López, A.; Penedo, M.A.; Rivera-Baltanas, T.; Pérez-Rodríguez, D.; Alonso-Crespo, D.; Fernández-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.M.; Agís-Balboa, R.C. Microglia: The Real Foe in HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders? Biomedicines 2021, 9, 925. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080925

AMA Style

Borrajo López A, Penedo MA, Rivera-Baltanas T, Pérez-Rodríguez D, Alonso-Crespo D, Fernández-Pereira C, Olivares JM, Agís-Balboa RC. Microglia: The Real Foe in HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders? Biomedicines. 2021; 9(8):925. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080925

Chicago/Turabian Style

Borrajo López, Ana, Maria Aránzazu Penedo, Tania Rivera-Baltanas, Daniel Pérez-Rodríguez, David Alonso-Crespo, Carlos Fernández-Pereira, José Manuel Olivares, and Roberto Carlos Agís-Balboa. 2021. "Microglia: The Real Foe in HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders?" Biomedicines 9, no. 8: 925. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080925

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